Sociological and Theoretical Prospective:
Race and class predispositions are present in every institution and every country up to some extent nowadays. The expression “classism” is commonly used to describe discrimination against low-wage groups or people; it also can be applied to those with moderate and high income levels. Classism refers to discrimination an individual or a gathering based on social class. Regardless of a long history of classism in a large number of the world’s societies, clinicians have not given much consideration regarding this type of separation (Holley and VanVleet, 2006). Any understanding of the appropriation of poverty and inequality in society must focus on the effect of this on noteworthy social divisions and cultural differences. In present day British and American social orders this involves recognizing and analyzing the effect of racism within the social structure. In expansive terms current Britain and USA are supremacist social orders in that there is noteworthy proof that black and other minority ethnic communities encounter discrimination and weakness on a lopsided premise, and this cannot be explained merely as result of chance or misfortune (Alcock, 1997).
According to a recent study conducted by (Jun, 2018) it is very important to sort out the complications associated with class issues due to numerous determinants and its intersectionality with race, gender, and sexual orientation. Author has insisted that interlinked relationships among classism, capitalism, social dominance theory, and inappropriate hierarchical and dichotomous thinking styles must have to be explained from a multilayered and multidimensional perspective. It is very important that one should describe several strategies for dismantling classism at the personal and institutional levels. It is exceptionally important to expound racism, racial prejudice, and racial discrimination from social categorization theory which is the establishment of ethnocentrism. Racism is socially developed and social structure perpetuates injustice and the part of the oblivious in building internalized privilege and oppression and invisibility of privilege and visibility oppression as barriers to racial equality. Solomos and Back, (1996) stated that the focused and key efforts needed to counter all racist’s ideological frameworks through policy, debate and practices. It should be highlighted at every platform to minimize it and to bring peace and justice in a society it is very necessary to develop coping strategies accordingly.
Iglesias, Gusman and Laguna, (2006) addressed a basic model of capital trade among financial operators in which the impact of a relationship amongst riches and the network is considered. The riches appropriation in the primary case may produce a two-class society with an unmistakable hole in the center and highly unequal power law distributions with a great number of strongly impoverished agents and a few very rich ones. Martin, (2009) highlighted that the Bourdieu offers a model of social class that underscores class limits as the result of “classification struggles” inside the different fields that involve social space. The set of relations that define a particular field influence which social, economic and cultural resources are important in sorting individuals into class categories.
Clarifying Race, Class and Gender:
Roberts, (2014) conducted a study which highlighted “Wacquant’s” three-sided schema of race, class and state by adding a focus on gender, the experiences of black women, and a black feminist intersectional analysis. Welfare retrenchment in the USA relied on stereotypes of black women, especially the ‘Welfare Queen’, which were at once sexist and racist and implemented policies targeted specifically at them as the vilified beneficiaries of state largess. Attributing social inequality to black women’s childbearing furthers race, gender and class oppression in the context of neo-liberalism by legitimizing intensified deprivation and surveillance. A focus on the regulation of black mothers brings to the fore the child welfare system as a critical institution of social supervision, on a par with work-fare and prison-fare. A black feminist analysis of the intersection of welfare, prison and foster care in the systemic punishment of black mothers and of strategies for resistance illuminates how racism and neo-liberalism operate together in the USA.
In a recent study more than 300 paired audits at new-car dealerships uncover that dealers cited fundamentally bring down costs to white guys than to black or female test buyers using identical, scripted bargaining strategies. Subordinate proof proposes that the dealerships’ different treatment of ladies and blacks might be caused by dealers’ factual inductions about purchasers’ reservation costs, however the information don’t unequivocally support any single theory of discrimination directly (Ayres and Siegelman, 1995). There is a strong direct association between social class background and success in education: put simply, the higher a child’s social class, the greater are their attainments on average. According to DfEE figures, in 1997 children from the most advantaged backgrounds (classified as ‘managerial/professional’ in the YCS) were more than three times as likely to attain five or more higher grade GCSEs than their peers at the other end of the class spectrum (in the ‘unskilled manual’ group). This is one of the longest-established trends in British education but the association is not static. Indeed there is evidence that the inequality of attainment between social classes has grown since the late 1980s. For example, in relation to the five higher grade benchmark, between 1988 and 1997, the gap between children from ‘managerial/professional’ backgrounds and ‘unskilled manual’ groups grew from 40 to 49 percentage points (Gillborn and Mirza, 2000).
