Investigating The Challenges and Possible Barriers of Employee Retain and Motivation in The Hospitality Industry; A Case Study of Premier Inn Hotel, London

Abstract

Identification of the barriers of retaining employees and motivate them is an important factor in this competitive market of business. On the other hand, as the research has focused on main two parts, they are retention and motivation of employees. Therefore, the researcher has focused on few motivational theories and tried to discuss the importance of motivational techniques to retain employees. Moreover, the researcher to collect proper and appropriate data has done secondary and primary both type of research. In order to complete, the survey the researcher has chosen 121 employees of Premier Inn Hotel and distributed a questionnaire consists of 10 questions. On the other hand, to collect data from the managers, a questionnaire of 7 questions have been made and asked to 5 managers of Premier Inn Hotel. Moreover, to shade light on the topic and focus on increasing retention of employees, few recommendation have been given to support the Premier Inn Hotel to develop their retention rate and utilize the motivational techniques to maintain the retention of employees. However, the increasing demand of the employees and degrading managerial skills of the companies are considered as obvious reasons of low retention power of Premier Inn Hotel. Therefore, the research has focused on this topic to enhance and develop the retention power of this company.           

Chapter 1: Introduction     

1.1 Introduction

The hospitality is one of the biggest industries in the current time which plays a vital role in order to give employment to the people. In the time of the global crisis this hospitality industry actually never has the problem of the credit crunch. Studies have shown that this particular industry has the downfall at the bottom of all industry. Moreover, this is the 5th largest industry in the world on the basis of giving employment.

1.2Background of the topic

The increasing popularity of hospitality industry and its skilled employees can be identified clearly. It is justified that without motivation it is not possible for any company to enhance their business. If an employee can be motivated to execute a work then it becomes easier for the employee to achieve it. On the other hand, asdescribes by Maslow, there are few hierarchy needs of employees motivate them to work even harder to meet the organisational goal (Jerome, 2013). Therefore, if the employees of a company are motivated, then they will never leave the company. On the other hand, if a company has poor communication and management team and fails to retain their employees, need some recommendation to improve their present situation (Vasquez, 2014). Therefore, the selection of this topic is significant in this research. Without knowing the barriers of motivating and retaining the employees, it is not possible for a company to understand the importance of motivational techniques in retaining employees (Munar and Jacobsen, 2014).

1.3 Background of the company

Premier Inn Hotel is the largest hotel brand in the UK. This particular hotel chain has more than 750 hotels and 65000 rooms. This hotel industry operates various kinds of locations which are including suburbs, city centres and airports. This company established in the year of 1987. In that time this company names was Travel Inn. The company established by the Mr Whitbread.  In the year of 2004, the owner of the company has changed the company name which is known as Premier Inn. Moreover, this hotel industry accounts for 70% of the owner (Whitbread’s) earnings. As commented by Armstrong and Matters, (2017), the Premier Inn chain can be found in various parts of England. Most of the hotel can be found in city centers or in the near road and motorways. They have their branches in all over the world, such as Ireland, India, UAE and many more countries.

1.4 Aim of the study

Premier Inn Hotel is one of the largest hotel brands in the UK. Currently they are facing some problem regarding retention of their employees and the ways of motivate them. The main aim of the research is to find out the problems, which Premier Inn Hotel are facing. Identifications of the reasons behind less retention power the company is one of the aims of the study. In addition, the ways they can motivate their employees. Moreover, it will also focus on the best ways to motivate the employees.

1.5 Objective of the study:  

● To analyse motivational factors which are required to create a positive employee base for the Premier Inn Hotel

●    To analyse the motivational factors to enhance the enthusiasm of the employee of the Premier Inn Hotel

●    To analyse the challenges which are faced by Premier Inn Hotel and to determine what are the factors that influenced the employees

●  To recommend a probable way to meet the challenges faced by Premier Inn Hotel in motivating the employees in favour of the Premier Inn Hotel

1.6 Research question: 

●    What are the factors that help to motivate the employee to create employee base for the Premier Inn Hotel?

●    What are motivational factors needed to retain the employee in favour of the Premier Inn Hotel?

●    What are the challenges that Premier Inn Hotel face in retaining and motivating the employees?

●    What recommendations can be made to meet the challenges faced to motivate and retain the employee in favour of the Premier Inn Hotel?         

1.7 Rationale of the study  

Premier Inn Hotel is presently facing the problem of low retention rate of employees. Therefore, the topic of discussing the challenges and barriers of retaining and motivating employees has been selected by the researcher is important to properly discuss the problem of the company by analysing different kinds of retention and motivation techniques (Tsai et al. 2015). Hence, due to this the hotel is facing issues in their operation.     

