The Impact of Effective Business Processes on Service Delivery In A Selected Municipality

ABSTRACT

The Emalahleni Local Community has faced some crisis in accordance with the waste management and market. The outcomes included poor effectiveness of the operations and delivering the services. However, in accordance with the research objectives, which were divided into two parts, which are generally objective and specific objectives. Research questions were made accordingly, and the literature review is carried out accordingly. Literature review helped in finding out that the organization should focus on the services of their deliveries and operations as the rate of waste generation has been increasing as the population is also increasing. The tiers that are to be considered for the organizational effectiveness in its operations and deliveries are discussed as well. The data collection process includes the qualitative method in which interviews and focus groups. Secondary resources, such as journal articles are used. Total of 200 participants are selected for an interview, and all were professionals of municipal organization. Data is coded and analyzed using narrative analysis methods.

      KEYWORDS: Business process, Service delivery, project management, performance indicators, customer satisfaction.

CHAPTER 1

INTRODUCTION

The paper is focused on the impact of the business operations on the service deliveries of the organization. When it comes to the basic needs of people or the entire community, there are municipalities that are responsible for the provision of basic needs. Municipality is considered as a sphere which responds to the basic needs of the communities and ensures the provision of the basic services in an effective manner. Municipality ensures the provision of the basic services to be provided to the community based on their basic needs. These basic needs include electricity, water supply, waste management, wastewater services, clean roads and streets, healthcare services and other related aspects that are linked to the basic needs of life. There is a huge impact on the business operations that are carried within the municipality on the service deliveries. Emalahleni Local Municipality, which is located in the Nkangala District Municipality of the province known as Mpumalanga in South Africa (Municipalities of South Africa, 2019).

Emalahleni Local Municipality focuses on ensuring the provision of the basic needs and services for the communities. However, based on the basic needs, there are some many requirements and on growing demands in the basic needs of the communities. The major focus of the project is to identify the impact of the effective business processes on service delivery. As service deliveries include various aspects of life due to requirements of the basic needs and are the prime duty of the municipality, the literature review is carried accordingly in the project. The literature review is focused on the different aspects that are linked with the service deliveries and the business processes or operations that are carried accordingly. Various aspects are covered regarding the impact of effective business processes on the delivery service. There are some challenges and problems that are identified and discussed in the literature review accordingly and what and how the processes are carried in accordance with the delivery services of the basic needs. Challenges in carrying the business operations, limitations, problems and the way of dealing and generating effective business operations for the delivery services to be better and effective is discussed in the paper.

The municipal business model of the municipality is discussed, and aspects related to the business model of the municipality are included as well. Key partners, cost structure, activities that are included in accordance to the model, key resources, value proposition, customer relationship, channels and such other aspects related to the business process model are included as well. A municipal business process is discussed accordingly in the paper in order to identify the processes that are taking place within the organization and are shaping the further processes accordingly that holds a direct influence and impact on the service deliveries. As the selected municipality is the Emalahleni Local Municipality, the areas that are explored in the paper are centric to the effectiveness of its business operations and impact on the service deliveries one way or another. The processes that are included in the formation of further business operations or processes to be performed are also being laid emphasis on. This is done by having a deeper look at the organizational activities that are performed by the experts in their individualistic area of skills. The research objectives and research questions are given accordingly.

Business Model and Processes

Municipal Business Model

Key Partners

The key partners of the Emalahleni Local Municipality are the communities that are linked with it. In other words, the neighbouring communities are the key partners. Besides this, the state agencies and the county are and the local authorities utilities and transit.

Cost Structure

The cost structure of the municipality includes maintenance of sewer, water and other linked sites such as landfills and recycling equipment and tools.

Contractual work and legal work are included in the cost structure as there are some legal and contractual works to be taken care of in accordance with the legal rules and standards to meet.

Pensions and payrolls are also included in the cost structure of the organization for its employees. Other services for employees and their satisfaction are also included.

Key Activities

  • The key activities of the municipality include the following
  • Provide electricity services to the households
  • Water supply services
  • Water waste management
  • Sustainable mining
  • Recycling of the waste.
  • Manage waste generation.
  • Build and maintain the infrastructure that is sewer, water, sanitation and etc.
  • Provide various services regarding waste management, such as waste collection, trash pickup, and different engagement programs accordingly.
  • Other basic needs and basic services are included in the activities

Key Resources

The key resources include the following

  • Enabling legislation
  • Municipal bonds
  • State revenue sharing
  • Representative Democracy

Value Proposition

The value proposition of the organization includes the accountability of the business and its services that are being delivered. The transparency as their method of work, processes that are carried in the organization and its deliveries are transparent. Excellence and integrity are included in order to realize the organizational mission and vision. Accessibility and being innovative is included in its values.