It has been investigated how prosecutors and defense attorneys utilize the authoritative challenge and how characteristics of seated jury panels compare to those of the venire. Data was gathered through observation of 13 criminal trials. In the aggregate, there was no association amongst race and selection for a jury, and only a modest relationship for gender and selection. Be that as it may, the invalid finding for race masks a pattern of strikes by each party: When rejected, Whites were probably going to be pardoned by the defense and African Americans by the state. A trial-by-trial analysis demonstrated that when disparities amongst venire and jury composition existed, the direction usually indicated over representation of African Americans and women on juries (Rose, 1999).
Poverty under Prism of Racism and Classism:
Social classes and poverty are two key social determinants central to understand how illness and wellbeing inequalities are created. Amid the 90’s in Spain there has been a remarkable swaying in the inequality and poverty levels, with an expansion between the decade when new types of social rejection, abnormal amounts of joblessness and awesome troubles in getting to the work advertise, particularly for those specialists with less assets, rose. Today society is still portrayed by a reasonable social stratification and the presence of social classes with a transcendence of elevated amounts of joblessness and unsafe occupations, and where poverty is an endemic social issue much more terrible than the EU normal. To decrease wellbeing inequalities and to enhance the personal satisfaction will depend especially on the lessening of the poverty levels and the change of equivalent openings and nature of business. To build understanding of how social class and poverty influence general wellbeing, there is a need to enhance the nature of both data and investigate, and moreover organizers and political chiefs must consider those determinants when undertaking disease prevention and health promotions (Benach and Amable, 2004).
If social roles were mixed up and the low income families had access and the ability to get a good education and learn to care for them proper enough to land a great paying job then wouldn’t that change the outcome for generations for that family alone. People are accepting low paying jobs because those jobs are socially expectable for their social class standard. I believe this contributes to the idea that social classes stay together. An individual considered high class would not ever consider taking a low paying job. If times were hard enough that it came down to them taking the job and chance ruining their financial life and social reputation or their family stepping in and helping them financially until they are able to land a much better job they would have many social resources they could go to for the help. Individuals that are considered under class do not and will not have that luxury. They are willing to except the lower paying jobs because that is all the help they can get unless it is provided by the government. Most don’t have families they can go to for help until a better job comes along. For many it is a matter of getting the job and paying what they can or letting what they do have get taken away from them because of inability to pay (Shah, 2010).
Alcock, P. (1997). Racism and Poverty. In Understanding Poverty (pp. 151-164). Palgrave, London.
Ayres, I., & Siegelman, P. (1995). Race and gender discrimination in bargaining for a new car. The American Economic Review, 304-321.
Benach, J., & Amable, M. (2004). Social classes and poverty. Gaceta sanitaria, 18, 16-23.
Gillborn, D., & Mirza, H. S. (2000). Educational inequality: Mapping race, class and gender: A synthesis of research evidence.
Holley, L. C., & VanVleet, R. K. (2006). Racism and classism in the youth justice system: Perspectives of youth and staff. Journal of Poverty, 10(1), 45-67.
Iglesias, J. R., Risau-Gusman, S., & Laguna, M. F. (2006). Inequalities of Wealth Distribution in a Society with Social Classes. In Practical Fruits of Econophysics (pp. 327-332). Springer, Tokyo.
Jun, H. (2018). Classism. In Social Justice, Multicultural Counseling, and Practice (pp. 215-242). Springer, Cham.
Roberts, D. (2014). Complicating the triangle of race, class and state: the insights of black feminists. Ethnic and Racial Studies, 37(10), 1776-1782.
Rose, M. R. (1999). The peremptory challenge accused of race or gender discrimination? Some data from one county. Law and Human Behavior, 23(6), 695.
Solomos, J., & Back, L. (1996). Racism and Anti-Racism. In Racism and Society (pp. 102-120). Palgrave, London.
Shah, A. (2010). Poverty facts and stats. Global Issues, 20.