As the Premier Inn Hotel is facing the employee retention problems, they have found out that the Premier Inn Hotel has poor management team and they lack proper motivation. Moreover, few of the employees have complained about the salary and working environment issues. These are reasons they are facing low rate of employee retention. On the other hand, the competitive market of hospitality industry is one of the reasons to adopt motivational technique to enhance the retention rate (Christensen Hughes and Rog, 2013).

On the other hand, in the current popularity and demand of employees in hospitality industry is very high. Therefore, motivating the employees to retain them has become one of the most important parts. The researcher has selected three different types of motivational technique to discuss and to prove the importance of the techniques to retain the employees of Premier Inn Hotel.     

The current research will shed light on the importance of motivation and retention of employees and the effect it has on the organizational performance. The research will specifically research the causes of less employee retention in the premier inn hotel and will based on that recommend strategies for improved motivation of the employees.

1.8 Significance of the Study

As the focus of the study is on the retention of employees by motivating them, therefore, it is important to discuss about employee retention and the importance of employee retention. As the high demand of skilled employees can be identified in hospitality industry, therefore retaining skilled employees become much harder nowadays. The demand of skilled employees is growing day by day, on the other hand the management system also failing to retain them and meet their needs. Therefore, the research also has identified that the company fails to retain their employees and need to adopt motivational techniques. The research is relevant to the topic and it is helpful for the company.

1.9 Structure of the dissertation

Figure 1.1: Dissertation Structure

(Source: Created by researcher)

1.10 Summary

The hospitality is one of the biggest industries in the current time. Premier Inn Hotel is the largest hotel brand in the UK.However, they are facing some problem to retain their employee and motivate them. In this chapter, the here discussed the background of this Premier Inn Hotel. The objective of this study also discussed along with after discussions how we able to get rid of such problems. Moreover in this chapter of the dissertation the structure of the overall dissertations also discussed.

Chapter 2: Literature review            

2.1 Introduction

All industry wants to be successful in this current environment also where the market is highly competitive. In order to achieve their business work and the business goal, they need to develop strategy and find out the ways of success in this competitive market also. As commented by Vasquez (2014), the human resources have the capability to create competitive advantages for their organisations. The hospitality is one of the biggest industries in the current time, which plays a vital role in order to give employment to the people, but the current companies of this industry are facing some problem to retain their employee and motivate them. The main aim of this topic is to find out the problems that are facing the hospitality industry. In this article, it is discussed that how this company will be able to motivate their employees and can be able to retain their work in their organisation for a long time. In the following paragraph, it is considered that the main factors for determinants of employee retention and the various kind of motivational theories to enhance employee retention.

2.2 Conceptual framework

Figure 2.1: Conceptual framework

(Source-Created by author)

2.3 Concepts of employee retention

Employees are the most valuable asset of any organisations and they can be termed as the life blood of a company.

Determinants of Employee Retention: When it comes to the point that employee retentions and the commitment then that is not determined by a single issue, there is various kind of factors are there (AlBattat and Som, 2013). Such as development opportunities, work-life balance, work environment and social life. Those factors are considered in the following paragraph, which plays a vital role in employee retention in a company (Prebensen et al. 2014).

  1. Development Opportunities:  This professional development is one of the most important issues, which play an important role in employee relations. Professional and personal growth is the main reason of an employee which is the key reason to stay a company for a long time (Poulston and Jenkins, 2013). As observed by Gundala (2017), if there is a financial opportunity and the promotion opportunities then there are a chance of professional development. Which is greatly influenced the employee to stay in that particular organisations.
  2. Compensation: The relation between retention and pay has been the main subject of the many studies. Satisfaction with the amount of payment is one of the major reasons for an employee to stay in those particular organisations. According to Moket al.(2013), payment does not have the influence in staying in a company for a long time. However, the financial reward also greatly influences the employee for retention in a company for a long period of a time (Zopiatis et al. 2014).
  3. Work-Life Balance: Work-life balance also becoming the major reason for a company to stay in a company for a long time (Tangthong et al. 2014). Nowadays various companies are offering the flexible work timings which help them to maintain the personal life along with the professional life. As commented by Mok, Sparks and Kadampully (2013) studies have shown that in if a company offer that kind of work in which the employee are able to maintain their professional and personal lifestyle that greatly influence the employee to stay in that particular organisations.
  4. Management/Leadership:Many organisations also find that the leadership style also has a direct relationship with the staying in the organisation for a long time for an employee. An employee looks the company in that way that totally depends on the relationship between the supervisor and the employee Armstrong and Matters (2017). If a leader can play a good role as boos then that will influence the employee to stay in that company. Manager behaviour and their leadership style also influence them greatly (Jehanzeb et al. 2013).
  5. Work Environment:  A conductive work environment also plays a major role in employee retention. The work environment has to be flexible and enjoyable then that will play a vital role in employee retention. As commented by Boella (2017), the fun working environment also plays a major role in order to establish a suitable work environment. 
  6. Social Support: Social support directly concern with the satisfactory relationship with the fellow employees and the colleagues. As opined by Armstrong and Matters (2017) relationship with the co-workers plays a vital role in employee retentions. Manager and employee relationship also play a vital role in retaining the employees in organisations for a long time (Jones et al. 2016).

