The Role of Salesperson Motivation In Sales Control Systems Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivation Revisited

Introduction

The article that has been provided on the role of Salesperson motivation in sales control systems generally vests on the two systems that are intrinsic and extrinsic on the perspective that is followed. This is already known that there is a huge need for a salesperson in the overall sales management and proper motivation. This will initiate a perfect appearance in the system that is being vested with proper motivations.  The article is reviewed in a varied perspective in order to show the exact difference intrinsic and extrinsic motivation as a whole. The article review format has been set in such an order so that there is a descriptive gap shown that generally persists in the article provided. The difference is being shown in a proper order with research methods, models, discussion, theoretical implications, managerial implications and the overall difference is being anticipated in these parts itself.

 A proper background and hypothesis that have been generated in the article are being provided by doing a critical review. The empirical results are justified critically in perfect order so as to have a perfect article review of that is being provided.  The analysis has been done in such an order that the motivations which are instilled in managing sales related issues are being justified and the huge gap in style has been set in a particular way. This generally expands the distinct the antecedents in a particular way. This is generally involved with the cognitive and distinctive perspective of a justified order.

Materials and Methods

Background

Sales Control System

The article generally vests the system of the extrinsic and intrinsic system of sales control and performance. There are various authors who are involved in explaining the needs of different sales approaches. In such cases, intrinsic methods generally depend on proper sales training and teaching of various approaches which will generally make a base for the overall sales management. Extrinsic vests on the rewards and honors of the performance that are being done by the salesperson in a definite order. This truly is based on the outcome of the sales in a perfect way. Therefore motivations are being applied in a different way (Frey, B & Gallus, 2017). The different approaches of the author justify that extrinsic approaches are not related to a perfect approach to sales management. This is because this system does not implicate any perfect sole foundation in a varied way.  This is the basic concept that has been provided in the article “The role of salesperson motivation in sales control systems”.

It can be said that approaches generally depend on the behavioral or outcome control. There is a need for proper training and performance checks through various examination in the house so that there is perfect and strong base created within the salesperson. This will give them an environment of control in the market and they can also deal with different products and their approach in a perfect way. It can be said that this will generally take some time in the overall collaboration of work or are controlling the market with the products in a varied way. But once the base becomes strong it will have a perfect viewpoint of the overall sales management in a varied way. This will also intend in proper verification of the market and its sole customers in a varied way. Otherwise, outcome-based sales motivation will never give an arena where there will be structural growth in a varied way (Gong & Choi, 2016).

 This is being broadly identified with the gap that has been provided within the article in a proper way. This is the basic part of the overall critical review of the work that is being done in perfect order. The salesperson, once they are recruited, should go through proper identification of products of the particular organization and the need of it in daily life. This will generally initiate a perfect balance in the overall marketing part. Then there has to be training based on the approach and another dynamic of sales in a proper way. This will initiate a perfect balance for the creation of motivation from within the person. Form the first instance it will not vest its pressure in achieving targets or are sales outcome in a varied way. This will make the proper general outcome of the ultimate sales motivation that is required in the overall work to be done. This will also implement various managerial implementations in order to have general implications of the overalls system in a varied way (Herhausen et al. 2018).

Salesperson motivation

The salesperson motivation generally vests on the cognitive and affective dimensions in a proper way. This will also correlate a perfect perception of the overall aspect of motivation in a varied way. There are various effects of both cognitive as well as affective dimensions in a varied way. The article once says that extrinsic motivation is the best approach to recovery in sales. This is because it involves different kinds of and recognition and awards. This often initiates a perfect amount of growth in the marketing sector. On the other hand, there is a contradiction kept with the intrinsic part of the sales motivation. This will involve a proper method for the acquiring of knowledge as well as providing the best insight into the overall work. This is the basic approach to motivation in a proper way.  The journal provides a contradiction; therefore proper identification of the motivation which is to be instilled in order to enlarge the market and have a productive value is not at all mentioned in the sales motivation part. The approach should have to be proper in terms of identification purposes. Otherwise, it will be difficult for the salesperson as well the organisation to tend the salesperson in a simple and specified way. This will also intend to harm the overall reputation of the organisation in a varied way. Therefore the proceeding part of this article review will generally show up a perfect instance of the actual needs that the organisation needs to follow in managing the sales as well as the salesperson as a whole (Khan, Khan & Khan, 2017).

