Dealing with Air Pollution to Evaluate The suitability of The Clean Air Act (CAA): Kuwait Case Study

Introduction

Air pollution is defined as the destabilizing the normal state of the atmosphere, by releasing gases that combine with other components contributing to secondary form of pollution. Also. Some gases in their natural state, such as carbon dioxide have adverse effects in contributing to global warming. Either through recombination or direct emission, harmful components have continually raised the concern of the international governments, facilitating the formation of regulations and policies to mitigate the negative impacts of the pollutants. Air pollution is mostly not detectable by use of eyes, because the pollutants appear in the form of fine particles that can only be analyzed by use of specializedmicroscopy techniques. However, the smog and aerosols can be seen, thus leading to the poor quality of the air. According to Richardson (2011) monitoring the emissions from industries and other anthropogenic activities by the government can help reduce the impacts of air pollution. Among the suggestion placed across by scholars such as Buekens (2008) is to track how the industries manage their wastes, and if they have proper instrumentation to facilitate purification of the gases released into the atmosphere.

Similarly, Green et al. (2002) noted that increased globalization and industrialization is a modern trend, that has contributed to increased pollutants into the environment. Nations have morphed from dealing with traditionally recognized pollutants such as carbon monoxide to more complex components such as benzenes, ozone, and chemical constituents from pesticides. As technological development is advancing, states have been able to analyze the quality of the air, and subsequent identification of the qualitative assay, in a given environment. Such, the respective regulatory bodies can quantify the specifics of the pollutant which sheds light on what to check. Efforts of the EPA has ensured that environmental management organizations in different countries have set limits, beyond which individual pollutant should not exceed. The strategy to establish the required standards was due to the increasing rates of premature deaths, as a result of complications contributed to by unclean air. For example, in the year 2018, WHO estimated that that seven million people die every year due to polluted air. The complication ranges from respiratory system problems, lung complications among others (Butler et al.,2011).

Therefore, air pollution is considered paramount for economic growth. An unhealthy population is unable to work, and hence lowering the productivity. Although there are many strategies to clean up the air categorizedin the form of legal, economic and technological approach, the scientific way-laws and regulations, can have a more impact. This paper will discuss the three laws that have been passed and enacted in the US, to get a clearer image of how they work. At any level, particulate concentration in the air is contributed to by different human activities. The figure below illustrates the scenario.

Figure 1: Range of particle diameters from airborne dusts and fume(Smith,1989)

Statement of Purpose

Air pollution is a menace that has destabilized the agriculture and health of the people. For decades, nations have tried to come up with regulatory bodies to check on the air quality, but much has not been achieved. The most common impact in the recent time is the challenge of global warming, which has resulted in heightened temperatures, raising of sea level, among other climatic catastrophes. While developed nations have made steps ahead in managing the air pollution, the developing states still lag behind.  A country like China has a vast problem of air pollution, due to high population and increased industrialization, which predisposes the populace to the health complications. According to Butler et al. (2011), the commonly applied tools to clean up the environment are legal, economic and technological, which have not achieved the desired effect. However, a more defined and impactful approach of using laws & regulation can offer a solution to air pollution. This research will critically discuss and evaluate the suitability of the three acts. The case study of Kuwait will be selected, determine if some of the parameters of the major pollutants are exceeded, and hence shedding light to understanding whether the laws & regulations would offer a long-lasting solution.

The Clean Air Act(CAA)

The act which was passed in the year 1970, was in response to the increased fears of states neglecting their mandate of environmental protection and the increased activism againstair pollution. The enactment was also fueled by worries that industries would face out the state’s directives, of protecting the immediate environment from where they operate. As a result, CAA was put in place, as a way to control both the states and the individualsfrom emitting wastes into the air. According to Schreiber et al. (2017), it is regarded as cooperation by all levels of governments in different countries, to ensure that atmosphere is protected against the harmful gases, whose effects are experienced globally.