Customer Relationships

The Emalahleni Local Municipality adopted a positive and continuous messaging with its customer to enhance their relationship in a better way. A cleaner environment means positive customer perceptions and strong relationship. Zoning violations are included in customer relationships.

Channels

Attracting/building strong amenities

Positive representation

Services and their provisions

Maintenance and care of the infrastructure. The aspects of the infrastructure are discussed in the above section.

Customer Segment

Property owners, residents and business owners are included in the customer segment. However, the mentioned customer segments also include different or multiple groups that are of various or different demographics.

Revenue Streams

Service fees, funds from government and grants are the revenue streams (Prezi, 2019).

Municipal Business Processes

Like all the municipalities, the IDP preparation is considered as the core document, which plays a key role in forming a business plan and the operations and processes to be carried accordingly (Molepo & Maleka, 2018). Not only this, but it also helps in providing a clear vision for the municipality to see themselves where they are standing in the near future or where they want to stand in the upcoming future. In other words, it includes the business plan and operations to be performed covering different aspects of the organization. A proposed business processes plan, or business plan is included, which is in accordance with the Municipal Systems Act 32 of 2000 (Simon, 2018). The resources and capacity realigned with the plan implementation, the framework is budget based and is compatible with provincial and national development.

When it comes to the Municipal business processes that are to be included in it and the services deliveries to be made effectively and include a significant impact, it is necessary for every municipality to clearly outline their business operation model of responsibility and roles to be played from top to the bottom of the organization. This ensures the services to be provided accordingly in order to meet the standards in accordance with the policies of the municipalities and to provide services and carry operations to ensure effective service deliveries. In this case, the roles and processes that are carried accordingly in the Emalahleni Local Municipality are given on the basis of the expertise, skills and knowledge that are required and to be included in each of the areas of operations that are to be performed.

Municipal Council

The consideration and adaptation of the process plan, approving the proposed IDP and its adoption are the operations and processes that are included. Besides this, the municipal council of the Emalahleni local municipality approves the budget before the financial year starts, during the approval, necessary changes are to be made accordingly in the budget plan (Municipal Affairs, 2018).

Executive Mayor

The operations and processes that are carried in accordance with the standards and to meet the requirement of an effective business process include consideration and recommendation for the processes plan. This process plan plays a key role in performing effective processes and to provide effective delivery of the services. Overall management is shaped accordingly. Identify priorities regarding community, budget implementation and service delivery approval are done by the executive mayor. Tabling the budget timetable before at least 10 months of the new financial year to start and submission of the annual reports is the process and activities that are delivered by the executive mayor in accordance to the standards to meet and provide effective services and deliveries (DKM, 2017).

Municipal Manager

The processes and the tasks that are performed in the organization by Municipal manager includes preparation of amendments, strategies and plans, undertaking overall management and coordination, ensure appropriate involvement, day to day management, ensuring the planning process as participatory and that the strategies and their implementation are aligned and response to the comments accordingly (Fezile Dabi, 2015).

Senior Officials and Directors

The tasks and processes in regard to specific expertise and skills are performed by senior officials and directors of the municipality. This includes providing operational and budgetary information, responsible for preparing amendments, for providing technical information during strategic engagements to ensure the effective output by making service deliveries effective. Not only has this, but to be involved in the planning processed completely and fully.

The operations, processes and activities that are discussed in accordance to the role that is played by the experts as discussed in the municipality are the key reasons for the deliverance of the services according to the standards. The reason for describing the operations, their planning and the services to be provided in the context of the individuals or officials of the municipality is that it identifies the skills, expertise and knowledge about certain process and operations in accordance to the objectives and goals of the organization. Not only this, it holds a significant value in terms of identifying that how the strategic plans for the operations and the processes are carried in accordance to the service delivery and its effectiveness within the Emalahleni Local Municipality. Therefore, it was necessary to identify each actor that plays a role in the area of his or her expertise in order to ensure and provide better and effective service delivery.

When it comes to the budget of the municipality, a financial plan which includes the budget projection for a minimum of three years is prepared. In this case, the municipality budget must be informed by the DPI that is adopted. The approval of the budget is carried and done by the municipal council, and if required, then adjustments are made. Then the executive mayor implements the budget plan accordingly. Public participation is carried in order to include feedbacks and to engage the public by various activities. The public participation in the municipality is planned before the budget adaptation. Public participation is held in the form of meeting and sometimes is for consulting. However, the role in managing and planning public participation is done by the executive mayor, IDP manager or the speaker of the municipality.