Hypothesis

The article “The role of salesperson motivation in sales control systems” has provided with the proper hypothesis that has been provided in order to justify the motivation. This hypothesis provides a view of both positive as a well negative aspect of some of the justifications that have been made when the research work has been performed in a varied way. This hypothesis is being critically evaluated in order to have a perfect understanding of the themes and discussion that are being done in the concerned article. It has been seen that in terms of activity control, it has been seen that there is a negative impact on the challenges faced by the salesperson. In terms of capability control, it has been observed that there is an overall positive impact on the sales person’s enjoyment as a whole. The third hypothesis also vests on the approach that activity control impacts on the seeking of salesperson in recognition matters (Kroll & Vogel, 2018).

The fourth hypothesis states that the activity control generally vests on the positive effects on seeking of compensation. The fifth hypothesis states that the outcome controls also have a positive effect on the compensation seeking part of the salesperson. The sixth outcome generally vests on the sales person’s behavioural performance that affects positively on the overall performance outcome in a perfect way. In the seventh part, there is two hypothesis made one resembles that the overall challenge seeking positively affects the salesperson’s performance of the behaviour.  The next segmented part of the seventh analysis states that challenge that is being sought affects positively on the outcome of the performance. The eighth hypothesis states that the specific task enjoyment positive effects on the behavioural performance of the salesperson in a varied way.

The ninth hypothesis is also segmented in two parts. The first part states that the specific compensation seeking affects positively on the salesperson behavioural approach. The second part states that the specific compensation seeking affects positively on the salesperson outcome approaches in a positive way. The tenth outcome suggests that the seeking of recognition positively affects the outcome performances in a varied way. The eleventh outcome suggests that the challenge of seeking positively affects the overall compensation seeking. The twelfth hypothesis generally represents about if there is an enjoyment in the task; it will positively impact on the seeking of recognition (Lechner et al. 2018).

The last or the thirteenth hypothesis is further divided into three parts. They are like that the activity control generally has a direct negative impact in the outcome performances. The next part suggests that the capability control have a direct negative impact in the performances outcome. The last part of the thirteenth hypothesis suggests that the overall outcome control has a specific positive direct impact on the outcome of performances as a whole. This is the basic hypothesis that has been done in the article “The role of salesperson motivation in sales control systems — Intrinsic and extrinsic motivation revisited”

This has been seen that the whole research in the article is generally based on primary quantitative research as a whole. Therefore there are different approaches to the hypothesis that came or are lying in a contradictory position in a perfect way. This has often initiated various problems in reaching a perfect conclusion. Therefore, it can be said that secondary qualitative data should be used in order to provide an actual solution of the present state of motivation that can be used in order to stimulate the sales management by the salesperson in a proper way (Nyambegera, S & Gicheru, 2016).

Evaluation of salesperson motivation

The concerned research focuses on salesperson’s motivation through incorporating effective elements of extrinsic and intrinsic motivational approaches. The main purpose of this study is to highlight the importance of motivation for improving a sales person’s performance. This study reflects on the influence capacity of ‘sales management control’ in the development of any organization’s sales department. Under this research, the analyst also highlights intrinsic and extrinsic motivational approaches. To understand the usage and gap of these two motivational approaches some methods, models and theoretical implications are shown here (Bande et al. 2016).

Discussion about Extrinsic and intrinsic motivation

According to, Frey & Gallus (2017), motivation is the key factor of succeeding in any managerial aspect like sales of an organization. This study states that motivation can be grown from extrinsic or outside the organization and intrinsic or inside of an individual. However, these two motivational approaches are totally different; therefore they have different impacts on how individuals pursue their targets. That’s why the researchers have decided to make an overview of that serious matter. The analyst has prepared a conceptual framework to complete this research performance. The researchers have taken an idea from different sales people. The analyst has collected a list of almost 600 sales personnel from a commercial broker. Then the researcher has used a random sampling method for collecting relevant data (de Almeida, Lesca & Canton, 2016). Sample questionnaires, cover letters, returned envelopes have been also used for further processing. Sales managers or officials were asked to select various salespersons having different sales knowledge to maximize the performance variance. 