The critical components of the CAA entailed the administration to identify the major pollutants in their respective states. Among the major ones were carbon oxides, nitrogen oxides, ozone among others, which were perceived to have a negative implication on the environment.  Buekens (2008) conducted a study on the atmosphericcompositions and found out that carbon oxides played a significant role, in altering the ozone. This study confirmed the earlier speculations that emissions of the carbon rendered the quality of air low. Second, the act mandated the states to develop implementation plan, of how to handle the detected pollutants. Each state had to form a committee, whose role was to come up with workable recommendations, and later recombined with other nation’s suggestions, to come up with a standard guideline to regulate air pollution. In the same vein, the law had a provision of countries of developing new source performance standards. According to this section, source reduction such as minimizing the number of vehicles manufactured in a given year was to be enacted, as a way of regulating emissions. Finally, the act provided emission standards for compounds that are regarded as hazardous such as benzene.

Instruments used in The Clean Air Act (CAA)

For the policy to execute its mandate of protecting the air and hence promoting the health of the people, three instruments were used. One is technology standard, which compels the industries and any other significant pollutants to detail the equipment and processes that would contribute to compliance. Before the act was passed, most of the companies operated in an open market, where environmental concerns were not taken seriously. As interest to compete with others in the market formed the major plan in their strategic plan, the corporate social responsibility such as minimizing air pollution was ignored.  The requirement, therefore, compelled the major players- government and private sectors to detail the process of production. Such, it enabled the regulators to identify the source of pollution and give recommendations on how to avoid the same.

The second tool is the performance standard. It is an evaluation tool that is important in tracing the human activities that happen in an economy.  The appropriateness of performance standards helps in determining the maximum volume of emissions, that can be given in different units such as grams. The CAA, therefore, set the limits beyond which the pollutant should not exceed, otherwise they would destroy the atmospheric natural balance. The last one is cap-and-trade. Regarded by Sueyoshi & Goto(2009) as a strict policy to bar the states that fail to protect the environment, by cutting the trading relationship. The three instruments have managed in helping the countries, to control the key players in production and manufacturing, thus reducing the emissions. However, the developing nations continue to experience the challenges of air pollution, due to lack of execution of these suggestions in the different sectors of the economy.   The table below illustrates some of the instrument used to manage the various sources of pollution(Buekens,2008).

Table 1: Policy Instruments(Buekens,2008)

From the table above, stationary sources are defined as the sections of the economy that produces pollutants, from their place of location. These include manufacturing and processing companies, mining among others. Similarly, mobile sources indicate anything that causes pollution over an extended distance, like the automobiles. The key features of the CAA are discussed below, that will help in understanding how the policy has enabled solve major air pollution challenges.

Key features of the CAA

The act that was formed in 1970and amended in the year 1990, and stricter laws were included. The final copy encompassed all the major pollutants, which have adverse effects on the air, and subequally to the health of the populace. The first element was reducing the acid rain. Sueyoshi & Goto (2009) in his research noted that acid rain is contributed to by oxides of sulfur and nitrogen. In their primary form, the gases have not majoreffects but combining with atmospheric water results to sulfuric acid and nitric acid respectively. This contributes to acid rain, that causing corrosion and kills flora and fauna.  In the same vein, Richardson (2011) affirmed that about two-thirds of the sulfur oxide gases emitted in the United States come from power plants and major source of nitrogen oxides are from automobiles. In the year 1990, the CAA set the permanent cap for power producing companies, and imposed maximum emissions required for sulfur and nitrogen oxide gases. To further enhance its effectiveness, the power plants were required to submit the releases of the said gases four times in a year to EPA, and it was observed that the SOx and NOx emissionswere reduced by 7 million tons (equivalent to 40% below the 1980 figures).

According to Buekens (2008), regulations have a more significant impact in ensuring that environmental protection is respected in every nation. As it can be observed in the previous paragraph, the US was able to curtail the negative implication of sulfur and nitrogen oxides emitted by power plants, by imposing fines for defaulting the set standards. In retrospect, similar strategies can be employed by most industrialized developing nations such as China.