Those are the reasons which play a vital role in the retention of an employee.

2.4 Concepts of motivational techniques

There is old saying that and if an employee motivated enough then that reflects on their performance. The performance of an employee is related to the ability of those particular persons and their motivations. The ability of an employee is totally dependent on their experience, educations and with the training. The ability is hard to change but the motivation can be improved quickly (Armstrong and Matters, 2017). There are seven strategies for the motivation and those are considered in below.

Positive reinforcement: If an organisation has the positive environment and the fun working environment then that plays a vital role to motivate the employee. This is increasing their enthusiasm towards the work (Dhar, 2015).

Effective discipline and punishment: If a company have a suitable discipline then that also motivates their employee. On the other hand, if any kind of discipline got breached then for that also needs a suitable punishment. So that there have the lesser chances of not maintain the organisation’s rules and discipline (Bamel et al. 2013).

Treating people fairly: All the employee needs to be treated fairly. The same rules and regulation have to follow all the employee of particular organisations (Bashir and Nasir, 2013).   

Satisfying employee’s needs: Various companies are offering the flexible work timings that help them to maintain the personal life along with the professional life. In addition, the satisfactory payment also motivates the employee to do good work, which helps the company to meet their business objectives (Al Ariss and Crowley-Henry, 2013).

Setting work related goals and rewards:  If a company set a particular work-related goal then that also motivate the employee to do the work within a given time period, so that they can get the reward. This kind of approach of company will surely enhance the employee’s enthusiasm (Alfes et al. 2013).

These are some techniques by adopting those techniques one company can develop the enthusiasm within the employee and can able to motivate them to do good work

2.5 Motivational theories to enhance employee retention:

  1. What Is Motivation: Motivations are the result of the interactions with an individual and understand the situations. Motivation can be several types. Each and every individual employee finds something different which motivates them. If someone is motivated then they are able to do the hard and intense work without getting bored (Vasquez, 2014).
  2. Early Theories of Motivation:  In the year of 1950 is the most fruitful time period for the motivations (Mok et al. 2013). In that time three specific theories are developed for the motivation of the employee.

            Among of that theory, the Abraham Maslow’s motivational theory is the most popular one. There is a mention of some hierarchy of needs. Which are discussed in below.

  • Physiological: In this needs, there are several physical needs are included such as thirst, hunger, sex, shelter and much more (Kara, 2013).
  • Safety: In this needs, there is mention of the protections and the security from emotional and physical harm (Boella, 2017).
  • Social: In this needs, there is mention of the acceptance, affection and friendship
  • Esteem: In this needs, there is mention of internal and external esteems. The internal esteems factors are achievement self-respect action the other hand, the External self-esteems are the attention recognitions (Moket al. 2013).
  • Self-actualisations: if one able to become what he or he thought, they are capable of becoming which includes the growth and self-fulfilment (Scholarworks.waldenu.edu, 2017).

If any person is motivated enough then he or she can able to achieve their goal and discussed needs more easily. In that time there is also two other motivation theory which is the motivation hygiene theory and the theory of y and theory of x.

  • Contemporary Theories of Motivation: The discussed upper earlier theory are the well-known theory of motivation but these theories are not examined closely(Dusek et al. 2015). Here in this paragraph the here it is discussed about some recently developed theory. They are called the contemporary theory not because they are developed recently but they are also using for explaining the employee motivations (Diaconescu, 2017).
  • McClelland’s Theory of Needs:  This theory of motivations was developed by the David Mcclelland. This theory of motivations is mainly focusing on the three needs power, achievement and affiliations. Which are needs for achievement, needs for power, needs for affiliations (Boella, 2017)
  • ERG Theory: In Erg theory of motivation, it is argued that the Maslow theory of needs cannot be operating as to satisfy higher order needs as well as the lower order needs also. As commented by Riley (2014), if higher order needs get satisfied then the lower order needs cannot be satisfied in same time. The Erg models represent the more valid version or higher-level needs (Dusek et al.2015).