People in Municipality

Leadership, Accountability and Stakeholders

When it comes to leadership, there are various studies and researches that have laid emphasis on the leadership aspects. However, the leadership identified in the Emalahleni Local Municipality is poor and therefore, includes poor service delivery. It is identified that the Emalahleni Local Municipality is struggling in order to include the services that are good, and the service delivery becomes better and effective. This struggling of the Municipality identifies the lack of effective leadership and therefore, the effective and better outcomes in terms of greater and effective service delivery (Lydia, 2017). Due to poor leadership, the accountability is not limited only for the authorities, but the impact also is occurring on the employees of the Emalahleni Local Municipality. In this case, the employees are held accountable for not performing well enough related to their jobs. This further increases the poor service delivery (Nel, et al., 2016). Inadequate staffing is the case due to poor leadership as staffing is not done on the basis of the merit, and this further contributes to the lacking in capacity. In short, the leadership in the Emalahleni Local Municipality is poor and is a major reason for the ineffective and poor service delivery (Mmela, 2017).

The stakeholders of the Emalahleni Local Municipality includes local communities, neighbour communities, residents and people or group of people that are in contact with the areas where the municipality is providing its services. Key partners, as discussed in the above sections, are also can be counted as the stakeholders of the Emalahleni Local Municipality (LGA, 2019).

System / Techniques

The system of Emalahleni Local Municipality is based on a provincial and national framework, and the priorities are carried out accordingly. The techniques are used in accordance with the nature of the services and its deliveries to be made. This also includes planning and development in the Emalahleni Local Municipality under the framework that is applied uniformly in the organizations. The system of Emalahleni Local Municipality is based on the partnership; this partnership is with their social partners and other related to such aspects. The system is formed in accordance with the vision of the municipality. One of the major techniques that are used in the Municipality is of ensuring excellence and innovation. Implementing innovational ideas and promoting it is one of the major technique. Other techniques include accessibility, Integrity and transparency, which is another major technique that is used in the organization. This forms a system which is completely based on and is in accordance with the values of the organization and its aim and goals (Emalahleni Local Municipality, 2019).

Service Delivery

The service delivery of the Emalahleni Local Municipality includes water service delivery, Electricity service delivery, sewerage and sanitation service delivery and solid waste service deliveries. However, not only this, the service deliveries include various factors that are the focus of the municipality to include. These are the core values of the municipality, which includes transparency in what the municipality does (ELM, 2019). This includes the lack of any kind hidden agenda and what the municipality does is clearly visible as all the information is available publically and people are engaged in and participate in it to some extent. The accountability of the services and their deliveries are the part of the municipality as the evaluation will be based on the performance and takes complete responsibility in this case. The practices in managing and achieving results are the part of the municipality in service delivery and are considered as the value of the municipality and are considered excellent. Consistency and honesty are included in the processes and services that are carried and are provided but the municipality as a part of their value, which is integrity (Transparency International, 2018). Approaching the municipality is easier and accessing their services as well, which identifies that eh service delivery includes accessibility as are easier to reach out and to approach. The adaptation to the changes in the process is the part of the services deliveries and one of the core value of the municipality as being innovative (Emalahleni Municipality, 2019).

PROBLEM STATEMENT

As a problem statement is a clear and concise summary of the issues that are existing in an organization and describes it or addresses it clearly, it is necessary to have a clear and deeper look at the impact or influence of the effective business processes on the service deliveries of the selected municipality. Emalahleni Local Municipality has seen some failures. Being centric to service deliveries of the basic needs of the community and the environmental sustainability and deriving each of the business operations in accordance with it includes some challenges as well. This, although sketches the complexities for the organization as it identifies that the effectiveness of the operations of the organization and its deliveries are not effective enough to keep the aim and goal of the organization as promised. This impacts the overall operations that are carried out by the departments. The employees are also affected due to the outcomes that hold deviation from the aim and goals of the organization, which influence them badly. Therefore, it is necessary to focus on such aspects and underlying causes for the crisis that occurred as it would not only impact the organization and its effectiveness of the operations but also will affect its service deliveries. Besides this, the impact of leadership, management and other related aspects and areas that are linked with it and are having issues as discussed in the above sections are in need to be explored properly and concisely.

Based on the discussed facts, it is necessary to lay emphasis on the discussed aspects and cover all the interlinked or connected areas to the operations of the ELM and its effectiveness. It will help in identifying the underlying causes and factors that drive the organization towards failure or success and will also help in preventing it if failure is the possibility in regard to the basic service deliveries. while increasing the efficiency and effectiveness of operations of the business and its deliveries in basic needs like electricity, water, sanitation, waste management, leadership in the organization, wastewater management, service delivery issues, effective business processes and its alignment and business process management which has seen some poor outcomes as well. This crisis led towards some questions about the effectiveness of the business processes of the Emalahleni Local Municipality and the process deliveries that it provides. Therefore, the problem needs to be evaluated in accordance with the context. In this case, what are the underlying causes of the problems and failure of the ELM in various service delivery aspects, what the effectiveness of the business processes is and why the failure or the crisis occurred? What is the role of business processes in leading the organization towards the failure or in another case, effective outcomes? Why does it occur in the first place and how it can be solved as if failure is the case.