The research conducted by Butler et al. (2011), illustrated that the major air pollutants are oxides of sulfur, nitrogen and carbon monoxide. These gases are of considerable interest, due to their contribution to global warming. In his study, he explained that the atmosphere is protected from the dangerous UV radiation, by a layer of ozone. The greenhouse gases react with the ozone, thus resulting inthe disappearance of the protective blanket. This description leads to the second component of the CAA, which was cleaning the commonly observed air pollutants. The policy set the standards, beyond which the pollutants could not be exceed. Disrespecting this law, could result in fines, and regular monitoring ensured that the cities managed the pollutants. Every state was mandated to come up with a plan, that would ensure the key players in the economy such as processing and manufacturing industries adhered to the standards.  Buekens (2008) proposes that it is difficult to eliminate the pollutants in the air. In his study, he continues to explain that the only option that can be achieved is reducing the emissions and estimating the safe quantities that are allowable. To achieve this, the various governments should come up with a robust environmental body, that is well equipped with scientists who cananalyze the sampled air.The approach would help in making decisions based on facts (figures recorded from analytical instruments) rather than speculations.  Similarly, Richardson (2011) is of the idea that most of the air pollutants cannot be detected by naked eyes.  The aided analysis is, therefore, an appropriate option to deal with the challenges of particulate matter in the air.

Furthermore, protecting stratospheric ozone is another significant component that is covered under CAA.  In the year 1990, another incorporation was done, involving protecting the ozone that is located about ten miles from the earth surface. While the ozone in the atmosphere is destructive and harmful to living things, the stratospheric one shield the people from the harmful UV rays.Study conducted by Green et al. (2002) noted that release of pollutants into the air, has an effect of the gradual destruction of this shield, and it was projected that the future catastrophes contributed to by this phenomenon would be huge. To avert the impeding problems as a result of destroyed ozone, the CAA set the operating permits. The various nations were required to monitor the nature of pollutants emitted into the air, the extent of spread, and plans to minimize further destructions.The figure below illustrates the concentrations of Sulphur dioxides in different countries, that made CAA effective in controlling the spread of pollution

Figure 2: Concertation of Sulphur dioxides in different countries(Knox et al.,2012)

National Ambient Air Quality Standard(NAAQS)

The CAA Act required the EPA to set the national ambient air quality standards to protect the environment from the hazardous gases released by industries and other human activities. According to this provision, the standardswere segregated into two categories. The first one included a primarymeasure that aimed to protect public health like the people suffering from asthma, children and others. The second category comprised of secondary standard, entailing protection of the public welfare among them being mitigating damage of vegetation, and reducing the fog.

One of the leading pollutants that causes a lot of damages to the people is the release of lead. According to the study conducted by Sueyoshi & Goto (2009), he noted that this heavy metal has considerable negative implications for the health of children. He identified that inhaling the fumes of lead results to mental retardation, and also results in blood diseases such as leukemia. The extreme of its effect is so severe, and the use of the metal in various manufacturing industries have reduced considerably.This has been enacted by strict policies regarding the use of the lead, and different countries have prohibited its use. For example, lead water pipes are no longer in use and have been replaced by PVC, which has no harmful effects tohuman beings.To come up with a solution and point of reference, the following limits were set for the gases that were identified harmful to the atmosphere. The table illustrates the average number of hours and the required limit of emission in the form ofconcentration (Sueyoshi & Goto,2009).

