HRM: Job Analysis for the Post of Manager
According to Mira, Choong & Thim (2019) in the practice of HRM job analysis is one of the fundamental approaches towards the process of effective selection and recruitment of the right candidate. The process of job analysis done by HR is identifying and determining roles and responsibilities along with duties to be assigned for a particular job role. In order words, job analysis can be stated as a structured and detailed process of examining a job to determine relevant skills and duties required for a given job and the type of candidate to select for the same.
In doing so, the role of HR is to analyse the job and comprehend the duties involved with the job. Similarly, HR should be able to explain and determine the position and the required knowledge and skills specific to a particular position. Thus, the job analysis for a managerial position as per Lee, Pak, Kim & Li, (2019) can involve estimation of the selection process and determining needs, determining skill levels and relevancy with the organisation’s basic operations. In addition to this, the job analysis for filling the manager post within the organisation operating in the hospitality sector will involve a selection process that includes orientation, tests or questions.
However, specific to the post of manager the job description for the same includes assessment of the educational qualification, which is as per industry benchmark say in the hospitality sector is a minimum qualification for a manager should be a graduate, apart from that, diploma or professional course in management or business administration is required along with a minimum of 3 years experience in a practical office setting. In the management context, it is known to all that managers are among the senior management group and the responsibility of the manager as a whole is to achieve the firm’s objective by mobilising the staff to meet the departmental goals and objectives to eventually achieve the organisational goals. Moreover, Kianto, Sáenz & Aramburu, (2017). has mentioned that managers are leaders within an organisation and apart from supervising staff and planning operations and delegating a task, managers are responsible for creating a healthy work environment within an organisation.
Furthermore, in the context of job analysis the words of Boon, Den Hartog & Lepak, (2019) can be considered, which is the process or practice of job analysis is the act of gathering data and information related to a job such as knowledge, skills and responsibilities. This has been illustrated above, however, in order to gain a more detailed insight on the specific job position that the organisation within the hospitality sector is seeking to fill, the managerial or management role and duty of a manager can further be identified.
Role of a manager
According to the study conducted by Saini, (2021) selection of managers and comprehension of the role and responsibility are based on certain attributes of a manager. For instance, the interpersonal skills of a manager are highly essential to ensure that the overall duties within the organisation are carried out with a sound mind and through a collaborative effort. Thus, the interpersonal category includes:
Ability to effectively communicate:
This is an attribute of an individual to be a good communicator in order to be an efficient manager. As suggested by Russell et al. (2018) communication is crucial for the manager as it helps the manager to actively interact with the team or subordinate to be able to know each team member individually. Moreover, communication and interaction in a positive manner as per Elmezain, Baduruzzaman & Khoiry, (2021) is essential to develop effective cooperation and coordination with the organisational team. Hence, for managers, effective communication is a fundamental skill, which a manager needs to have and develop further while operating in a business setting.
Managers are supposed to be efficient leaders, it is the responsibility of the manager to lead the staff and the organisation as a whole. Therefore, often is suggested that personal leadership attributes are effective for managers as it indicates inborn leadership as per leadership theory, however, Grubaugh & Flynn, (2018) also states that training and assessment of skills can also help in developing leadership quality within a manager. Moreover, in the context of leadership and managerial skills for the job position, the aspect of critical thinking can be highlighted, which as per Henkel, Marion & Bourdeau (2019) indicates that critical thinking ability is highly essential for managers to display effective decision-making capacity.
Apart from interpersonal skills, professional skills for managers involve the following traits:
Ability to monitor
This refers to the action of controlling the staff and regularly monitoring progress and documenting key metrics that can help in performance management and identify gaps in performance to ensure that employees may require additional training.
According to Hendy, (2018) managers are supposed to be flexible in their approach through which a manager can undertake decisions by evaluating different dimensions of a given issue. Offer multiple solutions to a problem can help the subordinate to have the flexibility to adapt to the new environment and can identify efficient ways of conducting the task.
In addition to this, emotional intelligence is essential for managers as per Novo, Landis & Haley, (2017) as it helps in decision making as well as comprehending the needs and interests of the stakeholders so that operational tasks can be delivered with quality and integrity.