CHAPTER 2 RESEARCH ARTICLE

LITERATURE REVIEW

Concept of business process

A business process is basically guidelines which account for organization cost as well as efficiency for operations. The business process is the procedures which are present in all of the organization. The formal and informal process from operations, resources and service quality provide a lead towards the business process.

Concept of strategy

The strategy is defined as a comprehensive plan which is adopted by an organization in accounting for the service delivery. This includes the mission and objectives of the company regarding corporate and finical levels. Strategies are different on the base of objective and growth. One of the important examples of strategy is waste management regarding the context of municipal organization.

Concept of alignment

Alignment is considered as the agreement between strategy and the corporate level. This dictated the planning and implementation of the organization for customer requirements. One of the main advancements is based on the corporate goals of the organization.

Concept of service delivery

Service delivery defines the business classification where interaction between customers and service providers is analyzed for organization profit. Service delivery is based on increasing customer value. Every organization has principles, values and services where services are provided to targeted customers.

Service delivery of Municipality depends on the impact of business process and strategies. Municipal Association of Victoria has faced issues regarding the recycling of waste materials. The business system of the organization requires modification in order to improve service delivery and tackles with the primary issues of market failure. Knowledge about the waste generation process is important for rescue recovery. It also provides a key role in measurement for organization business policies.

A critical review of Research

Change management holds a significant value in terms of organizational processes and their effectiveness. It helps in adopting or transforming processes that are carried out in the organization in order to increase efficiency by enhancing the operations. Change management process holds a significant impact on the work and works related attitudes. The research of Skosana laid emphasis on the extent to which the change management impacts the efficiency and performance of employees in Emalahleni Local Municipality. The research contributes to examining an identification of the change management in the business processes and work-related attitudes of employees, which also affects the overall effectiveness of the business process and the service deliveries. The results of the study proved that change management processes that are included or implemented in the organization hold a significant impact on the business processes as it enhances the employee’s performance and behaviour positively at Emalahleni Local Community. Not only this, the recommendations were made to consider the change management processes as important ones to positively impact on the service delivery by enhancing the attitude of work of the employees. But, it is strongly advised to the senior management of the municipality to ensure proper communication during the implementation of the change management process (Skosana, 2018).

The basic services in Emalahleni Local Municipality like water and electricity that are to be provided as local governments are tasked to ensure their service deliveries in these areas of basic needs. The effective service deliveries are strongly dependent on the budgeting for the local governments. Mvuyisi Sibongile Mkhului sheds light on the decentralized budgeting and the local government equitable share (LGES) as it is the main allocation for ensuring the basic services that are required from and should be provided to the local communities. The author points out the role of the budgeting and shares and impact on the service deliveries of basic needs such as electricity and water. The budgeting issue can shape the business processes that are carried out accordingly to the availability of the resources or limitations, which holds a significant impact on service delivery. The growing demands and the insufficient funding from the Fiscus lead the local governments towards poor service delivery due to limitations and under-budgeting problems, which includes limited resources as compared to the demands. This identifies that the business process is affected by the budgeting and LGES as it is not sufficient for ensuring the basic services to be provided to the citizens by the local governments (April, 2016).

The Municipalities in the SA holds significant importance in ensuring the service deliveries of the basic needs or basic services. In other words, the municipalities in South Africa plays a pivotal role in the provision of the services that are the basic needs of the local communities. This requires the appropriate use of the available resources and spending efficiently. According to the study of Jugal Mahabir, the major problem that occurs in effective service deliveries is the inefficient spending of the fund by the local governments. This inefficiently spending of the funds affects and shapes the business operations and process accordingly and lead the overall service deliveries of the government towards failure in the service delivery.  The study carried by Jugal Mahabir examines the efficiency of the municipalities in technical ways by the use of disposable hull, which is nonparametric free.  The findings included that almost 10 of the municipalities were efficient while average efficiency score was almost from 41.9 per cent to 45.9 per cent and suggested that the municipalities can get the same results in their service deliveries with almost 49.9 per cent fewer resources (Mahabir, 2014).

Samuel Bogalebjapoo and Koma focused on the performances of the Municipalities in South Africa in providing the basic needs to the local communities. These local needs include electricity, water supply, wastewater management, clean streets, health care, transport and other such basic needs. In regard to the basic services, the article examined the rationalization and functioning of the municipalities for South Africa’s republic. The article identified the disappointing results of the service delivery of the municipalities based on the performances that were reflected by the annual reports of the Auditor General.  The methodology used in this article includes the reviewing of the articles, official documents and the reports about the performances of the municipalities in the service delivery of the basic delivery. This also included annual reports which provided significant evidence about the performances. The authors described the local governments as a sphere in the communities that responds to the local needs as are discussed above which are water supply, household electricity and other services required and fulfils the demands and interest of the communities. This can be only done by improving the business processes accordingly to the needs, and the provision of the basic needs must be ensured at any cost. The annual reports can be helpful in identifying the underlying problems and causes in relation to the business process or in other words, ineffective business processes and poor service delivery. Not only this, but management aspects can also be one of the major reason in this case. Reviewing annual reports and other reliable sources helped in identifying such causes and the reason for continuously disappointed service delivery of the basic needs of the local community. This identifies that the municipalities in South Africa face some crucial challenges which result in poor service delivery as it affects the business operations that are carried out accordingly (Koma & Bogalebjapoo, 2012).