Table 2: Pollutants Limits (Sueyoshi & Goto,2009)

The six key pollutants have frequently been discussed in environmental forums, for they constitute the highest percentage of air pollution. Both developing and developed nations have not been able to completely adhere to the set standards, because the widening trading blocs set competition, hence production and manufacturing activities continues to grow. Also, the adoption of modern technology which reduces pollution is expensive for countries that are not independent.  Following the parameters that were identified is a sure way to deal with the problem of pollution from the six gases. This can be enhanced through the partnering of government and private sectors, to regularly check the quality of emissions. In the same vein, the core source of the stated gases should be made aware of the possible penalties, in case the company is found breaking the set standards.Research conducted by Buekens (2008) involving the ways nations can improve the cleanliness of the air identified that lack of cooperation among different players in the economy lowered the achievement of the required standards. The study evaluated the effectiveness of the laws and environmental policies of the developing and developed nations and concluded that enforcing the available laws could help in reducing the spread of pollution in the future. Therefore, public awareness is necessary, as a first strategy to help them realize the six major pollutant gases.

Hazardous Air Pollutants

They are classified as toxins that are emitted into the atmosphere, due to the various anthropogenic activities. The CAA identified 188 components that are classified as toxics to the environment. Among them are benzene, mostly emitted from the gasoline, perchloroethylene from the dry cleaning equipment and methylene from the industrial solvents. Conferring to Schreiber et al. (2017), consolidation of emissions from the stated sources, has a significant adverse effects. Although the problems cannot be manifested immediately, the long-term effects disable the nation’s health system, due to increased cases of chronic conditions such as cancer.

Hazardous air pollutants are emitted from different facilities such as automobiles, industries among others. To have a wider overview of this phenomenon, the sources are classified into three categories. One is significant sources that entail emissions from the industries. Manufacturing and processing industries pose a major threat to the economy because the raw materials and solvents that are used produce the effluentswhich are chemically unsafe when they get into contact with the human body. Some of the chemicals are cancerous, and continued release lowers the health stability of a nation. The second one is the area source. It comprises of smaller facilities such as cleaning equipment among others. Although the pollution from these categories might appear minimal, consolidation from varied facilities under this classification can collectively be of concern. The last one is a mobile source, encompassing automobiles and non-roads equipment like construction machines.

An occupational study conducted by Bueken (2008) identified that high exposure to the hazardous air pollutants degraded the productivity of the employees, and affected them for a lifetime. The observation is along the EPA evaluation, which highlighted that some of the emissions such as benzene, toluene, chromium among others are carcinogenic. The recommendations put forward by EPA advocates for minimal or no contact, as well as setting standards beyond which the responsible sources should never exceed. Estimation of hazardous emissions are estimated from the monitoring and modelled data. EPA ensures that the safe limits for the chlorinated carbons, VOCs or compounds of toxic metals are within the safe concentration for the benefit of the populace.

Although the literaturehas argued on the destructive effects of the chlorinated carbons, VOCs or compounds of toxic metals, the facts about the same have not been completely proven. Butler et al. (2011) noted that reliance on past research data, might not solve the current problems. Due to improved technology, the production and manufacturing systems have reduced the emissions. Hence the previous assertions regarding hazardous emissions have lost impact.The importance of EPA is listing the major hazardous compounds, therefore, can be used to detect the presence of such components, and caution the sources.

Knox et al. (2002) affirmed that the concerns about air pollution couldbe dealt with, by first controlling the hazardous compounds that have a direct impact on human health. The government’s major goal, is to ensure that the citizens’ health is monitored. Irrespective of having policies and laws in place, analyzing the air composition would help to generate data on the cleanliness of the air. This way, the recommendationsare made on where to improve and know the companies acting against the set standards.

Application of Kuwait

Kuwait is a state in southern Asia, that is well endowed with oil reserves. Air pollution from this country is mostly contributed to by mining activities of petroleum products. Hence, the measure of particulate matter in the air is enormous, and emission of gases such as Sulphur oxides, and carbon oxides are high. The environmental protection agency in Kuwait, has set standards for regulating the maximumemission that is expected for pollutants, which has ensured that the health of the populace is well protected. Despite the challenges of monitoring the compliance, the government has to some extent been able to impose policies which curtail the oil mining companies to check on air pollution. Similarly, the manufacturing and processing sectors are regulated, and each player in the economy mandated to safeguard the immediate environment. To get a deeper insight regarding the case study of interest of concern, the map below shows the constituents if Kuwait.