The above job analysis is based on an evaluation of the skills and expertise as well as attributes of a manager. Hence, based on the analysis the selection process will be illustrated further, which is a process of recruiting the right and relevant candidate by shortlisting under a structured process. However, prior to the commencement of the selection process or developing the framework of the selection process, it is necessary for HR to comprehend basic concepts to ensure a high level of relevancy of a candidate with a given job position. This implies that the role of HR is not only limited to match the job criteria with the candidate’s level of skill and knowledge rather Breaugh, (2017) states that the role of HR in the selection process also involves comprehending the needs and interests of the candidates and seek ways to provide both personal and professional growth to an employee after begin selected for the job role.
Thus before developing the selection procedure the HR is required to carry out the following steps:
Comprehend the job:
It is important for HR to understand the job requirement and determine the kind of skills that will help in achieving performance goals for a given job position. In this regard, a thorough job analysis as conducted above is always recommended. Moreover, engaging in discussion with the organisational leaders or senior management in order to gain operational knowledge will help in assessing the job criteria for HR and thus, the HR will be able to understand the job efficiently.
Develop a process:
It is recommended by Schulte, Kay, Potosky & Renard, (2018) that human resource professionals can use multiple measurement systems to identify key metrics, which can be considered relevant and the human resource professionals through multiple measurements can determine the different categories of skills and attributes, for example, interpersonal skill test or conducting a test to check professional or process knowledge. Moreover, using such an approach will also help human resource professionals to determine relevant tools and techniques for selection and recruitment. Such an approach includes group discussion or conducting role-plays to assess the different abilities and personality traits of a candidate.
Training for human resource professionals:
In order to conduct the selection process in an efficient manner and ensure that the right candidate is selected for the job position, it is important to note that the HR professionals are skilled and equipped with the required knowledge for conducting the selection process.
Reconsideration of the hiring process:
Woods, Hinton, Fraccaroli & Sverke, (2017) has recommended monitoring the selection process within a stipulated time period in order to gain insight into the accuracy and effectiveness of the selection. For instance, monitoring employee performance under the performance management concept considering probation period or on-job-training help human resource professionals to develop their selection process and ensure that Hr professionals hire assets that can help in achieving overall organisational goals.
Thus, it is the duty of the HR professional to consider the above-given factors while conducting a selection process, however, according to the fundamental principles of human resource management the human resource professional needs to further consider the below-given criteria:
Ensure ethical practice
Human resource professionals are supposed to recruit with proper ethics and integrity. The fundamental of human resource management states the purpose of begin ethical while conducting the selection process as it is a matter of not only selecting the right candidate but also selecting a deserving candidate (ELLIS, 2018). Therefore, organisations are supposed to formulate a fairness policy in a strict manner so that employee selection is done in a fair manner and free from any sort of bias. Moreover, it is also the duty of HR to identify any bias in the selection process and undertake action if any biased conduct is noticed.
Comply with the legal requirements:
It is important for human resource professionals to ensure compliance with the legal requirements as it is essential to exercise the rights and responsibility of both employer and employee (Novo, Landis & Haley, 2017). The legal requirements are imposed to regulate the selection and recruitment process in both the public and private sectors. This regulation basically referring to Canadian law is mainly the Law of Contract, Labour Relation Act and Occupational Health Safety Act. As stated previously, it is meant to eliminate bias in the recruitment and selection process, moreover, it protects the interest of the stakeholders offering provision to act in case of any wrongful conduct in the process of selection and recruitment. In addition to this, it can also be stated that employers and employees based on the given legislation needs to provide clear information regarding job position and should be clear regarding any hidden clause or claims at the time of offering and receiving employment.