When it comes to the water resources and service delivery of the water in various ways, there are some challenges in the mining industry in South Africa, and it includes a threat to water resources due to the Acid Mine Drainage (AMD). Acid mine drainage is linked to human health and the service delivery of healthcare that is provided by the local governments in South Africa. Due to the acid mine drainage as a result of mining, it opposes a serious threat and can be hazardous to health aspects and water resources. The author identifies the threats opposed by the mining service delivery, which further impacts the service deliveries to the aspects of life that are linked with it. Due to an environment in which there are poor resources available, there has been serious liabilities and challenges faced by the local government. In this case, it affects the overall business operations that are carried accordingly and the service delivery in this situation becomes poor. However, the author sheds light on the reclamation plant of Emalahleni Local Municipality. The Emalahleni Local Municipality water reclamation plan, which is the typical example of the successful outcome by good resources and large mining houses that achieves the sustainable management of the mine water. As a result, the water services in this scenario are effective, and further service deliveries become effective and better as well (Rascher, et al., 2008).

Review of existing approaches

Reim and Parida analyzed business models for analyzing issues for municipal companies. Research showed that the business process had been modified with the help of economic bodes. Organization tend to focus on efficiency, and it can be achieved by increasing value to products and services (Reim & Parida, 2015). The area of service delivery accounts for the challenges in management and operational strategies. It was found from the research that potential benefits for the business process are based on the design and implementation for an organization.

Reim stated that business process is analyzed on the base of product and service description. The criteria can be applied to the municipal organization where potential towards value should be focused. It can also be found from the paper that a company business model explains the core requirements for service delivery and efficiency of the business process (Reim & Parida, 2015). Reim used a theoretical framework for assessing the business process of companies. The information was based on literature and results were explained with the help of descriptive analysis.

In 1994 the need of communities was felt to guide the local development.  The local government become the authority of handling the Scio – economic progress. To guide the local government relating to the objective, the authority integrated development plan has been used. The tool of IDP also used to create a balance among the environmental demands for sustainable development. The study was conducted on the 35 different municipalities, which shows that the metropolis has better at minting the issues relating to the environmental issues of IDP. The result shows that metropoles have better mainstream than the local municipalities.

The study shows that environmental issues are low in the IDP. The result also shows no difference in the municipalities. The study also shows that the budget allocation for the vision and mission are relatively low in the environmental issues of the municipality’s authorities. To solve these issues, some approaches are suggested by the people who conduct the study. The first solution shows that to use the approaches, the first approach is bottom up and the second approach is the top down .these approaches can be used to solve the issue of the alignment of mission and vision related to the municipalities of the budget is not right  (Ruwanza, 2016).

Another study shows that South Africa municipalities have a significant role in services proving. The local governments of South Africa are proving services to the local community’s .apart from this role local government is still considering notorious for its inefficient spending. The services delivery is failed. The reason behind the services delivery failure is the behaviours of the local government relating to the spending. Local government re spending irrationally. The study was focused on the wasteful expenditure of South Africa municipalities. The data was collected from 2005 to 2006 to the 2009 to 2010 financial years of municipalities.

The paper is focused on the exploration of the technical efficiency of local government in which a nonparametric disposable approach is used. The finds of their study show that the three are several municipalities, especially ten municipalities are most efficient always. The study shows that spending is inefficient. The total of R80 Billion amounts is being used inefficiently. The study shows that a total of R220 Million wasted a day. Their study shows the massive inefficacy of the spending in the South Africa local government (MAHABIR, 2014)

Another study shows the local government issues and their contribution relating to economic development.  The study shows that the local government development requires the partnership between different authorities .these authorities include the local business, local communities, coordination and the local government. The study was to show which problems and issues stop local government form developing. These issues are related to different things. One of the issues in the development of local government is the issue that the partners does not play their role, which affects the development of municipalities.