Approx 106 sales personnel, 97 organizations and more than 395 sales people were involved in this study. This positive response of different salesperson helps the researchers to understand the importance of motivation in achieving organizational goals. By involving 97 different organizations the researchers have tried to understand the importance of extrinsic motivational approaches that come from managers or any outsider. This survey also helps them to know how a salesperson gets influenced on own (Deci, Olafsen & Ryan, 2017). As per given information the researchers had done this survey under a vast range, which helps them to get varieties of the result on the same topic. This study helps them to know extrinsic or intrinsic approach which one suits for an organization. After doing that survey, it is shown that in the extrinsic approach the sales managers influence their sales person by giving those rewards or punishing them. On the other hand, under the intrinsic approach, the managers arranged proper training, performance evaluation to improve their employee’s services. This survey shows that salespersons are getting influence from both approaches, but it might vary from one organization to another. It also shows that sometimes giving punishment brings negative aspects to an organization (Kuvaas et al. 2016). Therefore, it shows that the concept of giving reward or punishment is not enough strong approach while motivating any staff. It means that though the extrinsic approach is essential for developing an organization’s sales performance it is weaker than the intrinsic approach. Under this approach, salesperson could be able to manage their environments and take the decision in which way they want to perform. The extrinsic approach creates an extra pressure over employees where intrinsic approach allows one to work freely (Manzoor & Manzoor, 2017).

Under the previous part of this study, it has been shown that how the survey becomes beneficial for the researchers. The previous section has just given an overview of the extrinsic and intrinsic approach of motivational practices. However, the survey result was not enough for completing this research. Therefore the researchers have used a Likert scale to measure the style of two different approaches. The researchers also used ‘Confirmatory Factor Analysis’ to find out the best result. The Likert scale used by the researchers here helps them to know a percentage of agreed, disagreed, strongly disagreed, strongly agreed and many others options (Roy, Rabbanee & Sharma, 2016). This method helps them to make a difference between extrinsic approach or intrinsic approach supporting people. However, some gapings have been shown in this method too. Under this method, the researchers have provided some specific questions in front of the sales managers or sales-people.

As per the provided questions, the sales persons gave their answers, which may not be exact under every circumstance. On the other hand, this method is bounded to only a limitation and did not allow highlighting some other areas too. Therefore, there may be some points left while gathering information on the relevant topic. According to Guesalaga (2016), the researchers should follow a qualitative technique instead of doing any kind of survey or applying measurement tools. The researchers may collect relevant data from different company journals, websites or other secondary sources. This technique is less time consuming and less costly.

This study shows that motivation is needed for everyone for performing well. However, this motivational process must be done in a systematic way. According to researchers extrinsic and intrinsic motivation is considered as the best method for influencing any staff towards his job. Extrinsic motivation is applied when any salesperson is getting involved to his job for getting any reward or avoiding punishment. On the other hand, intrinsic motivation is applied to an organization when staff is getting involved to his job for his own sake. Under the extrinsic motivational approach, a sales-person is getting involved by expecting something instead of performance well. No other satisfaction or enjoyment has found here. On another side, employees feel an attachment towards their work for improving own performance level (Zhao et al. 2016).

Finding out the gap between extrinsic and intrinsic motivation

This research performance has focused on two types of motivational methods, one is the extrinsic method and another is the intrinsic method. Intrinsic method focused on behavioural control, where the extrinsic control focuses on outcome control. Under the extrinsic approach, the sales managers provide incentives or other rewards to their employees for doing better sales performance. Where, under intrinsic approach the managers use training, evaluating, monitoring and compensation for developing staff’s selling behaviour. This method does not focus on instant sales outcomes (Zhu, Gardner & Chen, 2018).

On another hand, some researchers have disaggregated the behavioural control or intrinsic approach to capacity control and activity control. The activity control denotes towards those actions a salesperson wants to perform. Therefore, maximum corporate entities have applied extrinsic and intrinsic approach both in their sales control. In spite of this, some gapings have found between intrinsic and extrinsic control.According to Johnson & Sohi (2017), managers who use intrinsic control for motivating their salespeople are could demonstrate a high range of performance. Under this behavioural control, technique employees feel free to perform as they have not felt the huge pressure of immediate sales.

On another side, a salesperson who works under extrinsic control approach could expand their selling skills due to enhancing their capacity of doing immediate sales. The intrinsic motivation tends to enjoy task and challenge seeking, where the extrinsic approach highlight over getting the reward or avoiding punishments. After studying this research article, it can easily say that the intrinsic approach helps to strengthen the extrinsic approach too. Under this research performance, the researchers have done some hypothetical testing for establishing different behavioural approaches of an employee. The researcher shows that improving capacity and risk bearing ability is highly essential for running any organization’s sales activity successfully. This research shows that extrinsic and intrinsic approaches are linked with each other deeply.