2.6. Justification of using motivational techniques for retention of employees  

As opined by Dusek et al. (2015), to retain the skilled employees and to maintain good relation with them, it is very important to use few strategies. Using motivational technique is one of them. As recommended by Brown et al. (2015), not only in retraining the employees, motivational technique also useful in encouraging and emerging the productivity of a company. Therefore, using motivational theories and model to retain the employees and to develop a business is justifiable. A hotel can face few problems regarding retention of employees due to lack of quality management skills. However, as motivational techniques and theories are useful in retaining employees, therefore, the organisation can adopt few of the motivational techniques and theories to develop their present situation by addressing the employee retention and motivational issues (Theirf.org, 2017). As cited by Dusek et al. (2015) in hospitality industry, skilled employees are needed to expand and develop the business, as they have a clear and direct communication with the customer group. Therefore, it can be said that, they are representing an organisation to the customers. Jerome (2013), states if there will no skilled employees or service providers, it will be very difficult for hospitality industry to survive longer. Therefore, each company of this industry always concern about retaining skilled employees within their organisation to enhance the quality of service.

As opined by Brown et al. (2014), if the retention is needed in this industry, then the best choice would be adopting motivational technique to encourage them for continuing professional connection with the particular company. Here, the importance of employee retention also needs to be discussed as the discussion is on retention of employees. In case, if the Premier Inn Hotel cannot retain its skilled employees due to some management issues, then certainly they will face loss in business. As the employees of hotel management sectors have direct connection with customers, then poor skilled employees and their performances will definitely affected by it. As cited by Kingir and Mesci (2014), in this competitive market, where the hospitality industry is highly emerging, having skilled employees will be benefited for any organisation of this industry. As recommended by Kingir and Mesci (2014), internal and external both type of motivation is needed to retain employees.  

A skilled employee and its efficiency and experience affect on the performance of a particular company.

Therefore, using the motivational techniques, such as, reward system and recognition can be effective enough as internal motivational techniques. For the external motivation, the positive comparison with other company’s employees, can also act as one of the external motivational techniques. On the hand Dusek et al. (2015), states that, money and waging system is one of the most important factors in retaining the employees. Sometimes, a motivational technique also fails to retain the employees, as they are looking for Quality Company, secure job, or a good environment. Therefore, before knowing the reason of the discontinuation, any organisation needs to know the reason behind their changes in decision. Accordingly, the motivation or paying can be improved to retain employees (Kingir and Mesci, 2014).                          

2.7 Maslow’s hierarchy model

As opined by Jerome (2013), in Maslow’s hierarchy model there are five steps that is stated with five stages of motivating people. They are divided into three basic stages, like basic needs, psychological needs and self-satisfaction needs. In these stages, there are five steps, psychological needs of employees, safety needs of employees, social needs of employees, self-esteem needs of employees, and self-actualization of employees (Jerome, 2013). These five steps represent Maslow’s hierarchy needs. Based on this, the motivation of employees can be done to retain them in organisational work. Moreover, it is very important to understand the importance of each section; accordingly, they needed to be applied for motivating the employees.

Image result for maslow's hierarchy of needs

Figure: 2.2 Maslow’s hierarchy model

(Source: Jerome, 2013)

Psychological needs

As opined by Jerome (2013), general person needs to provide with the basic needs of living. According to the hierarchy model of Maslow, the basic needs of a person are food, shelter, protective elements. Moreover, it included with the biological needs also, those are proper rest and space to a person.

As recommended by Jerome (2013), employees needed to be judge as a human being and their basic needs needed to be fulfilled. However, in case of motivating an employee and encourage it to improve the performances and emerge its productivity. Jerome (2013) argues it, if an employee gets proper psychological treatment from an organisation then it would never leave that environment as everyone wants to work in good ambience so that the work can become easier for them. In order to motivate an employee, it is important to provide it proper psychological ambience and health working atmosphere. As recommended by Jiang et al. (2015), if an employee gave up by its body strength, then there will be no option for the organisation to carry out a working process. Kingir and Mesci (2014), argues it mental strength is more important than body strength, therefore, encouraging needed to be the most important part of a management working changes.

Apart from that, time, space and coordination with leaders and management team also play an important role in encouraging and motivating employees. Therefore, all these are collaboratively works under the psychological effect and satisfaction of Maslow’s model.          

Safety needs of employees

As opined by Jerome (2013), to retain an employee one of the most important part is to make sure the safety needs of an employee. Moreover, it is also important that each employee feel safe to work in the office premises. In hospitality industry, maintaining safety factor is very important, as they have to be on duty 24*7. As in hospitality industry, the customers need services all the time. Therefore, mostly the employees who are working on night shifts, they need to be protected by the hotel and higher authority. However, there are male and female both types of employees in the hospitality industry.

As recommended by Jiang et al. (2015), the safety issues and legal policies also included into this section as it is related to safety factors of employees. Therefore, according to the hierarchy model to retain employees and to motivate them to work with a company for a long time, the safety factors acts as an important factors. In this case, also the hotel authority of any particular hotel needs to address all the issues related safety problem to retain their skilled employees.      

