A Descriptive Study on Influence of Alcohol Advertisement among Young People

Abstract

Objective

The objective of this assignment is to assess the knowledge, attitude, influence of alcohol advertisement among young people. With this particular aim, the researcher will evaluate the effect of alcohol advertisements among the young people. Moreover, the researcher also intended to identify the effect of alcohol on the physical and mental health of the young people, due to the consumption of alcohol. Additionally, the researcher also intended to solve alcohol consumption related problems with the society.  

Research Method

During the conduction of research study, the researcher has considered quantitative research method, as it is one of the suitable method for identifying human physical associated aspects in case of a research work in a more effective manner. At the same time, the researcher has gathered both primary as well as secondary research data for identification of validate outcome for this study. In this case, the researcher has gathered the viewpoints of 100 young respondents of London those who are either student or working professional. In this context, the researcher has conducted semi-structured with an intention of identifying and understanding the knowledge, attitude, influence of alcohol advertisement among young people, where the age groups of the respondents are in between 18-30 years. In this context, for identifying appropriate outcome for this study, the researcher has incorporated t-Test two samples mean models for generalizing gathered research data.

Outcome

            Based on the evidences of the research; it is revealed that expose of alcohol ads by the help of social media and television can enhance the consumption of alcohol amid young people. In this context, it is also noticed that consumption of alcohol also may enhance problems for individuals, in terms of societal and individual vulnerability. Expose of alcohol brand through commercials may influence young generation by creating addiction towards alcohol drinks.

Chapter 1: Introduction

1.1 Introduction

            In present days of globalization, the adverting has great influence among the young adults. The buying behavior and the lifestyle are also very much dependent on the effect that is played by the advertisement. Moreover, in the modern days due the rise of the social media and the internet, the influence of advertisement is also very high and people are getting excessive exposure due to the viewing of the alcohol related advertising. The tricks that are used in those advertisements also can affect the mindset of the young people. According to Atkinson et al. (2016), in modern days there has been a rise of concern due to the high level of alcohol consumption rate within the domestic locations of UK.

            The advertisement of the alcohol is one of the main reasons that are causing the increasing trends of alcohol consumption among the people. Moreover, due to the rise of digital marketing in the modern days the frequency of alcohol advertisement has increased a lot when compared with the previous years (Chiva-Blanch et al. 2013).

1.2 Background

            According to Ross et al. (2014), there are around 5000 people, under the age of 20 years all around the world, who have died due to excessive level of alcohol consumption. The accidents caused due to the driving in alcoholic state or homicides are also included into this category. Nevertheless, in spite of all these premature deaths due to the effect of alcohol, their consumption rates among the young people are growing significantly. The high rate of alcohol consumption is one of the major reasons that young people in the modern days are having a very poor social life and they are not able to live in state of physical and mental wellbeing. It is recorded that the poor lifestyle of the young people such as regular consumption of alcohol and nicotine can affect the economical balance of the country. This is because they are exploiting money to buy alcohol and cigarettes rather than saving or investing the money for future. The survey analysis done by Koordeman et al. (2012), mentioned that nearly 75% of the school students under the age of 18 years are consuming alcohol quite frequently.

Grenard, Dent & Stacy (2013), believes that as the children enters the stage of adolescent; they experience a wide range of mental and psychological changes. The developmental transitions during the time of puberty can give rise to huge mental curiosity. There is also a huge rise of curiosity among the young people to try out new things that can affect the mentality of the young people. The social concept about the matter of alcohol consumption also regulates their behavior that can affect the mindset of the young people. This will cause the curiosity of the young people to rise even further (Ross et al. 2014).

The individual, who start to consume alcohol at a very young age, can face chronic health disorders later during the adulthood. There is also high risk of genetic disorder among those people that can even affect the offspring of the future generation (Grenard, Dent & Stacy 2013). The individuals also seek the comfort from the alcohol consumption due to the effect of mental stress and tension. They have a strong believe among themselves that the consumption of alcohol can give them relief from the all the major problems in the life. There is also lack of awareness among the young people about the adverse effects that are related with too much consumption of alcohol (Ross et al. 2014). There is also the rise of the trends in young people that too much alcohol consumption can help to raise their reputation in the society. Especially within the young boys who belong from the high class and richer section of the society have a feeling that the consumption of alcohol can help to enhance their masculine feature and help to increase their reputation within the high-class society (Smith et al 2014).

1.3 Rationale of the Research

What is the research issue?

            The increased level of drinking among the young people is one of the root causes of social violence in the present days. The young people are also suffering from many chronic health-related issues that are also a major cause of concern. The increased number of advertisements related with the drinking of the alcohol is the main reason that this trend in increasing among the young adults

Why it is an issue?

            The increased rate of drinking alcohol is causing the young age people to divert their mind from the basic duties of life like education. This is one of the major social issues of the present days. This can affect the physical and mental health of a person later during the adulthood. This can even affect the reproductive system of the people and hence, affect the health of the young child of the next generation. 

What the research shed light on?

            In this research work, the influence of advertisement on young adult for drinking alcohol has been discussed. It will help to highlight the root cause behind the increased number of young people adapting the practice of drinking alcohol. At present, due to the increased effect of the advertisement and digital marketing with the help of electronic mediums, the young people are getting over exposure to them. It is very common for them to get highly influenced by the advertisement of alcohol. Moreover, they even have to face the burden and stress of life. It is very important to find solution of this major social problem and in this research work will suggest definite solutions against those issues.

1.4 Research Aim

            The main aim of this research is to provide a descriptive study of the knowledge influence and attitude of the advertisement among the young people.

1.5 Research objective

            The objective of this research work has been set in following terms:

  • To evaluate the effect of alcohol advertisement among the young people
  • To evaluate the effect of alcohol on the physical and mental health of the young people
  • To evaluate the cause for which young people are increasing the consumption of alcohol.
  • To provide solutions of this problem of excess alcohol consumption

1.6 Research Questions

            Depending on the objective of the research work, the researcher has also developed few important research questions that will help to fulfill the objective:

  • How to evaluate the impact of alcohol advertisement among the young people?
  • How to evaluate the effect of alcohol on the physical and mental health of the young people?
  • What are the reasons for the increased use alcohol among the young people? 
  • How to provide solutions of this problem of excess alcohol consumption?

1.7 Research Hypothesis

            Based on the above mentioned research aim, objectives as well as research questions, few hypotheses has been designed for this particular research, which will help researcher to identify the appropriate outcome of this study. Those hypotheses are underlined following:

[H1: Young people do have significant knowledge about alcohol ads expose in media]

[H1: Young people do influence by alcohol ads during consumption]

[H1: Young people do lead problems due to the causes of alcohol consumption]

1.8 Significance of the Research

            This research work is going to highlight the effect related to the advertisement of alcohol drinks among the young age and teenagers. The most important aspect in this case is to discover the effects of digital advertisement that are increasing in the modern era of information. With the help of the result of this research work, it is also possible to discover solutions of this social problem. Moreover, this will highlight how much the physical and mental health can be affected due to over consumption of alcohol. In order to have a society, which will be free of mental and physical health related issues, it is very important to spread the awareness about the bad-effects related with alcohol consumption. It is also possible to gain enough information about the approximate number of young people, who are suffering due to the effect of alcohol consumption among the young people.

1.9 Structure of the Research

            The researcher has divided the entire work of analysis with each section and chapter that help to do the analysis in a systematic manner. The entire work is divided into five different chapters, which are described below:

Chapter 1: Introduction

            This chapter highlights the basic concept of the effect of alcohol advertisement on the young adults. It also mentions about the role of the advertisement in influencing the young generation to take up alcohol. Critical evaluation of the research topic is also done. The reason for doing the research work and its significance is also mentioned in this chapter. Lastly a brief description of the entire research work is also provided.

Chapter 2: Literature Review

            This is the second chapter of the research work. In this section, the researcher has used many theory models that are related to the effect of the alcohol advertisement on the young adults. In order to collect information about the current literature the researcher has taken help from various journals and articles that are related to the research subject. All the past research work of the same subject has been of great use to the investigator. The critical evaluation of all the concepts related to the effect of alcohol advertisement and the effect of alcohol on the health of young adult people is also done with in this chapter. The gap analysis of the past research work is also done so that it is possible to evaluate the effectiveness of the study done on the effect of alcohol advertisement within young adults and teenagers.

Chapter 3: Research Methodology

            This section of the research work highlights the ways and the method in which, the research work is carried out. The research has mentioned about the correct and appropriate research philosophy, research design and the research approach that has been used in this case. It is also important to provide the justification for using the particular research parameter of any particular research work. It is also important to provide the reason for eliminating the particular research parameters.  This section also provide the ways by which, the data was collected to do the research work.

Chapter 4: Data Analysis and Interpretation

            Based on the research methodology section, the analysis of the research work is done on so that it is possible to make suitable conclusion and recommendations. The researcher needs to use many tools for the collection of information, which are helpful in the analysis work so that it is possible to correctly interpret and evaluate the data.  