Figure 3: The map of Kuwait

Kuwait air policies target to achieve various roles; oneis to reduce the emission from the industries. According to Wong et al. (2008), it was noted that about 50% of the Kuwait’s economy is supported by industries. The highest percentage comes from the petroleum industries, that mine the reserves in the country. Based on the study, the gases that are emitted account for sulphur dioxides and carbon dioxides, which are classified as greenhouse gases. Also, the air quality policy aims to minimize emissions from transport and burnings. Therefore, the concern of environmental pollution in Kuwait is an issue that needs to be addressed, by applying the modern ways of dealing with air pollutants. To shed insight on the nature of available contaminants, it is essential to study the table shown below (Gauderman et al.,2004).

Table 3: Major pollutants standards in Kuwait (Gauderman et al.,2004)

The research conducted by Hedley et al. (2002) illustrated that dealing with air pollution involves both the governments and private sectors. He noted that the cooperation between the two would lower the menace of air pollution to a level that is set by the regulatory bodies. Despite the setting of the maximum limits of emissions, industries in Kuwait continues to go against the policies, since the government has failed to treat the issue of air pollution seriously. One of the strategies that can be effective in curtailing the industries from harmful emissions is imposing hefty fines if found guilty. In the US, the CAA compelled the EPA to give a close monitor of the energy producing companies, for they accounted for the highest percentage of greenhouse gases emitted. They had to submit the reports to the EPA after every four months, to show what they emitted and the strategies they employed to minimize pollution. This way, air pollution was reduced by 60%, an approach that can also be used in Kuwait (Rich et al.,2009). It is also important to note that Kuwait pollution is largely associated with VOC’s that comes from the huge traffic. The local sources are the highest contributor to this scenario, hence the need to curtail the activities of human beings such as limiting the number of vehicles in the city. The figure below illustrates the phenomenon.

Figure 4: Hierarchical dendogram for measured pollutants ;the distances reflect the degree of correlation between differentelements(Al-Awadhi,2014).

As a petroleum-rich country, a lot of companies that engage in oil mining such as Kuwait Oil Tanker company, Kuwait Aviation Oil Fueling Company among others, have not fully embraced the need of protecting the environment.  Observed by Salem et al. (2009) corporate social responsibility should center the strategies of any organization, especially the ones dealing with products, that might emit harmful compounds into the atmosphere.  Alongside his observation, Rickett (1995) supported his idea by affirming that the foreign companies get attracted to set their operations in developing countries, to exploit their resources and fail to comply with the environmental policies. Although it can be argued that the government fails on its mandate to protect the citizens from such businesses, the individual investments should have a way of ensuring the surrounding environment is safe for living. The common sources of pollutants in Kuwait are shown below.

Figure 5:Sources of pollutants to Kuwait city(Al-Awadhi,2014)

NAAQS established the key six pollutants that are a threat to human beings as carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, ozone, suspended particles,and lead. Considering that Kuwait’s dominant form of economic activity is petroleum mining, the indicated pollutants have a highconcentration. Research conducted by Ruangkawsakun & Thepanondh (2014)showed that the companies that mine oil in this state have been able to monitor the six contaminants, and the limits are within the KEPA standards. However, it was noted that other sectors such as transport had a more substantial contribution and even exceeded the set standards. The phenomenon, therefore, gives the regulatory bodies to shift their focus on other economic activities that might be harming the environment, instead of targeting only one area- oil mining.  Conducting air quality analysis in general, would offer accurate figures of air pollution, hence come up with the recommendations on how to minimize the same.