Social needs of employees

As recommended by Jerome (2013), social need refers to effective connection and healthy working ambience, which helps employees to work more effectively and to give their best performance. Retention of an employee and motivation is interrelated. According to this model, employees need to be provided with healthy working ambience, health and interactive communication with leaders. These factors help an employee to gain self-motivation and to work hard for meeting the organisation goal. Therefore, motivation can help an organisation in many ways to improve its performance and to increase the productivity.  A hotel needs to understand the value of social ambience and effective communication as they have the ability to develop company’s position in market (Holmberg et al. 2017).        

Self-esteem needs of employees

As suggested by Jerome (2013), not only the basic needs, but there are other few activities that needed to be recognised by the companies. Such as, in case if the employees are behaving with other properly. If there is any, issue about discouraging anyone due to work or behavioural changes. Moreover, the positive work needs to be recognised and if performance is not so good then, it can be rectified by effective and interactive communication process. Recognising the achievements and providing them the independence to carry out their own status, are also very helpful to motivate employees as well as help them to retain their post in their current company.  

Self-actualization of employees

As opined by Sanders and Yang (2016), not only the company, or the working sector but individual employees also need to be aware of its actual potential and personal comfort level of working. In hospitality industry, there are many types of designation and works, but one need to understand its comfort level, in which it can perform the best. Then it will be easier for an employee as well as for its organisation to carry forward the business connection with them according to its ability. Moreover, it will help the employee turnover, which happens because of the misunderstanding of both parties (Sanders and Yang, 2016).       

2.8 Herzberg’s two-factor model

As cited by Lundberget al. (2014) Herzberg’s two factor model based on two different factors of motivation. One is hygiene factor, and other one is motivational factors.

Hygiene factors

The factors that considered as essential in a workplace. As opined by Duseket al. (2014), the hygiene factors are not really need for long run of a business entity, but on the other hand, the absence of these factors can be affect the firm in its performance. As example, fringe benefits, company rules and policies, working condition regarding physical activities included. On the other hand, the interpersonal relationship of employees, security about the job and maintenance of status in work premises are included in the hygiene factors.

Fringe benefits: As opined by Lundberget al. (2014), employees of a company need to be offered with proper healthcare system and guidance, so that it can effectively work in the organisation without any interruption and hesitation. In case, if an employee becomes sick and absent for a long time then, the particular company will face loss. Therefore, regular check up is very important to make sure that health of each employee need to be well checked in a period.  

Company rules and policies: As recommended by Lundberget al. (2014), each company need to have own rules and policies to follow and to carry forward the business successfully. Moreover, Jiang et al. (2015), that company policies are no longer very important for continuing effective work argue it. In case, if a company wants to do effective performance and wants to achieve the highest rate then it needs to follow a general concept that works best for each company. As example, if the performance of top and successful companies is identified from few definite journals then that company also need to follow those policies to upgrade the standard.     

Job security: As opined by Holmberg et al. (2017), in this competitive market, every employee wants to secure their job and try to develop its own professional skills. However, there are lots more opportunity for people and they are now opens up about new things and new challenges, which help employees to furnish their career with new opportunities and challenges (Gundala, 2017).     

These factors are important to motivate employees and to help them to retain in their current organisation. On the other hand, these will not be considered as important issues in future growth of the business, but they need to maintain it as they need to retain the skilled employees of their company to expand the business (Jiang et al. 2015).     

Image result for herzberg's two factor theory of motivation

Figure: 2.3 Hertzberg’s two factor model

(Source: Lundberget al.2014)

Motivational factors

 According to this model or these factors, the hygiene factors cannot be considered as motivational factors. In this case, they need to be separate from the hygiene factors. In case, they could be recognised in workplace, provide them the satisfaction and allow them to enjoy their sense of achievement, responsibility and growth of employees and company as well (Duseket al. 2014).

  • In hospitality industry, the companies and the employees both needed to be aware of personal and professional growth to increase the productivity of the company.  
  • Recognition for positive work can be effective enough to encourage an employee to increase its productivity and work as team with other employees to meet the organisational goal (Holmberg et al. 2017).
  • Sense of responsibility need to be increased in an effective manner by consulting with the employees and train them with motivational technique. In case, if they are not able to identify their responsibilities then, the management team need to teach them about that. In this process, the employees can be motivated (Lundberget al. 2014).         

2.9 Three dimensional theory of Attribution

According to this model, a situation and is result depends on three most important things. One of them is people’s mood. The second is, self perspective on the matter, and the last one is mental and physical well being of one.