Chapter 5: Conclusion

            This is the final chapter of the research work that will help to draw the final conclusion of the entire research work. The researcher will try to establish connection between the objective and the result of the research work. This can help to make the suitable recommendations for further research work of the future on the same subject area, which is the effect of alcohol advertisement on young adults.

1.10 Summary

            The effect of the alcohol can have very bad effect on the health of the young people that may lead permanent effect even, during the time of the adulthood. It is very important to identify the reasons that influence the children to inherit the habit of alcohol consumption. A very brief overview of the entire research work is provided in this chapter. The significance of the entire analysis is also mentioned along with the future scope of study.

            The entire research work is done with the help of the protocol or structure that is provided in this chapter.  The research objective and the research questions that are made in this chapter will help to increase the importance of this research work.

Chapter 2: Literature Review

2.1. Introduction

            In this chapter, the investigator has highlighted the theories and concepts that are important for the research work related to the effect of alcohol advertisement among the adolescents and teenagers. The researcher has given importance to the analysis and statics about the total number of children, who are involved in the practice of regular alcohol consumption (Grenard, Dent & Stacy 2013).

`The effect of the alcohol on the health of the teenagers is also mentioned. The alcohol can trigger stimulation within the brain of the young child. This is also the cause that ultimately leads to the addiction towards the alcohol (Ewing et al. 2014). The drinking of the alcohol can also have negative effect on the academic life of the children and thus it can lead to unsuccessful career of the children. This can ultimately lead to the very poor social and academic life of the children thereby leading to poor future of the children. The alcohol can also lead to violent behavior of the children, which can lead to increase crime rates among within the society. It may also hamper the reputation of any particular society.

            With the help of the alcohol advertisement and promotional activity, the liquor companies can convey the message to the public. The message is communicated directly or indirectly to the viewers that ultimately lead to the change of the viewpoint and opinion of the public in accordance to the content of the message. The alcohol company uses packaging and labeling in the bottle of the alcohol that ultimately lead to customer’s attraction and increase the sale of the alcohol within the society (Morgenstern et al. 2016).

2.2 Conceptual Framework

Figure: 1. Conceptual Framework

(Source: Created by Author)

2.3 Vulnerability of Young People due to the Causes of Alcohol Consumption and Ads

Alcohol-related harm is mostly noticed among the young generation which leads them to fatal injuries and even untimely death. Risky consumption of alcohol among the young people has been increasing over the years. This is a growing concern of the nation that the young people are increasingly growing dependent on alcohol. The young generation is undergoing lot of alcohol related problems and facing untimely death creating a huge loss to the nation. The alcoholic products are readily available to the young generation. With this easy availability of the alcoholic products the young generation is making them more prone to consume alcohol. This particular generation is easily targeted by the alcohol producing organizations. The organizations are creating such attractive advertisements that young people are hugely attracted towards it. Irrespective of the price and the availability of the alcoholic products, there is no change in the behavior and consideration of the younger generations.

Studies have been conducted in the field where it has been proven that the increasing consumption is causing national harm. Discussions have been made that restrictions should be imposed on the young generation, limiting their consumption limit so that the effects can be reduced to a great extent.

2.4 Effect of Commercial Advertising among Young People

            The technological gadgets like the Smartphone, television and personal computers provide a very god platform for all types of commercial advertisement in the modern age. Moreover, with the increased use of various technological gadgets within all classes of people, all the company have used effective strategy to reach to  the public and gain popularity within the market. They have taken the help of many experienced market analyst so that it is possible to attract the people and thereby increase the sale of their products. According to Boyland & Halford (2013), it is very common that the young children are highly affected due to the attractive commercial ads that are presented by all the companies all over the public and social media. All young children are very much attracted to all forms of electronic gadgets like TV, mobile or personal computers, which are few of the most popularly used medium for the advertisements of various brands (Sheehan 2013).

            Jernigan & Ross (2014), believes that the lifestyle of the young adults and the food habits are very much depended on the ads they see in the public platforms. Their mind set is very much regulated by those visually attractive commercial ads. According to the analysis of Chang et al. (2014), the private companies special tactics to attract the concentration young adults as during this stage of the life it is very easy to manipulate them and force them to buy the products of their own brand. As the children can be easily influenced by the message that is been given in any commercial advertisements, they can get negative message, which can ultimately affect their mindset. The commercial advertisements use special visual tricks so that it is possible to manipulate the mindset of the adolescent children. Hence, it is the duty of the adults to ensure that the children do not get influenced by the manipulation of the commercial advertisements by setting restrictions on the TV shows they watch in their daily life (Zan, 2016).   

2.3 The perception of Alcohol Advertisement

            The growing trend among the young people about the consumption of alcohol is one of the worst causes of social concern during present time. Many surveys have been done to identify the number of teenagers that are involved in the drinking of the alcohol. There are many factors that ultimately lead to the over consumption of alcohol among the young adults and the alcohol advertisement plays a very significant part in this case (Morgenstern et al. 2016). They are not aware of the fact that over consumption of alcohol can lead to the many chronic physical and mental health problems. The most important factor is that according to Jernigan (2013), there is high rise of the commercial advertisement in the modern era of information. Moreover, with the rise of the digital technology, there is a high increase in the number and frequency of those advertisements as with the help of the digital marketing the companies are able to promote with much less cost. Smith et al. (2014), believes that these public commercial advertisements is one of the most common cause that is involved with the activity of drinking of the alcohol. The drinking of alcohol is prompted as a way to have fun with the friends and also to enjoy the moment of the life. Martineau et al. (2013) mentioned that frequent commercial ads could cause the increased tendency of alcohol drinking among the young adults. Nevertheless, over exposure towards the alcohol advertisement over a very long period can indeed have a strong impact on the mind of the adolescent child as it induces the level of curiosity in their mind. The theme that is used in many alcohol advertisements can ultimately lead to misguide the young adults about the effect of the alcohol. The commercial alcohol advertisement uses visual tricks so that it is possible to attract the concentration of the young people. During the earlier time the alcohol company used many famous celebrity faces to promote the drinking of the alcohol. However, after 2005, the government of UK has banned the use of celebrity face within the any alcohol advertisement (Bryden et al. 2012).

            In many cinemas and TV shows, there are several scenes, where the lead character is seen to consume alcohol and thereby promote the habit of drinking. This can have serious effect on the mindset of the young people. From this, it can be said that the cinema lovers is under risk of inheriting the habit of alcohol drinking. Many young people are very much addicted to all types of films and hence, there is high risk that they can get influenced by the habit of alcohol drinking (Moodie et al. 2013).

 2.4 Effects of Alcohol on Young Human Health

            The clinical disorder among the young children is very commonly associated with the over consumption of alcohol. According to Hermens et al. (2013), the Alcohol related brain damage is one of the most commonly occurring chronic diseases that are caused with the young adults due to over consumption of alcohol. This can ultimately lead to many physical and mental disabilities within the individual like stress, hypertension, liver cirrhosis, brain cell damage, dementia, choric cardiac disease etc. The neurological markers of the brain disorders have been a matter of high dispute among the scientist. Hence, it is often very difficult to identify any chronic brain disorder from a very early stage of the disease (McCreanor et al. 2013).

            According to Wetherill et al. (2013), there are many people, who suffer blackouts due to the effect of heavy alcohol consumption. This can ultimately lead to alcohol abuse and heavy level of alcohol dependency. It is thus, very important to consider the risks that are associated with the alcohol consumption. Before the period of blackout, the young people often show strong sign of activation during the inhibitory process. The mean level of activation during the correct inhibitory response in the left and right side of the brain forms the baseline that could ultimately predict the any upcoming future blackout experience. Even after the individual stops the consumption of alcohol, the effect of the alcohol can have strong effect over a long period. Hence, even after an individual has stopped taking alcohol, there is very high chance that the effect will remain even after that (Noel et al. 2016).

            Edwards et al. (2013), believes that the post traumatic stress is very commonly associated with the drinking of the alcohol. It is very common thought among many young people that drinking of alcohol can seek them relief from all the stress and tension of the life and they very often forget that this temporary relief can often lead to permanent level of disastrous effect within the mental and physical health of the individual. According to Morgenstern et al. (2014), there are many receptors that are present within the body of human beings that are activated during the time of alcohol consumption. These response can trigger an effect, which further provides relief to the in the never by slowing down their activity (Bryden et al. 2012). There is also strong level of hormonal changes within the blood, which often cause mood swing within the people. Nevertheless, this temporary short period of relief is the cause of many serious diseases that may occur within the child later during the adulthood. It is thus very important for the society to raise the awareness among the young people so that it is possible for them to avoid the alcohol from a very early stage of the life (Tang et al. 2013).

2.5 The Current Trend of Alcohol Advertisement

            According to Parry et al. (2012) it has been seen that in places, where the local government has banned the alcohol advertisement, the number of people with alcohol consumption is significantly lower. It is thus possible to prevent the consumption of alcohol among the teenagers as the alcohol advertisement has a huge effect on the mentality of those individual. However, Pasch et al. (2013), argued that banning the commercial advertisement of the alcohol may lead to the loss of the jobs many people working in the communication sector.