Volatile organic compounds are another group of pollutants, that are rarely detected, but have negative consequences to the health of the people. They include benzene, toluene among others, which Rickett (1995) noted that they accumulate slowly into the body, and finally manifest as complex diseases. In a bid to establish the safety of the Kuwait citizens against the impacts of these harmful components, Hui et al. (2018) conducted a survey, to determine the presence of the VOCs in the households. It was noted that the levels that were detected did not exceed the set limit by American Hygienist Association. However, the cumulative effect for example when drained into the water bodies can have broad implication on the health of the people. Also, Monn (2001) propounded that the petroleum companies ensured that the emission of VOCs was regularly monitored and was within the safe limits.

Although the data illustrates that Kuwait has managed to control some of the pollutants such as VOCs, the increasing wake of industrialization raised the concern of the state’s ability to maintain its air quality standards (Wallace et al.,1990). More industries are being set up because people have good returns from petroleum products. Also, the challenge of increasing population impacts pressure on available resources, hence the company’s interests shifts to meeting the growing demand, rather than putting the corporate social responsibility on the front. Such, there is a need to amend the Kuwait environmental policies, to cater to the emerging form of pollution. An extensive covering regulation would impede the activities of both the individual and businesses from adding more contamination into the air.

Air pollution is a pressing issue, not only for Kuwait but also for other states.  Due to the changes in technology and surging population, the combination of emissions from the industries and anthropogenic activities poses a danger to the atmosphere (Wallace et al.,1990). The regulations and policies put in place by KEPApromote the concerns of the environment, hence the need to support them and finance their operations. The following paragraphs will discuss how nations can protect ecosystems.

General ways to reduce air pollution

Despite the available regulation and policies that have been set by the regulatory bodies, it is important to seek other avenues to solve the challenge of air pollution. For quite some time, policies have generated considerable effects in mitigating the menace of pollution. However, these standards are applied when the problems have already happened. According to Monn (2001), the best alternative is solving the problem before inception.

One way is to minimize the use of automobiles. Petroleum products have for long been classified as the number one contributor to the carbon monoxide. This is one of the dangerous gas when emitted into the atmosphere, as it is associated with acid rain. The study conducted by Gourdji (2018) noted that automobiles contribute to around 70% of the sulfur and carbon monoxide gases, that blankets the atmosphere leading to global warming. Although the contribution from individual automobile might appear minimal, consolidation of the emissions compounds the problem. As a way to deal with the challenges of global warming and cases of increased particulate matter, the transport sector should aim at reducing the number of vehicles on the roads. This can be achieved by encouraging people to lessen the use of personal cars and use the public transport system.

In line with automobiles, Googlecars is an alternative. These vehicles are already in use in countries such as the U.S.A, and they utilize modern technology to drive around the cities. Tesla is one of the major producers of Google cars, and it’s projected that by the year 2030, the technology will have spilled to other countries(Monn,2001). One of the advantages of adopting such a system is reduced emission of dangerous gases, and even minimize the traffic, which is the primary cause of enlarged emissions. Although the approach is environmentally friendly, Reinert et al. (1982)are of the idea that developing countries would find it hard to adopt the technology due to lack of enough capacity to handle complicated systems. Also, the lack of enough resources to run such a project lowers the ability to manage environmental issues technologically. In retrospect, charging cars, that do not rely on petroleum products is the best option to solve the problem of toxic gases in the air.

In the same vein, Dales et al. (2004) noted that plants are natural filters, that can be utilized in situations where modern technology has not taken precedence. Naturally, plants canuse carbon dioxide in the air for photosynthesis and release oxygen that human beings breathe. A study conducted by Monn (2001) illustrated that people who lived in rural areas were healthier than those living in urban settings. Based on his argument, he proposed that the rural settings have less pollution, and if any, the plantations can purify the air.In contrast, living in the cities exposed the people to different emissions, from industries and garbages, hence compounding the level of pollution. Planting of trees, however, would not solve the problem of pollution wholly, because towns cannot be converted into forests. Gourdji (208) argues that the strategy should be complemented with another way of environmental protection such as enhancing garbage collection in towns and setting industries in places that are well covered with vegetation.