According to this performance, the behavioural control has given a positive effect on outcome control. It focuses that challenge seeking capacity creates a positive impression on behavioural and outcome performance both. In this research performance, the researchers have highlighted over both motivational approaches and show the negative and positive way out of both approaches. However, the main gap of this literature review is, it does not provide any solid conclusion about which method is better. This study supports both the approaches at a time, which creates conflict in other’s mind. This study also has taken multi-dimensional features that may occur while handling an organization’s sales activity. The researchers have taken so many examples or testings under consideration. These varieties of testing provide them with enough knowledge about that specific matter. However, by arranging so many tastings or surveys, it also creates confusion between two motivational approaches.  This study also has reached an end, without giving an ultimate and particular solution (positiveschools.com.au, 2019). 

The researchers have tried to establish linkages between extrinsic and intrinsic approach, but somehow they became unable to provide an appropriate result. At first, the researchers have drawn a cross-sectional structure which may interpret with caution. Secondly, the researchers have done a survey on “Midwestern” state’s sales person’s only, which bound the result into a limited section. Thirdly, the researchers have taken information only from salespeople and presented the result on their perspective. The researchers need to collect information from sales managers too. They need to gather information from sales managers and sales-person both by using a multi-source collection of information. The researchers also used quantitative technique and collect data from primary research. As per the review report, it could be said, that the researchers would use qualitative techniques too while gathering information. They can use past records, other research reports, journals or company website information to get the more appropriate result (researchgate.net, 2019).

This research shows that sometimes performance of an employee depends on getting a reward or to ignore any kind of penalty. Though the tendency of getting reward may destroy or reduce the intrinsic motivation of an employee. While it is known to an employee that he or she may get the reward, if they perform well then it may just limit to a particular circumstance. They only just want to perform well because of performance appraisal, not much attachment will work towards their job. Sometimes it may create a worse situation for the sales manager to handle their salesperson. That does not mean that the extrinsic approach is wrong or bad for handling their salesperson. Sometimes it can be beneficial in a specific situation (Manzoor & Manzoor, 2017).

The sales manager can apply extrinsic technique when the salesperson is losing his interest in performing a job. The extrinsic method can be used as a type of feedback that helps an employee to know about his performance level. It also helps a manager to set the specific target after analyzing individual’s or team’s performance level. On the other hand, extrinsic method brings a competition among employees, which helps them to give the best outcome to the organization. Though the extrinsic approach would not apply in every aspect (Tang, King & Kay, 2018). It needs to ignore when an individual has already get involved in a task or where the reward makes the activity as a play type feature.

Under maximum circumstances, managers prefer an intrinsic approach to overcome their sales related obstacles. However, some cases intrinsic method is not enough to control organizational sales activity. Especially if an employee does not show his interest while performing work, then the extrinsic method becomes more beneficial. Some researchers have found that rewards and good feedback can improve the performance level of an employee which highlights the organization’s intrinsic motivation. Though extrinsic motivation has so much benefit, excessive awards may create a problem for the organization. Employees may loss own interest while performing a task and except for getting the reward. Extrinsic motivation may loosen the personal attachment of an employee towards the organization or his job.

As per the research performance, the given topic has many prospects for improving the organizational activities in future. This study helps to know that different corporate entities seek different approaches while developing their sales related activities. Therefore, the required approaches can be changed from one organization to another. Though this research is more focused on formal selling related activities, informal sales controls also have equal importance. This research also states that extrinsic method also can induce the participation and interest level of an employee in which he is less interested.

After completing the entire research performance it can be said that it is highly essential to reach a concrete decision. This study states that both motivational approaches are important for an organization, but it would be applied by depending on situations. The intrinsic approach could be applied in every aspect. This approach helps an individual’s performance by providing proper training, knowledge and so on. Giving a reward may help one to give the best outcome, but one could not gain enough knowledge from this approach. On the other hand, the intrinsic approach would help an individual to get more involved in his work my own. This involvement nature of an employee also may motivate others to perform his work efficiently. Under the intrinsic approach, one can build his knowledge and skills by getting involved and taking more responsibility for his work. It is also shown that salesperson who is motivated intrinsically could be more efficient and innovative. People can be more productive and have more capability to take risks, challenges and so on. Under intrinsic method, the managers use different techniques, models or training process to uplift their salesperson’s activity level. This method shows that employees are more motivated here, as they work to meet their own goals. Intrinsic motivation also builds cooperation among other employees within an organization.