  • As opined by Sanders and Yang (2016), in the case of employees, these are same. The mental and physical health is important to continue or to deal with a situation. This is also related with the retention of employees. As recommended by Holmberg et al. (2017), it is management’s duty to look after to the employees, if they are being week while working. Providing with good working ambience is included in the list of motivational techniques. Here according to this model, people’s mood varies time to time. Therefore, organisation and the fellow teammates need to understand the condition of the mood then continue the conversation about any topic. Here if the management team, of a hotel adopt this theory to motivate its employee and try to retain the employees, then they need to identify and understand the mood and psychological condition of people to motivate them. As recommended by Sanders and Yang (2016), if shuffling of time schedule of employees can be made, as the hospitality industry has a very hectic schedule of work. Moreover, it can be leave for a certain period to restart the job with fresh mind (FK and TF, 2015).
  • As opined by Sanders and Yang (2016), this model is dealing with people’s mental satisfaction; here the self-perception of an employee is going to be discussed. Now all hotel of this industry wants to retain their employees and motivate them to the most. Then they need to understand self-perception of an employee for a job or a particular task. It will be easier for the company to understand the perception of the employee and the needs and demand of the employee from the organisation. As opined by Sanders and Yang (2016), in hospitality industry, the demand of skilled employees are very high, therefore, it is organisation’s duty to fulfil the demand and needs of skilled employees to grow their own business. Therefore, to motivate and to retain the employees, understand employee’s perceptions is very important (Owusu-Mintah and Kissi, 2017).      
  •   As suggested by Sanders and Yang (2016), if a company of hospitality industry wants to retain and motivate their employees then, regular inspection mental health and physical health of the employees need to be done. The workload tendency of organisations can affect the issue of employee retention. As suggested by Holmberg et al. (2017), it is visible quite often that, the organisation pressurise one individual employee to do more as it is capable of doing so. It is not at all right to do so, as a result many employees leave their present work sector. In the hospitality sector, everyone scheduled and allocated with their own job, but sometime it can be seen that the authority pressurise a skilled employee to do more than its schedule. As it is clearly aware the fact, that it got no rule to impose more work to any individual employee, just because it can handle that. These factors affect employees mental and physical health of employees. As suggests that because of these issues many employees leave their offices, therefore, to retain the employees (Bustamam et al. 2014).  


2.10 Gap analysis

The literatures or journals that have been used in literature review fail to provide proper information about the topic. As the journals are based on motivational techniques, but not having specific documentation about motivating hotel employees. Moreover, hospitality is a huge industry, in order to motivate and to retain employees there needs to be segmented approach for each group of employees are not been highlighted in literature review. However, in this current literature review these loopholes have been identified. Apart from this, the sources fail to cover development of the motivational techniques and decrease of the employee turnover. It has been focused on the retention of employees, but did not focus on identifying the causes of employee turnover. Therefore, this is one of the limitations of the literature review, if owners of companies cannot identify the reason of increasing employee turnover, then it will not be able to address the problem and solve it.

In the current research, the researcher is going to address all this gaps that have been identified from the literature review section to have a successful outcome in future research. Through effective research, these gaps can be addressed in future research on this topic. As employee turnover, retention and motivation is interrelated to each other, therefore, in a single research it is not possible to cover all the areas (Lundberget al. 2014). Moreover, one of the limitations of the study, the relation of employee retention and expand of business have not been established, which is one of the most important reason to retain the employees. The researcher in the future research will address these issues.              

2.11 Conclusion

In the literature review part, three types of motivational theories and models have been discussed to shade light on employee retention. Maslow’s hierarchy model and three stages of attribution focused on the mental and physical health of an employee. Based on which, organisations need to motivate their employees to stay longer with the present organisation. On the other hand, through Herzberg’s two factors model the hygiene and motivational factors of workplace have been discussed, and mentioned the ways organisations can motivate their employees to continue the business relationship.

Chapter 3: Methodology

3.1 Introduction

The current chapter focuses on the tools and methods that the researcher has been chosen to conduct the research. Correct choices of methods and tools help the researcher to complete a research effectively. Moreover, through this chapter more detailed information of the topic can be gained. The chapter can be helpful in having a successful outcome of the research. Apart from that, the chapter focuses on different types of research methods through which the researcher has been conducted the research. Alongside the research, methods there are data collection and data analysis methods to effectively complete the research. Therefore, this chapter is an important part of the research and provides important factors related to the research.          

3.2 Research onion

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Figure 3.1: Research onion

(Source:Saunderset al. 2012)

3.3 Research philosophy

As opined by Saunders et al. (2012) there are three types of research philosophy, and all of them have different qualities and disadvantages. In this research the researcher has chosen positivist philosophy to conduct the research effectively. This philosophy is effective enough to deals with models, background information and different theories related to the research topic.    