The study was conducted to get the reason behind the factors which affect the local government development. Some issues were discussed in the study. The study relates to the service delivery issue. The issues relating to service  delivery are as follows , lack of support , lack of training of business , lack of funding , lack of money,  the sustainability issues in the management , the issues in the tender process , the issues in the municipal accounts ,  lack of policies  , lack of water maintained , lack of electricity maintenance , lack of sewer maintenance , poor practices, practices regard the regulations , practices of corruption ,uncertain policies and the non-alignment of the budget (Meyer, 2016)

Another study shows that there are many other risks which are associated with the industries.  The water risk is the result of the industries. The industries are more close to the risk of water issues. This issue is the most critical issue. The study shows how corporate social responsibility projects are used to overcome this issue. The project which was started in the study to overcome the water issue is the humanitarian projects, by which corporate social responsibility is implemented .the study shows that the water issue can be solved by ethical decision making.

The decision-making tools are sued to minimize water risk. The aim was not only to reduce the cost, but the aim also included creating new business and social opportunities. Their study shows the issue relating to water and how excellent management can solve the issue. The study shows that the preventing form risk and cost reduction is not the solve the problems, but it is also to expand the business because the new business will expand the opportunities (Clere, 2016)

The literature is covered with most of the issues which are faced by the municipalities. These issues are causing problems. Some problems are minor, but some problems are resulting in significant issues. The issue of inefficient spending is one of the significant issues. Inefficient spending is causing wastage of the resources. Some other issues regarding the service delivery issues were also discussed. Issues show that the lack of poleis, lack of information and lack of coordination creating issues in the municipalities (Ruwanza, 2016)

Some solution for these problems is the prevention from the cost and wastage. Reducing cost and prevention from the risk can result in a better situation. The expanding business can also one of the options in the development of the municipalities. Another study (MAHABIR, 2014)shows that in the past years, the municipalities are showing progress. The progress is not sustainable. The significant issues of municipalities are that they are not meeting the requirement to contribute to the local economic development. The literature shows that the issues relate to the municipalities affecting the efficiency of the municipalities. The preventing from the losses are not the only solution to the development; the business should be expanded into developing the municipalities.

It is required that process design should account for the customer needs. This can be connected with the goal of value for products and services. The paper stated that the process management of the business involves customer requirements. The study carried out by Trkman and Merten also accounted for the theoretical gap present in literature. This was required to measure the construct of study. The methodology of the study was based on a case study where the independent variable was the post review carried out for the organization (Trkman & Mertens, 2015).

Trkman analyzed the information present for nine employees and gather sample data from unstructured interviews. It was found from the paper that the satisfaction of the customer is based on organization mission and goals. The main form of change was based on the internal process, which affects the service delivery of organization (Trkman & Mertens, 2015).

Tseng analyzes the management ability of the service sector. The paper highlighted the role of technology for the business process (Tseng, 2016). The organization have modified their business process owing to customer experience and service delivery. Paper also focuses on the relationship of customer and account for the opportunity present with customer knowledge. Knowledge management was the key area raised in the theoretical construct.

Service delivery is accounted for understanding the needs of the customer and user policy for service. Organization efficient business process focus on the responded of customer needs, which can bring value to customer relations. The research model of the study was based on enhancing service quality, which determines the nature of the organization.

Brunner also provides a key finding to the problem of waste management. This accounted for the delivery of services and problems in the recycling process. Organization strategies goal and objectives raise concerns for resource conservation (Brunner, 2014). The paper stated that strategies should be made regarding the waste management process. Paper identified the sustainable approaches for service delivery. The research methodology was based on theoretical evidence based on the modern methods of management.

Research questions

Following are some research questions of this study

  1. What are the service delivery issues on the municipalities?
    1. Which are the significant issues in the development of the municipalities?
    1. How many municipalities are contributing to the development of local economic development?
    1. What are the significant issues of the municipalities?
    1. What are the issues related to the Business Process Management (BPM), Effective Business processes, Municipality, Alignment and Service Delivery?

General Research Question

The general research question is focused on the nature of the topic and related aspects to it. In this case, waste management in different ways will be analyzed that will include the recycling processes as well. Different reasons for the failure of the sustainability of waste management and marketing failure will be evaluated. In this section, the various areas regarding the topic and nature of the problem will be explored. In this case, various questions are included.

  1. How sustainable levels of waste management does is achieved in concerned organizations?
  2. What impacts could failure in waste management bring within and out of organizations?
  3. To what extent, waste management, treatment plant or recycling operations can be made effective enough to prevent unsustainable waste management levels or increase in the waste production level?

Specific Research Questions

The specific research questions are focused on the effectiveness of the operations and deliveries of the business. As there are some problems faced by the organization and recycling system is in the crisis. Therefore, the questions are clearly stated above in the paper will lead further towards more specific research questions. Such as evaluation of the possible outcomes or processes to eliminate or reduce the crisis. Propose solutions for the failures, elimination of the factors that derive the failure, and how to increase the effectiveness of the operations of the business?

RESEARCH OBJECTIVES

Research Objectives

General Objective

The municipality and different factors

The study contributes to the literature in accordance with the context with the objective of exploring the multiple aspects regarding the municipality and various factors that are included in it.

Addressing Issues

The objective of the study also includes addressing the issues in the literature that is carried out.