            The alcohol advertising can lead to high tendency of the people to pay focus on any particular brand of alcohol due to the effect of the alcohol commercial advertisement (Siegel et al. 2015). It can also there by create a very negative effect on the children of the young age by creating a belief within them and encouraging them to take up more alcohol. It is thus very important for the government to discourage the advertisement of the alcohol so that the negative publicity can be curbed down and no teenagers are exposed to the message that is being carried out in the alcohol advertisement. Hanewinkel et al. (2012), believes that the children in the group of 15-16 years are worst affected due to the cause of the alcohol and they are very regularly practicing the habit of the alcohol consumption.

According to Hanewinkel et al. (2012) a large number of children in the European countries consume alcohol just out of their curiosity as they commonly observe their near family members to consume alcohol in regular manner. It is because of these advertisements that the level of curiosity among the young children is very high. It is thus very important to control the advertisements in public (Siegel et al. 2015). It is also important for the government to ensure that the all the selling of liquor products are not done in public places and that they are only sold in the enclosed space, where it will be away from the sight of the children. It is also important for the adults not to consume alcohol in front of their children. Hence, the elders need to keep their children under strong guidance so that it is possible for them to prevent from the adverse effects of the alcohol (Lowery et al. 2014).

2.5 Alcohol Advertising Distribution and Exposure

            It is also very important for the government to encourage commercial advertisements hat will have the message to discourage the alcohol consumption. This will help to raise the awareness among the children and their parents about the harmful effects of alcohol consumption. The liquor sellers also need to ensure that they do not sell their drinks to any individual, who is below the legal age of drinking. It is also very important for the government to make suitable laws against any person who sells alcohol or even encourage the children to have alcohol as their drinking habit (Pezzuti et al. 2015). It is thus essential for the society and health organizations to spread the knowledge about the harmful effects that are related with the alcohol consumption as they are often associated with many harmful and dangerous chronic diseases. The alcohol can has bad effects on the present generation. Moreover, it can also have the adverse effects on the children of the subsequent generations as with regular consumption of alcohol the reproductive system of the human being is also very poorly affected (Guo et al. 2015).

2.6 Brand Awareness and Alcohol Knowledge

In view of the auxiliary examination information, it is recognized that youngsters’ presentation starts with a portrayal of the publicizing messages dispersed in the broad communications, alongside an appraisal of the degree to which respondents report being presented to the ads. The following areas portray the discoveries for different levels of reaction to message presentation, moving in arrangement through the chain of importance impacts from psychological/enlightening variables (mindfulness and learning), to full of feeling/evaluative variables (pictures, demeanors, and inclinations), to reported obvious behavioral variables (drinking). The last area gathers certain discoveries into substantive classes reflecting approach pertinent issues (Siegel et al. 2015).

There is a generous amount of TV brew plugs and magazine alcohol promotions promptly open to broad communications groups of onlookers, including energetic sections, which much of the time watch and read those vehicles conveying the most publicizing. Studies demonstrate that people see vast quantities of these promotions, and give careful consideration to between one-fourth and three-fifths of the messages experienced. Advertisements on TV draw in more prominent consideration than magazine promotions, perhaps due to the more nosy nature and higher many-sided quality of the messages. Introduction and consideration are higher for young people than more established grown-ups. Along these lines, there is sufficient open door for liquor publicizing to impact the comprehensions, qualities, and conduct of the general population, particularly youngsters (Tang et al. 2013).

2.7 Youth Attitudes toward Drinking

Since brand promoting tries to pass on a particular brand character using extraordinary topics and important images, these messages may apply a solid impact on brand mindfulness. Beside brand refinements, the non specific item data in promotions may add to fundamental finding out about the subject of liquor and drinking, despite the fact that the effect might be constrained in light of the fact that numerous advertisements need substantive verifiable material. The substance examination demonstrates a solid accentuation on brand symbolism (Tang et al. 2013). A realistic or brand-name logo shows up in half of the advertisements, and mottos are utilized as a part of over a large portion of the promotions (Siegel et al. 2015). The name of the brand is said around five times for each advertisement. Besides, a standout amongst the most across the board powerful offers fixates on brand uniqueness; this is stressed in more than one-fifth of the advertisements. By differentiation, fundamental item data is at times highlighted. Beside portrayal of the item’s land birthplace in magazine alcohol promotions, exceptionally constrained notice is made of natural qualities, for example, handling length, calorie level, fixings, or cost. Most alcohol promotions do refer to the liquor proof level, commonly in little print.

2.8 Literature Gaps

Since ads venture particular depictions of the demographic, social, and mental qualities of consumers, the crowd may create comparing mental pictures of the sort of individual who drinks liquor. Specifically, individuals may see that consumers have positive characteristics subsequent to seeing complimenting delineations in advertisements. The substance investigation research demonstrates that promotions introduce various positive depictions of consumers. Characters in advertisements have a tendency to be above normal in physical appeal and economic wellbeing There is likewise a slight propensity for reported publicizing introduction to be connected with saw inescapability of drinking in the public eye; those in the substantial presentation classification gauge that the run of the mill individual expends around two a bigger number of beverages every week than do the gently uncovered respondents.

In the promoting reaction study, advertisements anticipating sentiment, alliance, and psychosexual claims were tried. Subsequent to seeing a promotion delineating a sentimental couple, around one-6th say that the normal consumer of the publicized item is sentimental; in the wake of seeing an advertisement depicting association among companions, few consider the ordinary consumer of that brand as being agreeable. At the point when presented to a promotion demonstrating a hot female or vulgar darling, around one-tenth, gets the feeling that the clients of the item are provocative/swinging people.

2.9 Literature Summary

In the field review, there is a positive relationship between promoting introduction and brand mindfulness. Respondents exceedingly presented to liquor promotions are substantially more ready to review brand names, distinguish mottos and images, and know key cases highlighted in commercials. As to essential nonexclusive finding out about liquor and drinking, the field overview demonstrates a reasonably positive relationship with presentation. For instance, respondents reporting a high presentation to promoting will probably think about alcohol proof, brew fixings, and the suitable beverages to have with a decent dinner. There are likewise significant discoveries from the self-report study. More than one-portion of the specimen express that they get substantive information about item characteristics from advertisements, as far as finding out about fixings, generation, lager calories, alcohol proof, and new blended beverages; around one-fourth report finding out about taste and cost elements.

Likewise, the self-report study demonstrates that more than half pick up brand mindfulness from promotions, as far as shaping pictures about which brands are most mainstream, which are high class, and which will inspire individuals. Another arrangement of inquiries reflectively examined gaining from advertisements amid the underlying time of youthful experimentation with liquor: around two-fifths say promotions helped them discover which brands would inspire others, and which brands acclaimed individuals drink; around 33% report they found how to make blended beverages, and realized which brands are ideal; one-fourth review that they utilized promotions to find out shabby costs; one-6th educated data about the essence of various beverages.

At long last, one of the investigations controlled the race of characters in parallel sets of advertisement. White respondents presented to dark models are essentially more inclined to consider the normal consumer of the publicized item to be dark; those presented to white models have a tendency to see item consumers as white, to a slight degree. Likewise, dark characters create to some degree more positive evaluations of both the promoting and the item.

Chapter: 3.0 Research Methodologies

3.1 Research Overview

The research methodology chapter focuses on highlighting the different tools used for conducting of the overall research project. The chapter will display the research philosophy, research planning and research design approach, which will help researcher to identify the outcome of the research in more significant manner. At the same time, it can be also stated that this section also underline; which particular research methods has been taken into consideration for this particular study, with an intention of meeting aim and objectives of the research. In this case, it can be argued that the researcher has adopted quantitative method for conduction of this particular research in a more successful manner. In relation to this, it can be also stated that through emphasizing towards this particular research, it will be also possible to recognize assess the knowledge, attitude influence of alcohol advertisement among young people of London, UK. With an intention of meeting the prime objectives of this particular research, the researcher has incorporated quantitative research method, where both primary and secondary research data has been gathered for identification of validate and reliable research outcome.   

3.2 Research Philosophy

According to the viewpoint of Weeding and Dawson (2012), it is recognized that examination logic is considered as a standout amongst the most key constituents, which may help specialist to direct the venture in more critical way. In such manner, it can be expressed that the specialist has received post positivism rationality, which has helped analyst to get to the mindfulness, learning and impact of liquor advertisements on youthful residents of UK. Then again, it can be expressed that determination of reasonable exploration worldview additionally helps specialist to concentrating on the more extensive parts of the examination, through breaking down shrouded point of view of the examination subject in a more huge way.