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Figure 3.2: Research philosophy

(Source: Karatepe and Uludag, 2017)

The researcher has chosen positivist philosophy, because it deals with models and theories, which is helpful to gather deeper knowledge and information about the topic. On the other hand, it helps to find out hidden factors of the research topic. As recommended by Taylor et al. (2015) it provides error free research and helps to evaluate the topic properly. Moreover, time is a big and important factor in research; therefore, positivist philosophy is the best choice to complete the research in time. By adopting positivist, philosophy the researcher is able to focus on employee retention and motivation, as there are uses of theories and models.       

3.4 Research approach

As cited by Saunders et al. (2012) research approach helps a researcher to develop the format of its own study. In this case, a research can be completed with the help of two different types of research approaches. In inductive approach, the researcher has the scope to find out or create new models to complete the research. On the other hand, in deductive approach the researcher has the opportunity to utilize and incorporate existing models and theories related to the research topic. Here, the researcher has chosen the deductive approach to complete the research.     

Investigating The Challenges and Possible Barriers of Employee Retain and Motivation in The Hospitality Industry; A Case Study of Premier Inn Hotel, London

Figure 3.3: Research Approach

(Source: Christensen Hughes and Rog, 2013)

As recommended by Saunders et al. (2012) the researcher has chosen the deductive approach to focus on the existing models of motivation. The researcher tries to address the retention problem of employees of hospitality industry. Moreover, in this approach there are scopes to research and gather more data to support the discussion about the models and theories that have been used by the researcher.  

3.5 Research design

As suggested by Saunders et al. (2012) with the help of research design the researcher can explain the research topic more effectively. As there are three different types of research design, research can be done with any one of them, but the choices of design need to be appropriate for the research topic. The first design is descriptive, which deals with descriptions and interpretation the topic. On the other hand, Kothari (2009) states that there are exploratory approach, which involves in those researches, that do not have proper and complete data. Lastly, the explanatory, it helps in addressing the research questions, but not in solving the issues properly. Here the researcher has chosen the descriptive research approach.           

https://lh3.googleusercontent.com/__cYtxEgz2RCcw0RCgSCiIG8mcTR1rtwDUepG5PiQXPMkUFnlHv9cbrkB7ZxPJDqWVkpKrTCYwYz3JB2LrZJP9lHmJPY40VXtRpmmqMaGklgxrLnyzIYCrCZyyyUsZ8QTiDjqobB

Figure 3.4: Research Design

(Source: Kothari, 2009)

As recommended by Bryman and Bell (2015) descriptive research design leads the researcher to design and identify the issues related to the research. Moreover, through the descriptive research design the research has the scope to discussing and interpreting the research topic properly.    

3.6 Data collection method

As opined by Saunders et al. (2012) there are two different types of data collection methods, through which a research can be conducted successfully. They are named as, qualitative and quantitative data collection method.  In this research, both qualitative data as well as quantitative data will be collected.

Quantitative and qualitative

As opined by Bryman and Bell (2015) quantitative data can be collected through survey questionnaire and group discussion with a number of participants. In this research, the quantitative data has been collected by conducting interview of the employees working in different departments of the Premier Inn hotel. On the other hand, qualitative data has been collected through interviewing managers of Premier Inn Hotel Moreover, to conduct a research with the help of quantitative data collection method, there need to be a fixed population and a sample size, among whom the questionnaire need to be distributed to collect data. Here the researcher has chosen survey to collect the quantitative data. On the other hand, to collect the qualitative data, the researcher has chosen interview. Apart from that, in secondary research the researcher has collected qualitative data (Saunders et al.2012).            

3.7 Data collection tools

In this research, the researcher has used questionnaire to collect the data from the employees of Premier Inn Hotel. Moreover, as the research is based on this particular hotel, the researcher has been used the archive data of the company to prove the authenticity of the data. As opined by Bryman and Bell (2015) fixed and appropriate choice of data collection tool is very important to conduct the research in the right direction. It is also helpful in collecting the data according to employee retention and motivation in a workplace.  The qualitative data is collected by using an audio recorder to record the response. The researcher has also made separate questionnaires with close and open ended question for the survey and the interview respectively.      

3.8 Data analysis technique

As opined by Taylor et al. (2015) collected data need to be analysed in the correct technique to have a successful outcome of the research. Here, as the research is based on quantitative data collection methods and primary data, it has been used statistical data analysis technique. Moreover, the archive data of the company and the data that has been collected by the researcher have been compared though the research. Here the researcher has chosen the chi square test to analyse the data statistically. Through Chi, square test the researcher can find out the strength and standard of its data to address the employee motivation and retention problems. The researcher has analysed qualitative data from interview by manual textual analysis. In order to analyse the secondary research qualitative data, the researcher has used thematic analysis.      