Moreover, Wallace et al. (1980) discussed that electricity production is the massive emitter of nitrogen oxides and sulfur oxides. The activity raises the ground level of ozone, thus exposing the people to the problems of direct UV radiation. On a later time, Rich et al. (2009) noted that electricity could be supplemented by solar power, which is friendly in terms of the environment. According to his research, he noted that about 60% of the solar energy goes into waste, and the nations have not invested in tapping this power. As opposed to traditional solar panels that were large, and produced less power, the modern ones can tap energy and store for a more extended period. This is one of the options that countries receiving high temperatures can integrate rather than relying on electricity.

Furthermore, lead is another dangerous element, that has fatal effects on human beings. Until 1990, when the CAA amended phasing out leaded fuels, the impacts of the metal traces had affected the children, in many ways, including brain retardation and physical deformities (Salem et al.,2009). The regulation helped to safeguard the health of the people, but other sources of lead were not fully closed. The lead paint is still in use, especially in painting the toys, and unknowingly the people use them in their houses. To ensure that the products used at home are free from such toxic metal, it is paramount for the regulatory bodies to check the components of every painted product before releasing to the market. Air quality index as suggested by US-EPA details the health effects to the human beings, which helps Kuwait to ensure the air pollution is largely controlled is shown below.

Table 4: AQI range, description and corresponding category codes suggested (Al-Shayji et al.,2008)

Whereas controlling the dust is difficult, every person should take the role of ensuring that the living area is free from suspended particles. In a typical day, the dust could come from construction sites, industries, and even the farms. The mixing of these components results in more complex substances, that when inhaled could contribute to complications such as respiratory problems. One way to trace the composition of the particulate matter is complete assay analysis, which involves testing of the air using specialized spectroscopic techniques such as Gas Chromatography. This gives the percentages of possible contaminants and hence form recommendations based on figures.  Research conducted by Monn (2001) illustrated that agriculture is one of the contributors to the suspended particles, either in the form of aerosols or soil particles. The phenomenon is rarely taken into consideration, and the environmental regulatory bodies rush to implicate the large industries while failing to offer advice to farmers. To deal with air pollution, therefore, requires creating a familiarization stage, where the people are educatedon which activities results inpollution.

Recommendations

The suggestion on how to improve the quality of air is creating an awareness program, either through holding seminars or printing books that are distributed to people, exposing to them the sources of pollutants. Rickett (1995) noted that most of the people act out of lack of knowledge. For example, it is difficult to establish the lead content in household products such as painted toys, thus the need to inform the people on what to check out when doing shopping.  Also, the major industries such as petroleum mining companies should be advised to put the corporate social responsibility as their priority. This can be achieved by detailing the actual fines if the company violates the set limits of emissions. Similarly, the regulation can be accompanied by a requirement to submit a report on air pollution monitoring, which should be done to a minimum of four times a year. A country like Kuwait, which was the main case study in this paper can benefit from such a strategy, as most of the pollutants in this country emanate from the oil products.

Correspondingly, reduction of traffic by promoting walking and cycling. Well-constructed roads should have spaces for people who like cycling and walking lawns. As noted by Rich et al. (2009) automobiles have increased at a rapid rate, and the number is projected to grow in the future. The reasons behind the phenomenon are: improved lifestyle and the need for luxury. As a consequence, more carbon oxides and sulfur oxides are increased, thus heightening the challenges of air pollution. An alternative to increased traffic could be walking, or cycling to places of work. Among other options, the above-stated recommendations would save on the cost of managing the environment and improve the health standards in a country.