In such manner, Quinlan (2011) contended that the examination ideal models are partitioned into three noteworthy divisions, for example, Realism, Positivism and Interpretivism. The authenticity reasoning depends on the practical worth and this is entirely like the Positivism worldview. The positivism rationality manages the extraction of the shrouded truth supporting the examination issue. Then again, the Interpretivism rationality is very judgmental and in view of the mental presumptions (Crowther and Lancaster, 2012). In this examination think about, the analyst has taken the backing of the positivism rationality for displaying the details of this exploration issues.

The utilization of the post positivism logic for this exploration intention is particularly huge. It has been seen that the post positivism ideal models is managing the immediate truth supporting the examination issues. In any case, in light of the perspective of Hair and Money (2011), it is distinguished that post positivism logic does not stirred up with any mental presumptions and in this manner, it is particularly important to execute such rationality for picking up information about the topic. Thus, it can be expressed that the utilization of post positivism logic is supported for this specific examination reason.

3.3 Research Approach

The research approaches are divided into two major parts, such as Deductive and Inductive research approaches (Oakes and Ji, 2012). The Deductive methodology is focusing on the current speculations and models taking into account the examination subject and as needs be shaping the theory all the more particularly. On the other hand, the inductive methodology is for the most managing parts of the hypothetical models and devices, on the premise of the point of view qualities and standards (Katsirikou and Skiadas, 2012). The researcher here has taken into consideration deductive strategy, which can be regarded as the theoretical qualities for advocating the exploration investigation process. In any case, the deductive methodology is examining the key zones of methodology for directing the exploration of descriptive study by including appropriate research data.

In this context, it can be said that the selection of deductive methodology is concentrating on the current hypothesis and writing and change the exploration issues and recognizing the angles for leading the further procedure. Consequently, the use of the deductive methodology is significant for this exploration conduction (Supp, 2011), which is portrayed beneath through the assistance of a chart for better understanding:

Figure: 2. Deductive Approach

(Source: Oakes and Ji, 2012)

3.4 Research Strategies

Research outline is fittingly utilized for concerning the defense of the points of view qualities with respect to the exploration subject. The examination plans are separated into three divisions, for example, Exploratory, Explanatory, and Descriptive (May, 2011). Keeping in mind the end goal to investigate the distinctive divisions of the examination outlines technique, it has been watched that both the exploratory and the illustrative plans are managing the mental outcomes and the current auxiliary researchers. Then again, the distinct plans are managing the both positive and negative point of view values that are required for the exploration investigation process (Sun, 2012).

The important utilization of the descriptive strategy is being considered as crucial for this exploration study, as it is seen that the development of the point of view qualities and standards are considered as exceptionally vital angles for separating the related data supporting the examination issues. The utilization of the descriptive strategy is producing the thought regarding both the positive and negative results that are required for the examination study investigation. Consequently, it can be gathered that the utilization of the descriptive strategy has been relevantly supported for the examination study. Indeed, the utilization of this configuration is sufficiently valuable for setting the points and the destinations for the examination study Walliman (2011).

3.5 Research Design Strategy

3.5.1 Research Sample Framework

The examining technique is partitioned into two noteworthy divisions, for example, probability sampling as well as non-probability sampling. The determination of the irregular individuals for the thought of the information accumulation procedure is known as the research sample selection procedure. Then again, the extraction of the quality data with the thought of the advantageous way is known as the random sampling method. For the conduction of interview, the researcher has especially considered random sampling approach. In considering such regions, the analyst has led the review among 100 natives of London, who devours liquor. In such manner, it can be likewise contended that amid the determination of test size, it is additionally key for the researcher to stress towards the choice of target test masses (Walliman 2011). For this situation, it can be contended that with a goal of getting to the mindfulness, learning, and impact of liquor advertisements on youthful subjects of UK, the researcher has led a meeting in the midst of those nationals of India, who are either 18 years of age or not over 30 years.

The analyst in this venture will utilize the non-probability sampling procedure with the end goal of choice of the 100 respondents from among the aggregate populace of understudies. As indicated by the perspective of Cooper and Schindler (2011) utilization of non-probability sample does not signifies the general populace. In this case, it can be contended that with a point of recognizing the impact of liquor advertisements on youthful nationals of UK, the analyst will accurately pick such respondents’ who have gone to liquor shops inside the nearby market of London. In this venture, the researcher will utilize the non-probability sampling method based on the selection criteria for target sample respondents, which has helped researcher to produce, validate as well as reliable outcome for this study (Weeden 2013).

3.5.2 Research Data Collection Method

During execution of research work, it is indispensable for a specialist to focus towards information accumulation strategies, as it might help the analyst to distinguish appropriate result for the study. For this situation, with a point of getting to the mindfulness, learning, and impact of liquor promotions on youthful nationals of UK, the analyst has accumulated both essential and also auxiliary examination information. In this connection, it can be contended that amid the gathering of essential examination information, the analyst has considered the perspectives of the respondents with respect to the issue. Then again, amid the gathering of optional exploration information, the specialist has considered auxiliary wellsprings of data, for example, the web. For this situation, the specialist has considered the perspective of the past analyst with respect to the issue. Aside from that, the scientist likewise has contemplated peer surveyed diaries, articles, business reports, magazines and daily paper among others (Hennink, Hutter, and Bailey, 2011).

In such manner, it can be contended that amid the accumulation of essential information, the scientist has underscored towards certain techniques, for example, the outline of the survey, Choice of target test respondents that have helped the specialist to execute the examination work in a more effective way. For this situation, amid the gathering of essential examination information, the scientist has picked neighborhood subjects of London, who have gone to wine shops and lager bars inside the nearby market of London. The scientist in this venture will take the assistance of the poll overview with the end goal of gathering of essential information. The analyst will approach towards the semi-organized meeting by the assistance of a nearby finished survey. For this situation, it can be contended that amid the planning of examination poll, the scientist will give careful consideration towards its exploration point, targets and research issues and research questions, with a point of recognizing approve and also dependable information (Vathana Nila, 2012). Then again, with a point of distinguishing the impact of liquor promotions on youthful subjects of UK, the analyst has gathered both essential and also auxiliary exploration information.

3.5.3 Research Data Analysis Techniques

The two noteworthy information examination strategies incorporate quantitative investigation and subjective information examination. According to Dimitrova and et al. (2011) quantitative investigation alludes to the circumstance of dissecting essential information in an unthinkable structure with the assistance of numerical articulation of the essential information. In this case, the researcher has undertaken quantitative research data for investigating the influence of alcohol ads on young citizens of UK. Since essential information will incorporate numerical investigation henceforth the scientist will utilize the quantitative examination technique, which will help the specialist to successfully arrange the gathered information and use distinctive factual and quantifiable apparatuses to reason the rate identified with the reaction. The analyst with the assistance of quantitative information investigation procedure will have the capacity to further present charts that will help the researcher to comprehend the pattern in the reaction rate for the inquiries (Wackenhuth 2013).

3.6 Ethical Consideration

Subsequently, during the conduction of research work, it is crucial for the specialist to focus towards the moral angles. In this connection, it can be contended that with a point of guaranteeing moral thought, the analyst ought to give careful consideration towards dependability and legitimacy of this specific exploration study. In this manner, with an expectation of keeping up moral thought the specialist has guaranteed dependability and credibility of both essential and also auxiliary exploration information. In addition, the specialist needs to consider a few moral behavior while directing the study procedure and gathering the diaries for extricating the information in view of the topic. The scientist needs to guarantee that the respondents won’t be influenced for noting the inquiries. In such manner, for guaranteeing the insurance of essential examination information, the specialist has kept secrecy of the accumulated exploration information. In the meantime, it can be likewise contended that the specialist has taken assent of the understudy before conduction the meeting.

In connection to this, it can be additionally contended that the specialist had not forced any intimidation or weight on the respondents amid the gathering of essential examination information. Then again, it can be likewise contended that in the event of conduction of essential examination information the specialist has received approve and also verify auxiliary exploration information, for example, peer-evaluated diaries, business reports and articles among others, which are at present distributed and related with the topic of the study (Walliman 2011).

3.7 Research Time Horizon

The research timeline can be easily expressed with the help of the Gantt chart, which provides the stage division of the project schedule. The Gantt chart will highlight the expected time scale of this particular research project.