Organizations Processes

By the use of literature, this paper lays emphasis on the various processes that are carried in the organization and understand the processes in a deeper and clearer way.

On the basis of the given general objectives, the research paper will contribute in the following areas as discussed and will contribute in shedding light on any limitations in the literature and practices by addressing issues related to them. This will be helpful in analyzing and exploring the discussed aspects of the organization and will contribute accordingly.

Specific objectives

1. To identify and evaluate the reasons for the breakdown of the recycling system

2. To identify the underlying causes and factors

3. Evaluation of the role of management

4. To conceptualize the wellness from the current literature

5. To identify the role of management and the evaluation of the operations

The expected contribution of the study (theory)

Scope of the Study

The study is to cover the issues relating to the municipalities. The study can be used in understanding the issue of the local government. The study also helps to understand better the service delivery importance in municipalities and how these issues are becoming more severe. The study is limited to South Africa, so it only covers the South Africa region municipality’s issues. The study also shows that the inefficient spending of funds is also causing the problems of in the development. The study broadly covers most of the issues and solution of the municipalities. The study limitation is also related to the study in the specific region, so it only shows the issues of the specific region more area can be covered m so the issues may better be discussed. Other regions can be explored and use to understand the municipalities issues and practices better.

RESEARCH DESIGN

Research Approach

Basically, a different type of method is used to conduct research such as qualitative and quantitative methods. Both of the methods have their own implications, so it is important to choose the method according to the nature of the problem (Brannen, 2017). In the following research, we will discuss the impact of business processes on service delivery in the Emalahleni Local Municipality. The basic objective will be to identify the main reasons behind the negative and positive impact, and once the reasons are identified, the underlying factors and causes will be explored. Generally, the research approach is divided into two parts; the data collection approach and data analysis approach.

According to the quantitative research approach, the data is collected with the help of a questionnaire or survey (Nardi, 2018). However, with the help of qualitative approach, the researchers can easily cover a large amount of area in a short time. So, for this purpose, the researchers will use the qualitative approach in order to discuss the basic problem. There is a strong relationship between epistemology and ontology on the choice of the research approach, so it is important to understand both of the terms accurately (Bell, et al., 2018).

Research Strategy

According to the nature of the study, researchers will use a qualitative research approach, in which we will use unstructured or semi-structured techniques.  Basically, a qualitative research approach is a scientific method in which data is collected in the descriptive or non-numerical form (Antwi & Hamza, 2015). In this study, the researchers used a qualitative approach in which interviews were conducted with the construction industry professionals (Antwi & Hamza, 2015). There were about 200 people selected for the research, in which most of the people were industry professionals.

We will use the following case study to conduct the research. Similarly, the population will be selected according to the following case study.

Research Method

Research setting

The location and the setting of the research will be selected according to the nature of the problem. As the basic problem of this research is to study the impact of the waste management process on delivering sustainability in the Emalahleni Local Municipality, we will focus on the community within the ELM association. Researchers will conduct the study in the Emalahleni Local Municipality, Australia. Basically, the ELM is the community and the legislated peak body for local government in Australia. Their main work is to support the ELM councils and councillors. Moreover, all the people of ELM are committed recyclers, and their basic goal is to attain sustainability with the help of recycling waste products. They have an effective waste management process, but for some time, their recycling system is in crisis due to the market failure and unsustainable levels of waste management. However, they are trying to develop some action plans and processes for each level of government to help save the broken recycling system.

Sampling

There is a different type of sampling methods used in qualitative research, but the most important are cueing, snow-balling and purposive sampling. It is important to discuss the implication of each sampling method in order to understand the requirement of sampling in our research. The researcher in the study tends to choose all of the qualitative sampling methods, so it is important to understand these methods deeply. The most common sampling method in qualitative approach is purposive sampling, in which the participants are chosen after defining criteria, which is selected on the basis of the research question (Robinson, 2014). Basically, it is a non-probability based on population characteristics. It is also known as subjective, judgmental and selective sampling.

Moreover, the cueing is another method of sampling which involves participants with relevant quotas to preset prior to the sampling. The cueing method is also known as the quota sampling in which the researcher collects information with the help of different participants that can meet certain characteristics such as class, age, marital status, sex, HIV status etc. In the following method, different purposive strategies are defined according to the eligibility criteria of the study (Gentles, et al., 2015). On the other hand, snowball sampling can be referred to chain sampling in which the participants are referred to the researchers. Basically, it helps the researchers to gain access to the participants that are hard to reach. In simple words, the researchers in the snowball sampling hire the participants for a test or research.

Data collection methods

Different methods are used to collect information for the research. However, in the following study, the researcher will use observation, interviews, secondary data and focus groups to collect the data (Alshenqeeti, 2014). The main source of the data is the location from which it comes. We will use different sources of data in order to collect information such as spreadsheets, database, hard-coded data or data sets. For this purpose, different computer application will also be used that can have a large number of defined data sources depending on its function.

