Structures and assumptions of governing in the late 18th and early 19th centuries.
America adopted a federalist system of government in the late 18th century after reacting to the Articles of Confederation and the British government. The federalist system of government allowed the sharing of power between the governments of the state and the national government who were mutually dependent on each other. The articles of confederation represented a confederation where the state government was supreme whereas the central government was weak.
Contrast them with contemporary structures, attitudes and values.
The current structure can be labeled as cooperative federalism. Both the state and federal governments cooperate significant programs such as infrastructural projects. The cooperation further goes a long way to enhance democracy in governmental practices and policies.
What features have changed most and least
The current federal government has assumed more responsibility in the running of the nation including policies, especially in the international realm. The federal government also has significant control over monopolies, the health care system and powers of the president have significantly improved.
In your discussions with Madison, discuss changes brought about by historical events and changes in state-societal relations
The most significant historical event leading to a shift in power to the federal government was the American civil war which occurred between 1861-1865. The war resulted in the 14th amendment in 1868 facilitating the expansion of national power. Legislation to contain monopolies in 1887 further went a long way to enhance federal government power.
Discuss a significant problem or issue America faces in the year 2018 and whether the political system can/should solve this problem.
Among the most critical issues America faces is the private funding of political campaigns. Political candidates can raise their own money privately and spend as much money as they wish. Since the significant source of funding comes from big businesses and donors, it results in a plutocratic government.
How would Madison respond to the political system of 2018
I believe Madison would be delighted with America’s current political system. In his essays, he observed and profoundly thought the confederation form of government would not work. He noted their size would have inherent shortcomings as he advocated for a federalist government. Since his views long ago came to pass, he would be pleased with the current political system.