Table: 1. Research Time Scale
Activities Month 1 Month 2 Month 3 Month 4 Month 5 Month 6
Submission of Research Proposal            
Approval from Supervisor            
Conducting Literature Review            
Collection of Data            
Conducting Data Analysis            
Determining Findings            
Conducting Discussion            
Conclusion            
Proof Reading            
Final Submission of Dissertation            

 

Chapter: 4.0 Analysis and Findings

4.1 Overview

4.2 Primary Research Data Analysis

            In response to the (Question Number: 1), the researcher has identified that most (70%) of the respondents, those who have participated in the semi-structured interview are belonging from London. In this case, it is viewed that 25% of the respondents are belonging from Scotland or Wales or Northern Ireland. However, it is also identified that there are 5% of the respondents, those who have participated in the interview are belonging from differ country, but staying in London city. A pictorial diagram is depicted below for better understating the demographic characteristics of the participants:

Figure: 3. Nationality of the Respondents

(Source: Created by Author)

With regard to the (Question number: 2), it is identified that most (43%) of the respondents, those who have participated in the interview have completed their graduation. In this case, it is also viewed that a few portion (20%) of the respondents have argued that they have completed their post graduation, whereas only 5% of the total respondents have claimed that they have done doctorate in their specialize subject. However, it is also noticed that 17% of the total respondents, those who have participated in the in the interview are either self-employer or working professional. In this case, it is also noticed that 15% of the total respondents are also belonging from the high school. In this case, the researcher has precisely chose youth citizen of London, as it may help researcher to produce validate and reliable outcome that how alcohol ads influence young people in London, UK. In this case, the researcher has considered the viewpoint of both male and female respondents. A diagram is depicted below for better understanding demographic characteristics of the respondents:

Figure: 4. Educational Qualification of the Respondents

(Source: Created by Author)

Similarly, in response to the (Question number: 3), it is also viewed that most (34%) of the respondents have claimed that they work 4-6 hours/ day. In this case, it is also noticed that only 26% of the total respondents have argued that they work around 10-12 hours/ day. In addition, through the conduction of this research it is also noticed that almost similar percentages (20%) of the respondents have argued that they usually work either 6-8 hours/ day or 8-10 hours/ day on an average. In this context, it can be asserted that most of the respondents are either associated with high school or college or university for their educational purpose. Thus, respondents’ studies associated times have been taken into consideration as working hour in case of this research. A pictorial diagram is depicted below for better understanding:      

Figure: 5. Working Hours of the Respondents

(Source: Created by Author)

            Accordingly based on the (Question number: 4), it is identified that 36% of the total respondents are between the age group of 18-20 years and 24% of the total respondents age group are between 21-24 years. At the same time, it is also viewed that 26% of the total respondents belongs from the age group of 25-27 years. Moreover, the researcher also has considered the 14% such respondents’ viewpoints those whose ages are in between 28-30 years. In this case, through gathering the viewpoints of youth and young adult (student and working professional) the researcher has tried to produce validate and reliable outcome for this particular study. A diagram is depicted below for better understanding the age group of the respondents:

Figure: 6. Age Group of the Respondents

(Source: Created by Author)

            Based on the (Question number: 5), it is identified that almost 20% of the total respondents have claimed that their annual income is below $5,000. In this case, almost 25% of the total respondents have claimed that their annual income is between $5000 and $10,000. Moreover, it is also recognized that approximately 35% of the total respondents have claimed that their annual income is in between $10,000-$15,000. In this case, around 20% of the total respondents have mentioned that their annual income is more than $15,000. In this context, it is clearly noticed that the percentage of people those who have a standard annual income, they usually spend few money on alcohol for entertainment purpose. A pictorial diagram is depicted below for better understanding the feedbacks of the respondents regarding annual income:

Figure: 7. Income Range of the Respondents

(Source: Created by Author)

In this regard, based on the (Question number: 6), it is also identified that 42% of the total respondents have claimed that they are single. On the other hand, it is also noticed that during the collection of viewpoints of the respondents the researcher also has identified that around 27% of the total respondents are married. However, based on the questionnaire survey it is also revealed that approximately 24% of the total respondents have claimed that they living with their partner. In this case, it is also noticed that 4% of the total respondents are divorce and 3% of the total respondents are widow. In this case, it can be asserted that the researcher has gathered the viewpoints of different range of people, with an aim of identifying the effects of alcohol ads on the youth people. A diagram is depicted below for better understanding the involvement of the respondents in the research:

Figure: 8. Relationship Status of the Respondents

(Source: Created by Author)

Similarly, based on the (Question number: 7), it is revealed that approximately 60% of the total respondents have strongly agreed with the view that they are aware about alcohol advertisements in media and television. In this case, it is also noticed that 20% of the total respondents have agreed with the viewpoint that they aware about alcohol advertisements in media and television. On the contrary, it is noticed that 15% of the total respondents have claimed that they does not aware about alcohol advertisements in media and television. In this regard, 5% of the total respondents have strongly disagreed with the fact that they are aware about alcohol advertisements in media and television. In this context, based on the evidences of the majority of the respondents, the researcher has taken into consideration that most of the young people of UK do aware about alcohol advertisements in media and television, whereas only a few portion of the young citizens does not have such awareness regarding alcohol brand promotion and advertisement. A diagram is depicted below for better understanding:

Figure: 9. Alcohol Ads Awareness of the Respondents

(Source: Created by Author)

            In response to the (Question number: 8), it is identified that approximately 55% of the total respondents have strongly agreed with the view that they have significant knowledge about alcohol brand and alcohol ads. In this case, it is also observed that around 15% of the total respondents have agreed with the viewpoint that they do have significant knowledge about alcohol brand and alcohol ads. On the contrary, it is noticed that 25% of the total respondents have denied about their knowledge of alcohol brand and alcohol ads. In this context, 5% of the total respondents also have strongly denied about their knowledge of alcohol brand and alcohol ads. In this case, through analyzing the collected feedbacks of the respondents, it is clearly viewed that major portion of the total respondents have claimed that they do have significant knowledge about alcohol brand and alcohol ads. Thus, it can be taken into consideration that youth and young adult citizens do have a significant knowledge about alcohol brand and alcohol ads. A diagram is depicted below for better understanding above stated context:

Figure: 10. Respondents Knowledge Regarding Alcohol Brands

(Source: Created by Author)

            Similarly, based on the (Question number: 9), it is identified that 80% of the total respondents have strongly claimed that they are aware about all alcohol brands. In this case, it is also noticed that 10% of the total respondents have argued that they usually prefer get aware about all alcohol brands. Similarly, it is also viewed that approximately 8% of the total respondents does not sure about whether they are aware about all alcohol brands. Moreover, it is also noticed that only 2% of the total respondents have strongly denied that they do not aware about all alcohol brands. In this case, based on these feedbacks of the respondents of UK, it is quite clearly observed that most of the respondents do sure about their knowledge and awareness of different alcohol brands, as they are habituated with alcohol consumption and alcohol ads in social media and television. In this case, it can be also precisely mention that most of the young people used to develop their alcohol knowledge and awareness by consuming alcohol and watching alcohol ads. A diagram is depicted below for better understanding above stated context:

Figure: 11. Respondents Awareness Regarding Alcohol Brands

(Source: Created by Author)

Consequently, based on the responses of the (Question number: 10), it is observed that 45% of the total respondents have claimed that they prefer to watch alcohol commercials as compare to other commercials. In this case, it is also observed that almost 25% of the total respondents have claimed that sometimes they prefer to watch alcohol commercials as compare to other commercials. In this case, around 25% of the total respondents have denied that they prefer to watch alcohol commercials as compare to other commercials. Moreover, it is also revealed that only 5% of the total respondents have claimed that they do not prefer to watch alcohol commercials as compare to other commercials. In this case, based on the viewpoints of the respondents, it is clearly observed that only a few portion of respondents do feel alcohol commercials are not comparatively better than that of other commercials, whereas it is noticed that a major portion of the youth replied to an interview that they prefer to watch alcohol commercials as compare to other commercials, which clearly suggests that most of the young citizens of UK do have a positive association towards alcohol. A diagram is depicted below for better understanding the above stated context:

Figure: 12. Respondents Preference of Alcohol Ads

(Source: Created by Author)

            Simultaneously, based on the (Question number 11), it is identified that approximately 30% of the total respondents do strongly agreed with the fact that increasing trade of alcohol ads affects society. In this case, it is observed that almost 25% of the total respondents have claimed that they also feel increasing trade of alcohol ads affects society. However, it is also noticed that 30% of the total respondents also have stated that they do not agreed with the fact that increasing trade of alcohol ads affects society. In this context, it is also observed that 15% of the total respondents strong denied the fact that increasing trade of alcohol ads affects society. In this case, based on the evidences of the primary research data; the researcher has come up with an understanding that increasing trade of alcohol ads affects UK society through influencing the behaviour of the youth towards alcohol consumption. A pictorial diagram is depicted below for better understanding the above stated context in a more comprehensive manner:

Figure: 13. Respondents Viewpoint Regarding the Influence of Alcohol Ads

(Source: Created by Author)

            Moreover, with regard to the (Question number 12), it is identified that majority (45%) of the respondents have strongly agreed with the view that expose of alcohol ads affecting society and folks. In this case, it is also noticed that 30% of the total respondents have argued that they feel expose of alcohol ads affecting society and folks. On the other hand, it is also observed that 15% of the total respondents have claimed that they feel expose of alcohol ads do not affecting society and folks. In this context, it is also recognized that only 10% of the total respondents have strongly denied the fact that expose of alcohol ads affecting society and folks. In this case, based on the majority of the respondents’ viewpoint, the researcher has come up with an understanding that expose of alcohol ads affecting society and folks. A pictorial diagram is depicted below for better understanding the above stated context in a more significant manner:

Figure: 14. Respondents View Regarding the Effect of Alcohol Ads within Society

(Source: Created by Author)

Similarly, based on the (Question number: 13), it is revealed that approximately 75% of the total respondents have strongly mentioned that expose of alcohol ads in social media and television have influenced the consumption rate of alcohol among individuals. In this case, it is also noticed that 15% of the total respondents have agreed with the viewpoint that expose of alcohol ads have increased the overall consumption level of alcohol within domestic locations of UK. On the contrary, it is noticed that 8% of the total respondents have claimed that they does not believe expose of alcohol ads in social media and television have influenced the consumption rate of alcohol among individuals. In this regard, only 2% of the total respondents have strongly disagreed with the fact that expose of alcohol ads in social media and television have influenced the consumption rate of alcohol among individuals. Based on these feedbacks of the respondents, the researcher has come up with an understanding that expose of alcohol ads in social media and television have influenced the consumption rate of alcohol among young citizens of UK. A diagram is depicted below for better understanding:

Figure: 15. Effect of Expose of Alcohol Ads on Individual Alcohol Consumption

(Source: Created by Author)

            In response to the (Question number: 14), it is identified that approximately 50% of the total respondents have strongly agreed that increase of alcohol consumption rate has enhanced the expenses of individuals. In this case, it is also noticed that 20% of the total respondents have claimed that increase of alcohol consumption rate has enhanced the expenses of individuals. On the contrary, it is noticed that 25% of the total respondents have denied that increase of alcohol consumption rate has enhanced the expenses of individuals. In this context, only 5% of the total respondents also have strongly denied the fact that increase of alcohol consumption rate has enhanced the expenses of individuals. In this case, through analyzing the collected feedbacks of the respondents, it is clearly viewed that major portion of the total respondents have claimed that increase of alcohol consumption rate has enhanced the expenses of young individuals within the local community of London. A diagram is depicted below for better understanding above stated context:

Figure: 16. Respondents View Regarding Increase of Expenses due to Alcohol

(Source: Created by Author)

            Similarly, based on the (Question number: 15), it is identified that 70% of the total respondents have strongly agreed with the fact that increase of alcohol consumption rate have hampered the overall productivity of individuals at workplace. In this case, it is also noticed that 15% of the total respondents also have argued that increase of alcohol consumption rate have hampered the overall productivity of individuals at workplace. Similarly, it is also viewed that around 10% of the total respondents do not believe that increase of alcohol consumption rate have hampered the overall productivity of individuals at workplace. Moreover, it is also noticed that only 5% of the total respondents have strongly denied the fact that increase of alcohol consumption rate have hampered the overall productivity of individuals at workplace. In this case, based on these feedbacks of the respondents of UK, it is quite clearly observed that most of the respondents have claimed that increase of alcohol consumption rate have hampered the overall productivity of individuals at workplace, as it affect the physical ability and mental stability of a person after consumption. A diagram is depicted below for better understanding above stated context:

Figure: 17. Respondents View Regarding Effect of Alcohol on Workplace

(Source: Created by Author)

Consequently, based on the responses of the (Question number: 16), it is observed that 45% of the total respondents have strongly agreed with the fact that increase of alcohol consumption rate have affected the social life balance of individuals within the UK. In this case, it is also observed that almost 30% of the total respondents have agreed that increase of alcohol consumption rate have affected the social life balance of individuals. On the other hand, around 15% of the total respondents have denied with the fact that increase of alcohol consumption rate have affected the social life balance of individuals. Moreover, it is also revealed that only 10% of the total respondents have strongly denied with the fact that increase of alcohol consumption rate have affected the social life balance of individuals. In this case, based on the majority of the respondents’ viewpoint, it is clearly observed that only a few portion of respondents do feel increase of alcohol consumption rate does not have affected the social life balance of individuals within the UK, whereas it is noticed that a major portion of the youth replied that increase of alcohol consumption rate have affected the social life balance of the UK citizens. A diagram is depicted below for better understanding the above stated context:

Figure: 18. Respondents View Regarding Effect of Alcohol on Society and Community

(Source: Created by Author)

            Simultaneously, based on the (Question number 17), it is identified that approximately 45% of the total respondents do strongly agreed that increase of alcohol consumption rate may lead critical health issues and disease for individuals. In this case, it is observed that almost 25% of the total respondents have claimed that increase of alcohol consumption rate may lead critical health issues and disease for individuals. However, it is also noticed that around 25% of the total respondents do not agreed that increase of alcohol consumption rate may lead critical health issues and disease for individuals. In this context, it is also observed that only 5% of the total respondents strong denied the fact that increase of alcohol consumption rate may lead critical health issues and disease for individuals. In this case, based on the evidences of the research; the researcher has established an understanding that increase of alcohol consumption rate may lead critical health issues and disease for individuals. A pictorial diagram is depicted below for better understanding the above stated context in a more comprehensive manner:

Figure: 19. Respondents View Regarding Effect of Alcohol on Health

(Source: Created by Author)

            Moreover, with regard to the (Question number 18), it is identified that majority (45%) of the respondents have strongly agreed with the fact that alcohol consumption increased due to the causes of alcohol ads. In this case, it is also noticed that around 30% of the total respondents have argued that alcohol consumption increased due to the causes of alcohol ads. On the other hand, it is also observed that 15% of the total respondents do feel that alcohol consumption increased due to the causes of alcohol ads. In this context, it is also recognized that only 10% of the total respondents have strongly denied regarding the fact that alcohol consumption increased due to the causes of alcohol ads. In this case, based on the majority of the respondents’ viewpoint, the researcher has developed an understanding that alcohol consumption increased due to the causes of alcohol ads. A pictorial diagram is depicted below for better understanding the above stated context in a more significant manner:

Figure: 20. Effect of Alcohol Ads Influence Consumption of Alcohol amid Young People

(Source: Created by Author)

            Similarly, based on the (Question number: 19), it is revealed that approximately 55% of the total respondents have strongly agreed that alcohol consumption may affect mental as well as physical health of an individual. In this case, it is also noticed that 20% of the total respondents have mentioned that addition towards alcohol may affect mental as well as physical health of an individual. On the contrary, it is noticed that 15% of the total respondents have denied the fact that alcohol consumption may affect mental as well as physical health of an individual. In this regard, only 10% of the total respondents have strongly disagreed with the viewpoint that alcohol consumption may affect mental as well as physical health of an individual. In this context, based on the evidences of the majority of the respondents, the researcher has taken into consideration that increasing consumption of alcohol may affect mental and physical health of an individual. A diagram is depicted below for better understanding:

Figure: 21. Effect of Alcohol on Physical and Mental Health of an Individual

(Source: Created by Author)

            In response to the (Question number: 20), it is identified that approximately 50% of the total respondents have strongly agreed with the view that they have significant knowledge about alcohol brand and alcohol ads. In this case, it is also observed that around 20% of the total respondents have agreed with the viewpoint that they do have significant knowledge about alcohol brand and alcohol ads. On the contrary, it is noticed that 25% of the total respondents have denied about their knowledge of alcohol brand and alcohol ads. In this context, 5% of the total respondents also have strongly denied about their knowledge of alcohol brand and alcohol ads. In this case, through analyzing the collected feedbacks of the respondents, it is clearly viewed that major portion of the total respondents have claimed that they do have significant knowledge about alcohol brand and alcohol ads. Thus, it can be taken into consideration that youth and young adult citizens do have a significant knowledge about alcohol brand and alcohol ads. A diagram is depicted below for better understanding above stated context:

Figure: 22. Respondents’ view on Effect of Alcohol Consumption towards Addiction

(Source: Created by Author)

            Similarly, based on the (Question number: 21), it is identified that 45% of the total respondents have strongly agreed that alcohol consumption may lead violent tendency amid individuals. In this case, it is also noticed that 25% of the total respondents have believed that alcohol consumption may lead violent tendency amid individuals. On the other hand, it is also viewed that approximately 25% of the total respondents does not believe alcohol consumption may lead violent tendency amid individuals. Moreover, it is also noticed that only 5% of the total respondents have strongly denied the fact that alcohol consumption may lead violent tendency amid individuals. In this case, based on these feedbacks of the respondents of UK, it is quite clearly observed that most of the respondents have claimed that alcohol consumption may lead violent tendency amid individuals. Thus, the researcher has developed an understanding that alcohol consumption may lead violent tendency amid the young individuals of UK. A diagram is depicted below for better understanding above stated context:

Figure: 23. Respondents’ view on Effect of Alcohol Consumption towards Violent Attitude

(Source: Created by Author)

Consequently, based on the responses of the (Question number: 22), it is observed that 55% of the total respondents have strongly agreed that alcohol consumption may lead criminal tendency amid individuals. In this case, it is also noticed that almost 15% of the total respondents have mentioned that alcohol consumption may lead criminal tendency amid individuals. On the other hand, around 25% of the total respondents have denied that alcohol consumption does not lead criminal tendency amid individuals. Moreover, it is also revealed that only 5% of the total respondents have strongly denied that alcohol consumption does not lead criminal tendency amid individuals. In this case, based on the viewpoints of the respondents, it is clearly observed that only a few portion of respondents do feel alcohol consumption does not lead criminal tendency amid individuals, whereas it is noticed that a major portion of the respondents have claimed that alcohol consumption does lead criminal tendency amid young individuals. A diagram is depicted below for better understanding the above stated context:

Figure: 24. Respondents’ view on Effect of Alcohol Consumption towards Criminalist

(Source: Created by Author)

            Simultaneously, based on the (Question number 23), it is identified that approximately 60% of the total respondents do strongly agreed with the fact that the overall rate of alcohol consumption increased due to the causes of expose of alcohol ads. In this case, it is observed that almost 20% of the total respondents have claimed that they feel alcohol consumption increased due to the causes of expose of alcohol ads. However, it is also noticed that 15% of the total respondents also have stated that they do not agreed with the viewpoint that alcohol consumption increased due to the causes of expose of alcohol ads. In this context, it is also observed that only 5% of the total respondents strong denied the fact that alcohol consumption does not increased due to the causes of expose of alcohol ads. In this case, based on the majority of the viewpoints of the respondents’, the researcher has developed an understanding that alcohol consumption increased due to the causes of expose of alcohol ads within the UK media and television. A pictorial diagram is depicted below for better understanding the above stated context in a more comprehensive manner:

Figure: 25. Respondents View Regarding the Causes of Alcohol Consumption Increase

(Source: Created by Author)

            Moreover, with regard to the (Question number 24), it is identified that majority (40%) of the respondents have strongly agreed that increase of alcohol consumption rate may cause early mortality for folks. In this case, it is also noticed that 20% of the total respondents have argued that increase of alcohol consumption rate may cause early mortality for folks. On the other hand, it is also observed that 25% of the total respondents have claimed that they feel increase of alcohol consumption does not lead early mortality for individuals. In this context, it is also recognized that only 15% of the total respondents have strongly denied the fact that increase of alcohol consumption rate may cause early mortality for folks. In this case, based on the majority of the respondents’ viewpoint, the researcher has come up with an understanding that increase of alcohol consumption rate may lead early mortality for folks. A pictorial diagram is depicted below for better understanding the above stated context in a more significant manner:

Figure: 26. Respondents View Regarding the Effect of Alcohol on Mortality Rate

(Source: Created by Author)  

4.3 Hypothesis Analysis

In order to choose suitable hypothesis for this particular research it is essential to generalize both primary as well as secondary research data, as it helps researcher to produce validate research outcome. In such manner, with a point of meeting the point and goals of this specific research, the exploration has connected productive measurable strategy, for example, t-Test: Paired Two Sample Means models, which may help scientist to sum up assembled research information in a more effective way. In addition, it can be declared that ramifications of this specific measurable technique can be viewed as one of the reasonable factual strategies, which may help scientist to think about two matched example implies if there should arise an occurrence of needy and autonomous exploration variable in a more powerful way. Amid the ramifications of t-Test: Paired Two Sample Means models, the specialist has exactly accentuated towards the fluctuation and Pearson relationship alongside mean estimation of needy and autonomous examination variable. For this situation, it can be declared that through the help of t-Test measurable apparatuses, it is likewise conceivable to break down and recognize the information and attention to the pregnant ladies with respect to the impact of smoking on their infants and baby. In addition, it can be attested that through ramifications of t-Test factual devices, it is additionally conceivable to perceive the relations amongst autonomous and ward research variable.

4.3.1 The association between Expose of Alcohol Ads and Effect of Alcohol Consumption 

In order to recognize the association between expose of alcohol ads and effect of alcohol consumption; it is viewed that the researcher has applied t-Test: Paired Two Sample Means models for identification of mean value and research variance. In this case, based on the response of the 100 respondents; it is identified that the mean value of expose of alcohol ads (IV1) is 0.83, whereas the mean value of the effects of alcohol consumption (DV) is 0.58, which signified that 83% of the young citizens of the UK does influence, due to the causes of increase numbers of alcohol ads. However, through the help of t-Test model; it is also identified that 58% of the young citizens of the UK does influence, due to the causes of increase numbers of alcohol ads. In this case, through implication of t-Test model, it is also recognized that the variance for both independent and dependent variable is more than 1 (V>1) and Pearson correlation value is less than (-0.10) approximately, which defines that there is a positive relations between expose of alcohol ads and its effect on the consumption of alcohol on the young citizens of the UK. A table is highlighted below for better understanding the result of the t-Test: Paired Two Sample Means models:

Table: 2. Association between Expose of Alcohol Ads and Effect
  (Iv1) (Dv)
Mean 0.838383838 0.585858586
Variance 1.953205525 2.469593898
Observations 99 99
Pearson Correlation -0.105123547  
Hypothesized Mean Difference 0  
Df 98  
t Stat 1.136867083  
P(T<=t) one-tail 0.129183032  
t Critical one-tail 1.660551218  
P(T<=t) two-tail 0.258366064  
t Critical two-tail 1.984467404  

(Source: Created by Author)

4.3.2 The association between Increase of Alcohol Consumption and its Effect

In order to recognize the association between increase of alcohol consumption and its effect; it is viewed that the researcher has applied t-Test: Paired Two Sample Means models for identification of mean value and research variance. In this case, based on the response of the 100 respondents; it is identified that the mean value of association between increase of alcohol consumption (IV2) is .83, whereas the mean value of the effect of alcohol consumption (DV) is 0.58, which signified that 83% of the female does addicted towards smoking, even during their pregnancy. However, through the help of t-Test model; it is also identified that 58% of the citizens of the UK have witnessed the effect of alcohol consumption. In this case, through implication of t-Test sample mean model, it is also recognized that the variance for both independent and dependent variable is more than 1 (V>1) and Pearson correlation value is less than (-0.10) approximately, which defines that there is a significant association between increase of alcohol consumption and its effect on the young citizens of the UK. A table is highlighted below for better understanding the result of the t-Test: Paired Two Sample Means models:

Table: 3. Association between Increase of Alcohol Consumption and its Effect
  (Iv2) (Dv)
Mean 0.838383838 0.585858586
Variance 1.953205525 2.469593898
Observations 99 99
Pearson Correlation -0.105123547  
Hypothesized Mean Difference 0  
Df 98  
t Stat 1.136867083  
P(T<=t) one-tail 0.129183032  
t Critical one-tail 1.660551218  
P(T<=t) two-tail 0.258366064  
t Critical two-tail 1.984467404  

(Source: Created by Author)

4.4 Research Outcome

Based on the evidences of this particular research, it is viewed that uncovered people may shape constructive qualities with respect to the sum, circumstances, and advantages of liquor and drinking. The substance examination exhibits that numerous aspects of commercials present positive depictions of liquor. In this regard, it can be suggested that benefits of advanced ways of advertisements usually help alcohol brands to influence young people to escape, refreshment, unwinding, social endorsement, sentiment, and style.

The reaction study analyzed two noteworthy offers pertinent to liquor states of mind: mental break, and social communication. Subsequent to seeing a getaway promotion, a normal of three-fifths of the respondents says they inferred the inclination that the item will “help you make tracks in an opposite direction from your customary circumstance“. Those seeing a promotion with a social subject including connection among companions are somewhat more probable than a control gathering to say that drinking will make a get-together more agreeable; there is likewise a powerless propensity for respondents seeing a social sentiment topic to say that liquor makes a night more sentimental.

One noteworthy reason for promoting is to make and fortify inclinations for the publicized brand in respect to contending brands in the item class. More positive assessments may come about after rehashed presentation to the brand name, appealing images and compensating benefits connected with the brand, and claims of brand quality. Inclination is viewed as fundamentally as attitudinal sentiment idealness; genuine utilization of different brands will be portrayed in the segment on drinking conduct. In the field study, brand inclination was measured with assessment rating scales for youth and posting of most loved brand names for grown-ups. Looking at information for brew, wine, and alcohol brand inclinations, there is a positive relationship between promoting introduction.

Three inquiries in the self-report study managed the reinforcing of earlier miens toward favored brands. More than 33% says they every so often create more grounded loving, turn out to be more positive, or feel increasingly certain in regards to their most loved brands from seeing advertisements. The reaction study measured self-saw changes in respondent inclinations for 15 diverse example advertisements. Most show that their image enjoying was unaltered in the wake of seeing the advertisements. A normal of 16% say they turned out to be better toward the brand and 20% say they turned out to be more negative. Advertisements utilizing mental getaway advances or social bids create the best change, while psychosexual promotions produce unfavorable change.

There are a few reasons why liquor promoting may be relied upon to create drinking by youth: advertisements may decrease restraints that confine the utilization of liquor, by demonstrating that this movement is socially satisfactory and standardizing in the public eye; advertisements may induce nondrinkers or periodic consumers to expend more liquor, by depicting compensating results, for example, sentiment/amiability, manliness/gentility, and departure; celebrated or alluring characters in promotions may impact naive youngsters to display their conduct; and publicizing may fortify general purchasers to obtain and drink more liquor, by a straightforward suggestion to act.