However, the main source of collecting information will be a semi-structured interview and the focus groups. A semi-structured interview is the best way to collect information in the qualitative research where the interviewer does not follow a standardize list of questions and ask a different open-ended question in order to discuss the major problem (Albuquerque, et al., 2014). It is the best to choose semi-structured interview for the qualitative research because the questions can be easily prepared before time, which gives a lot of time to the interviewer for preparation. Moreover, it also gives the participants the freedom to express their views. In this way, researchers can easily gather information from a different perspective. Focus groups also provide detailed information about the research problem, which saves both time and money as compared to the individual interview.

Data analyses

Before analyzing the data, it is important to develop a complete framework which involves coding or indexing, in which broad ideas, phrases, concepts and behaviours are identified. There are different methods of data analysis that can be used in qualitative research. However, we can divide the methods of qualitative analysis into five different groups such as content analysis, discourse analysis, grounded theory, narrative analysis and framework analysis. We will use the narrative and content analysis method. According to the content analysis, all the documented information and other physical items are analyzed on the basis of research questions (Elo, et al., 2014). In simple words, it is used to analyze the responses gathered through interviews. In the narrative analysis method, the content from various sources such as focus groups and observations is analyzed focusing on the stories or experiences shared by people.

 Strategies employed to ensure quality data

Researchers use different techniques to collect the data, but it is important to ensure the integrity of it. For this purpose, the researcher will use digital technologies to check data integrity. However, there are some risks of integrating data through digital technologies, but still, they also offer an effective way to improve reliability. The researchers should be aware of the complexity of data integration through digital technologies. For this purpose, the researchers will make sure that digital technologies enhance data integrity or retract it.

Reporting

The format of the report writing will be selected on the basis of the research method, which means a qualitative writing style will be used to write the report. In the qualitative report writing, it is important to describe the research problem in detail. The researchers need to share as much as possible information about the problem and the participant’s views. They also have to use different data collection methods to get the potential findings of the research (Ormston, et al., 2014). Generally, a qualitative report writing needs the researcher to cover the following areas in the report; abstract, background and introduction to the problem, methodology, conceptual framework, theoretical perspective, ethical considerations, discussion, summary, limitations and implication of the relevant study.

Ethical considerations

Before conducting research, it is important to overlook ethical core and principles. Every person has its own privacy, and it is important to respect that. In the following study, the researcher will follow a list of core ethical principles which can be illustrated as follows:

  • Justice

Participants will be selected from the target groups that can be beneficial for the research.

  • Beneficence

All the risks and challenges related to the researchers will be considered carefully. The researcher will try to minimize all potential risks and maximize the benefits to the participants.

  • Respect for persons

Every participant will be respected in terms of decision-making, autonomy and dignity.

  • Respect for communities

The values and interests of the whole community will also be protected.

Before conducting interviews, every participant will be signed a consent in which all the rights related to their privacy will be discussed. A consent form is presented in the form of the document to confirm that a participant agrees to the terms and conditions of the interview (Corbin, et al., 2014). All the participants will be ensured that their private data is secured and cannot be shared with anyone.

CHAPTER 3 CONCLUSION RECOMMENDATION AND LIMITATIONS

Conclusion and Recommendation

The research paper was structured and carried in accordance with the context of the problem that was identified in the Emalahleni Local Municipality (ELM). The problem statement was provided accordingly to the Emalahleni Local Municipality as it included the crisis in its waste management as well as in various organizational aspects. This crisis included various factors that were in need to be explored and to identify the underlying factors and causes on the basis of the problem statement that was provided. Research questions were provided in order to identify the reasons that led to the breakdown of the Emalahleni Local Municipality. The underlying factors that derived the failure and led it towards the crisis were to be explored and identified. The role of management or impact of management in the given context, review of the existing literature in accordance to the problem and its nature, and the wellness of the literature about the certain conditions were included in the research questions.

Based on the derived research questions and research objectives, the literature review was carried accordingly, and it led to significant findings. Case study approaches were used in an effective way and were focused on improving service delivery. The needs were identified in accordance with the criteria or the goals that are set by the organization to meet properly in a precise manner. The carried literature review included different solutions for the problem. In conclusion, it is necessary for the organization to focus on the processes and its effectiveness as it needs to be improved. This can be done by implementing the discussed outcomes based on the literature review. Policies, in accordance with the increased efficiency and effectiveness of the operations that are conducted within the organization, must be goal oriented and focused. The strategic implementation must be focused on increasing the effectiveness and reducing the waste products which will be in cope with the goals and objective of the organization. This will help in enhancing the overall operations, their effectiveness and delivery services in an effective manner and will make the waste management more efficient of the organization.

TIME FRAME

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