Based on the given roles and responsibilities of human resource professionals, it is further necessary to consider a fair recruitment process for the managerial position. Hence, as per the concept of human resource management and according to suggestions provided by Seemann, Stofkova & Binasova, (2020) selection process should include both internal and external recruitment processes. This approach is often considered relevant for a certain job position, for instance, it is important to provide a fair opportunity to internal employees to apply for the job position that can elevate their current job role and help in professional development within the organisation. Thus, based on the given concept the human resource professional can indulge in the internal and external selection process. For example:
Internal selection is based on the transfer of job positions or promotions by reviewing the performance of the existing employees. There are certain advantages of internal selection as per Akkaya & Tetik, (2021), which are based on awareness of skill and talent of employees within the organisation, thus the human resource professional based on performance can select an internal employee for the new job position. Similarly, internal recruitment as per Kerdpitak & Jermsittiparsert, (2020) also helps in boosting employee commitment and motivation level, which eventually helps in improving the performance of the employee.
This selection process is based on recruiting candidates through advertisement and consulting with employment agencies in order to hire the right candidate, which is not from within the organisation. External selection according to Kannan (2018) is a time-consuming process, however, Hurrell, Mazzoni, & Scholaris, (2020) argues that using external selection can bring fresh ideas and skill to the organisation, thus, allowing innovation to flourish within the firm.
Thus, it can be said that using a single recruitment process may give rise to a conflict of interest among the stakeholders, thus, the selection process for the managerial post should include both internal and external selection processes.
Figure 1: Selection procedure
Source: (Robinson, 2018)
Preliminary interviews for the post of manager in the organisation will be based on initial screening of applicants to choose or remove candidates that do not fit for the post and the job requirement. Here, the applicants will be asked few questions to determine their communication or level of understanding of the job. For instance, ‘Tell me something about yourself?’ here the interviewer analyses the ability of the applicant to demonstrate and present oneself in a proper and efficient manner. In doing so, the resume will be used as a tool to review the information provided by an applicant, wherein, educational and employment history along with character evaluation and assumption regarding performance can be made. The main advantage of the process is to identify the fit or right candidate by creating a pool in the initial stage, which eventually reduces time consumption in identifying the relevant applicant. At the same time, it also helps in minimising the cost incurred in the selection process as the majority of the firms use an expensive selection process.
Receiving the application:
Application for employment is offered to the potential candidates, wherein, the employees’ name and other credentials are noted by the firm. In the case of the current vacancy, the application form may include a summary of any previous experience and personal data as provided in the resume.
Screening of applications:
Another screening process will be conducted by the human resource professional and departmental seniors based on the information provided in the resume and the firm’s application form. The screening committee may eliminate or call for interviews based on the qualification and highest work experience of the employees.
The employment test will include a basic aptitude test that measures the critical and basic academic knowledge of the candidates. For instance, in terms of the hospitality sector and in the context of assessing process knowledge, questions based on principles of hospitality will be asked to the candidate, such as ‘what is the fundamental of hospitality management?’ Similarly, in order to assess the cognitive ability of the candidate’s basic sums can be asked to solve, for example, 2*7/6=? Thus, the test for the managerial post will be based on an assessment of interpersonal skills highlighted in the job analysis above and professional skills and it is the most crucial stage as the figure above indicates if the candidate is not able to score positive marks in the test then there is no chance to proceed further and candidate will have to face direct rejection.
The interview will be conducted in case the candidate is able to pass the employment test. Accordingly, the format of the interview will be to analyse the personality of the candidate by measuring or assuming commitment level or level of motivation towards the job role. In doing so, the interviewer can ask a question such as ‘What is your expectation with the job role?’ or ‘where do you see yourself in the next five years?’ Moreover, the interview can be based on an assessment of the ability of the manager to make a decision or demonstrate critical thinking by conducting situational and stress interviews.
There are instances of internal references for internal candidates and internal references for external candidates. This signifies that the reference is the source of information regarding the candidate and the potential of the candidate to justify the job role and be able to demonstrate a high degree of performance.
Considering various safety guidelines and regulations under occupational health and safety compliance, it is essential to conduct medical check-ups for the candidate to ensure that the risk of health safety for the overall stakeholders is minimised.
Once the candidate has duly qualified the overall procedures stated above the final approval with consent for the remuneration will be taken and the job will be offered. In doing so, the letter or documents for the employment will be provided with plain and simple language so that the employees are able to comprehend the clause and norms of the organisation.