On the other hand, promoting effect might be exceeded by companion impacts, or minimized by countervailing social influence or individual imperviousness to publicizing claims. Another methodology evaluated the part of publicizing in energetic liquor experimentation by approaching grown-up respondents for review. Not very many respondents recognize publicizing as a noteworthy impact on their underlying choice to begin drinking; around 33% think it was a minor impact. Most claim that companions had the most grounded effect on their experimentation.

Proof on promoting impact was assembled in each of the three review considers, with the most broad information originating from the field study. This examination demonstrates that the record of alcohol drinking is identified with alcohol promoting presentation. Reports of both late drinking and run of the mill examples of drinking were measured. Introduction to lager wine publicizing is reasonably identified with brew utilization and pitifully identified with wine utilization. The self-report study managed subjectively saw the effect of promoting on drinking.

Another arrangement of self-report questions concentrated on trial buys. At the point when asked whether promoting impacts choices to attempt particular new brands of liquor positively. Likewise, one-fourth every now and again get some answers concerning new brands and one-tenth are invigorated to attempt new brands on a continuous premise; more than half say these two impacts happen once in a while. In this context, several researchers have mentioned that promoting fortifies trials no less than several times each year.

Another sign of this impact is the finding that purchasers gauge they would have attempted three or four less brands of liquor if there were no advertisements advancing these items. Concern has been communicated that liquor publicizing urges consumers to expend past ordinary levels of balance. A few promotions obviously or inconspicuously advocate over the top utilization of the publicized item, and the total effect passed on by customary advertisements might be that overwhelming drinking is proper and remunerating. Accordingly, promotions may incite exorbitant drinking and add to liquor issues.

The reaction study tried five notices that seemed to advance substantial drinking. Respondents were asked what message the promoter is attempting to get over; reference to drinking/serving a great deal of liquor are made by one-fourth of the example. Whenever inquired as to whether the supporting organization needed a man to drink a huge, medium, or little measure of liquor, three-fourths say a vast sum; notwithstanding, unexposed control respondents give comparative high gauges. Respondents likewise gave their own particular conclusion about over the top drinking. After introduction to an advertisement, 33% say it is satisfactory for a man to once in a while drink intensely as opposed to decently and one-fourth feel it is suitable for a man to expend six or more beverages in a night; once more, these reactions don’t contrast from the responses in the unexposed control bunch.

Chapter: 5.0 Recommendations and Conclusion

5.1 Conclusion

Based on the conduction of this research, it is recognized that various exercises requiring physical coordination and sensible judgment, for example, driving a vehicle, are more risky to perform amid or after liquor utilization. Liquor promoting may add to the behavior of risky exercises in two ways such as advertisements that particularly portray conceivably perilous practices may impact the gathering of people demeanors, with the end goal that the exercises are seen as more secure and more adequate to perform while drinking; and publicizing, when all is said in done, may impact the fundamental recurrence and amount of liquor utilization, to such an extent that there is a more noteworthy probability that the group of onlookers will drink before or amid any exercises, including those that are dangerous. The substance investigation demonstrates that a little extent of advertisements depicts liquor with regards to the perilous movement. The extents are 5% for TV advertisements and 67% for magazine promotions; the most incessant cases are pictorial depictions of water games. Driving is never connected with liquor in publicizing.

In relation to this, it can be also stated that people feel that they can devour a few beverages without influencing their capacity to drive securely. Most by far say that driving after a couple beverages is a hazardous movement. These drinking/driving things are decidedly identified with liquor promoting introduction; those profoundly presented to advertisements will probably drive subsequent to drinking, drink while riding, drink while sitting in a stopped auto, drive while inebriated, and to feel that they can expend more liquor without influencing their capacity to drive. There is no distinction on the topic of whether drinking while driving is perilous.

5.2 Linking with the Research Objectives

This last segment inspects the responses of respondents to a few disputable and approach applicable claims utilized as a part of liquor promoting: supports by big names, psychosexual topics, and young character depictions. With respect to supports, the substance investigation demonstrates 10% of TV promotions and 3% of magazine advertisements utilize a celebrated individual, normally a previous competitor. This bid was tried in the test study, where three about indistinguishable sets of promotions depicted either a VIP or a non-big name as an endorser. In the VIP condition, the item itself is appraised higher on all scales; respondents say they are fairly more prone to get the item, as well. Moreover, the VIP character is evaluated as essentially more dependable and skilled. These impacts are extremely solid among more youthful respondents less than 18 years old; the superstar underwriting has little effect on more established people.

One finding from the review bit of the self-report study is additionally relevant. Two-fifths of the respondents say that they utilized advertisements to discover which brands well known individuals drink, amid the period when they at first explored different avenues regarding liquor. Psychosexual subjects show up in different structures in numerous liquor commercials. The fundamental arrangement of discoveries on this subject originate from the reaction study, which concentrated on four example advertisements with psychosexual topics of a possibly revolting nature: two depict provocatively postured females in swimming clothing, and two portray youthful significant others and trademarks with sexual suggestions.

For the two promotions demonstrating the female structure, around 66% answer certifiably when asked whether they buy and by consider the advertisement to be provocative. Right around nine-tenths say they see sexual undertones for each of the suggestive mottos. Short of what one-tenth report being affronted by the trademarks, while around one-fifth feels the photos of females are hostile. At last, not as much as half say they like these advertisements, which is much lower than for different sorts of advance.

One of the trial concentrates on managed the sexual suggestiveness issue. Attractive and non-hot renditions were made for three promotions, with the same characters (a male, a female, and a male-female couple) postured either suggestively or all the more ordinarily. The discoveries demonstrate that respondents give reliably higher appraisals to promotions including suggestive stances. The item publicized by the provocative characters additionally accomplishes higher rating, despite the fact that there is little distinction in expectation to get it. The characters are assessed less decidedly in the suggestive condition Typical consumers of the provocatively promoted item are seen as fairly more attractive individuals. There is a sharp distinction accordingly as indicated by age level: those under 18 years of age respond all the more positively to the sexual topic, while more seasoned respondents give marginally more positive appraisals in the non-provocative condition.

5.3 Recommendations

Through conduction of this research, the researcher has tried to identify the association between knowledge, awareness and influence of alcohol among the young citizens of UK. In this   case, it can be recommended that earlier liquor promoting and introduce of liquor brand and consequent liquor is savoring conduct amid youngsters. Each of the seven studies showed huge impacts over a scope of various presentation variables and result measures. These included introductions to direct publicizing utilizing communicate and print media and backhanded techniques, for example, in-store advancements and depiction of liquor drinking in movies, music recordings, and TV programs. The consistency of impact over a heterogeneous gathering of studies might be viewed as a quality.

There are a few restrictions that ought to be considered when deciphering the consequences of this survey. While we settled on a from the earlier choice to just incorporate and audit accomplice thinks about which possibly are less inclined to experience the ill effects of precise predisposition than less strong study outlines, for example, cross-sectional overviews or intruded on time arrangement concentrates on, it is in any case imperative to note that partner studies are additionally defenseless to inclination if not composed and executed utilizing thorough guidelines.

One period of one of the studies utilized review of presentation to publicizing promotions which may have presented review inclination whereby heavier consumers review more introduction to commercials than non-consumers or lighter consumers, however where real introduction levels were minimal distinctive. One of the greatest dangers to the legitimacy of observational concentrates, for example, accomplice studies is the issue of jumbling, whereby the result of interest is adjusted by some other consider or variables expansion to the presentation of interest. Though the majority of the studies controlled for various puzzling components conceivably identified with liquor drinking conduct, unmeasured or obscure confounders can’t be balanced for and it is impractical to know whether leftover jumbling affected the investigation.

While these studies propose that introduction to publicizing and liquor depiction in the media improve probability of later liquor utilization, they can’t advise us how presentation achieves these progressions, or what parts of promoting and showcasing are the dynamic segments. The degree to which mental components decide ensuing conduct is a beneficial subject for further study. One study has inspected how influential liquor media messages were connected with agreeing convictions and practices among youth, presuming that current presentation based studies don’t satisfactorily represent the complex mental causal instruments that may direct or intervene the relationship amongst introduction and result. Be that as it may, this investigation depends on cross-sectional information; further studies with longitudinal examinations are attractive. In the event that a superior comprehension of the relationship of the transitional strides amongst introduction and consequent practices can be gotten, then our comprehension of the components of activity of liquor publicizing and promoting would be made strides.

This inquiry, together with lessons gained from the aggregate encounters of leading companion studies, ought to advise the outline of future associate studies. One different genuine risk to the legitimacy of these studies was the level of steady loss in a portion of the studies. Misfortunes to catch up between the get together of the associate and follow-up are inescapable yet the point is to keep this to a base as wearing down inclination might be presented if explanations behind missing information or misfortune to catch up are identified with presentation or result.

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