Conclusion

Air pollution, as stated earlier, is a challenge that is affecting all nations. The center point of discussion in the UN is global warming that has continued to cause destruction in the world. Among the challenges of global warming are catastrophes, raising of sea levels, diminishing of ice, tornadoes,and others. The impact of these natural phenomenon contributed to by the human activities lowers productivity and increases the management cost. Therefore, ensuring the air is clean is for the benefit of the people. CAA, mandates the EPS to enact the regulations and laws, that certifies the industries and individuals do not emit dangerous components into the atmosphere. in the United States, the provisions have worked due to the cooperation of the government and private sectors, but the major challenge is in the developing nations. However, if the same policies are instigated in other areas, such as Kuwait, the pollution from the petroleum products would be reduced and managed with much ease. The proposed observations to controllingair pollution are enacting public participation and setting stricter laws for companies that violate the established standard. Similarly, the general ways to minimize the emissions are planting of trees, encouraging the use of public transport, monitoring products laced with lead and reduction of dust. In the future, the modern ways to deal with air pollution should be investigated, which would integrate recent technology to give real data about air degradation.

References

Al-Awadhi, J. M. (2014). Measurement of Air Pollution in Kuwait City Using Passive Samplers. Atmospheric and Climate Sciences04(02), 253-271.

Al-Shayji, K., Lababidi, H.M., Al-Rushoud, D. and Al-Adwani, H. (2008) Development of a Fuzzy Air Quality Performance Indicator. Kuwait Journal of Science and Engineering, 35, 101-126

Buekens, A. (2008). Book Review: Moving to Markets in Environmental Regulation. Lessons from Twenty Years of Experience by Jody Freeman and Charles D. Kolstad. International Journal of Environment and Pollution35(2/3/4), 387.

Butler, T. J., Vermeylen, F. M., Rury, M., Likens, G. E., Lee, B., Bowker, G. E., & McCluney, L. (2011).“Response of Ozone and Nitrate to Stationary Source NOx Emission Reductions in the EasternUSA.” Atmospheric Environment, 455, 1084-1094.

Dales, R., Burnett, R. T., Smith-Doiron, M., Stieb, D. M., & Brook, J. R. (2004). Air Pollution and Sudden Infant Death Syndrome. PEDIATRICS, 113(6), e628-e631.

Gauderman, W. J., Avol, E., Gilliland, F., Vora, H., Thomas, D., Berhane, K., … Peters, J. (2004). The Effect of Air Pollution on Lung Development from 10 to 18 Years of Age. New England Journal of Medicine, 351(11), 1057-1067.

Gourdji, S. (2018). Review of plants to mitigate particulate matter, ozone as well as nitrogen dioxide air pollutants and applicable recommendations for green roofs in Montreal, Quebec. Environmental Pollution, 241, 378-387.

Green, L. C., Crouch, E. A., Ames, M. R., & Lash, T. L. (2002). What’s Wrong with the National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) for Fine Particulate Matter (PM2.5)? Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology35(3), 327-337.

Hedley, A. J., Wong, C., Thach, T. Q., Ma, S., Lam, T., & Anderson, H. R. (2002). Cardiorespiratory and all-cause mortality after restrictions on sulphur content of fuel in Hong Kong: an intervention study. The Lancet, 360(9346), 1646-1652.

Hui, L., Nelson, E. A., Wong, M., Chung, T. W., Lee, K. K., Leung, G. M., & Schooling, C. M. (2018). The Association of Intergenerational Mismatch With Adiposity and Blood Pressure in Childhood and Adolescence. Journal of Adolescent Health, 62(1), 100-106.

Knox, A., Evans, G. J., Lee, C. J., & Brook, J. R. (2012). Air Pollution air pollution Monitoring air pollution monitoring and Sustainability air pollution sustainability. Encyclopedia of Sustainability Science and Technology, 167-203. doi:10.1007/978-1-4419-0851-3_373.

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Dissertation Survey Help

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500 words
We'll send you the first draft for approval by September 11, 2018 at 10:52 AM
Total price:
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How to place an order:

  1. Select your academic level and the number of pages and pick a desired deadline

  2. Then press “Order Now”

  3. Add your instructions

  4. Choose writer’s category

  5. Make a payment

  6. Get your paper before the deadline

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