It can be said that there is a proper need for understanding the order of motivations that are to be provided in order to have a perfect balance in the sales management structure. Such kinds of motivation generally include intrinsic as well as extrinsic approaches. It can be said that both the approaches are different in terms of the order. Both the approaches are also subjected to different kinds of sales management structure. It is mentioned earlier that intrinsic methods reveals or believes in the proper approach towards training and educating the needs that are required in sales management purposes.  On the other hand, the extrinsic methods generally represent overall performance-based management so that there is a productive outcome based on the activities and the targets that are being provided in terms of achievement (Rouziès, Onyemah & Iacobucci, 2017).

 It has been learnt from the outcomes that both the process provides an area for a positive outcome. But Intrinsic provides more positive outcome and extrinsic provides less positive outcome as there are some challenges and pressure that comes into scenario when the extrinsic way of sales approach is being done. Therefore, the best approach of the salesperson motivation in terms of selling has not arrived directly through the article. The main reason behind that is primary research which has been done, that exaggerated the overall concept of the research work in a different way.  This is the main reason behind the overall problems associated with the articles provided. It can be said that the measurement model has been used in the research article so as to proceed with the overall research work. The elliptical reweight provides a coefficient alpha in order to have a positive and significant on the overall convergent validity. The structural path model that is been used in the hypothesis generally reveals a satisfactory outcome in the data that is being provided in the “(χ2 (16) = 34.296, p b0.01, CFI = 0.977, RMSEA=0.081)”. The LM tests also revealed the overall pathways in a positive way (Tang, King & Kay, 2018).

This also represents a descriptive statistics with a structural path model for the orientation of the result.  On the other hand, it can be said the activity control is a positive impact on the challenges that have been seeking in a perfect manner. The hypothesis that is generally been made in the research work could have been much better if and only the sources would have been more and more relevant to the themes. In the case of secondary qualitative research, it could have been much more convergent to the themes that are associated with it.  There is mainly a multidimensional approach or nature of salesperson, that has been shown which generally complex the ramifications of the global motivations in a varied way.  The motivation controls the overall construction in terms of theoretical consideration as a whole. The theoretical implications that have been made in the overall sales control system have a distinct impact on the effects of cognition as a whole. There have been various measurements that are being suggested to the impacts which have been received through intrinsic as well as extrinsic motivations in a varied way. There are different effect that has been brought through the capability control in a varied way. This also affects the overall structure as well as growth initiation in the management era in a varied way (Wang et al. 2016).

 Therefore the articles could not reach its proper calculation in terms of overall synchronization to the motivation that is required for the sales management system. It can be said that there is a large gap between the intrinsic as well as extrinsic methods of sales approach as a whole. This is the basic part of the overall sales management approach. These approaches are always subjected towards a potential development in the market. Therefore it can be generally said that a proper approach will always tend to have a perfect market capitalisation and capturing of the denominator in a varied way. The motivations that are to be provided to the salesperson should not be hampered by any means. This is because if the enjoyment of the task goes away, then it will be difficult for the salesperson to compensate with the work that is to be followed in a varied way (business.missouri.edu, 2019).

 This is the basic part of the overall research work that is being performed in a varied way. The gap has been mentioned in a proper way. The organisation needs to look at such gaps before converging with the sales criteria with a specific calculation on the determinant followed. This will provide the periphery of management in a varied way. There are various limitations that have been specified for future research. This limitation should be implemented in order to have a perfect background for future research in a possible format. This is the basic gap that has been generally denoted in order to have a perfect overview of the intrinsic as a well extrinsic approach in the sales motivation approach (people.uta.fi, 2019).

Conclusion

The entire research has focused on two different motivational approaches and their impacts on sales person’s activity. This study focuses that motivation plays a vital role while performing any organizational activities. It shows that every manager needs to adopt the proper motivational approach to influence their salesperson. This study provides a clear idea about the extrinsic and intrinsic approach. This study helps to know when and where these two methods would be applied. A critical presentation has done here to show the gaping of the proposed article. This study critically analyzed all provided models, techniques, approaches used in the given article. After doing critical analysis, it can be concluded that extrinsic and intrinsic both the research techniques are beneficial for any sales manager. Though, the managers need to adopt any one or both method after thinking about the situation.

This study also concludes that an intrinsic approach is more beneficial than the extrinsic approach under any possible circumstances. This research also states that researchers of the given article would use qualitative technique along with a quantitative technique for gathering relevant information. This study also shows different aspects of doing future research. This study helps to know that different corporate entities seek different approaches while developing their sales related activities. Therefore, the required approaches can be changed from one organization to another.  In short, this study states that the main factor of being more efficient and effective is to involve salesperson into their work through an intrinsic or extrinsic approach.

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