3.9 Sampling method

As opined by Bryman and Bell (2015) when the researcher has chosen a population for completing the data collection method, then it needs to be specifically choosing the sample size. The entire population cannot be the sample size of the research. In order to choose the sample size, the researcher has chosen the random method of sampling. As recommended by Saunderset al.(2012) the random sampling method deals with equal opportunity to select the sample size. If the random selection has been done, then different types of data can be collected from the sample. Here the researcher has chosen the probable method of sampling and selected 121 employees of Premier Inn Hotel.      

3.10 Population and sample size

As cited bySaunderset al. (2012) a specific population and sample size is very important to conduct a research in an appropriate manner. In this researcher, the researcher has selected 121 employees as the sample size. Population is the entire set of people that are related with the research topic. On the other hand, the sample size is a selected set of people that has been participated in the survey and responded to the questions and in this research, the population size taken is 150.    

3.11 Accessibility issue

From the point of view of Bryman and Bell (2015) while collecting appropriate data for a research, researchers need to be aware of the accessibility issues that can arise while accessing the data. Here, in this research the researcher has chosen 121 employees for the survey. For this, the researcher has problem while doing the survey, as there are many employees who are not at all interested to answer any of the questions. Moreover, there are few employees who are pretending to respond to the questions but providing wrong data. Moreover, while doing the secondary research few books and journals are difficult to access. This is one of the main points where the researcher has faced problems, as researcher need to pay for those journals and it is not possible to access the vast amount of journals when the researcher need to pay for it.       

3.12 Ethical considerations

In this research as it is based on employee retention and motivation, the researcher need to be careful about the ethical issues and consideration. On the other hand, in this particular research the researcher need to access the journals and books, which is reliable and related to employee motivation and retention in a hotel industry. Moreover, as the researcher has faced problem while accessing the journals, therefore, the researcher need to be clear about the journals, chosen for the present research. The archive data that have been used need to be authorised from the Premier Inn Hotel to avoid any kind of legal issues in future.  All the data that is collected in this research is protected by the Data Collection Act of 1998.     

3.13 Reliability and validity issues

In order to maintain the reliability and validity of data of this particular research, the researcher needs to choose journals and books of employee retention from reliable sources. In case of primary research, researcher needs to take permission from the Premier Inn Hotel before publishing the data in its research. Moreover, these issues and factors need to be maintaining to avoid legal issues in future research on the employee retention using the motivational techniques. In order to maintain the validity and reliability of data the questionnaire need to be formed according employee retention and motivational factors to collect proper data. As example, the answer need to reflect problems of the employees related to employee turnover or motivational issues. In this process, the ethical issues can be mitigated.      

3.14 Research timeline

Research procedure Week 1- 2 Week 2-4 Week 4-6 Week 6-8 Week 8-10 Week 10-12
Choosing the topic            
Background study            
Literature review            
Primary research (interview )            
Primary research (survey)            
Secondary research            
Data analysis            
Conclusion  and recommendation            

Figure 3.5: Gantt chart

(Source: Created by researcher)

3.15 Summary

In the methodology chapter the selected methods of this research has been discussed, which will help the researcher to address employee retention in a hospitality industry. Moreover, it focuses on qualitative and quantitative data collected through interview and survey.   

Chapter 4: Findings and data analysis

4.1 Introduction

In this chapter, both quantitative and qualitative data has been analysed. In quantitative data analysis, there are 10 questions and 121 participants from the Premier Inn Hotel. On the other hand, in the qualitative data collection the interview has been done among 5 managers of Premier Inn Hotel with the help of 7 questions related to employee motivations and retention. Moreover, the questions have focused on their own point of view about incorporating motivational technique in the organisation to increase the retention rate of the company. In order to proper analyse the quantitative data there are charts and table have been included.    

4.2 Quantitative data collection

In order to complete, the quantitative data there are 121 employees from the Premier Inn Hotel have been selected. 10 survey questions have been made to collect data from them, and to collect data for the research.

1.What is your gender?

No. of respondents Percentage of respondents Total respondents
Male 72 48% 150
Female 78 52%

Table 4.1:Gender of the employees

Investigating The Challenges and Possible Barriers of Employee Retain and Motivation in The Hospitality Industry; A Case Study of Premier Inn Hotel, London

Figure 3.1: Gender of the employees

(Source: Created by researcher)

Findings: Through this table, it is visible that in the Premier Inn Hotel there are existences of both sexes’ people who work as employees. Moreover, the female employees are more than the male employees in this organisation. Therefore, it can be said, that this particular company believe that women are more perfect in hospitality management work than the male.   

2.Where do you reside?

Region No. of respondents Percentage of respondents Total respondents
Greater London 10 6.67% 150
South East 15 10%
South West 11 7.33%
West Midlands 25 16.67%
North West 20 13.33%
North East 10 6.67%
Yorkshire and the Humber 16 10.67%
East Midlands 20 13.33%
East of England 23 15.33%

Table 4.2:Residence of the employees

(Source: Created by researcher)

Investigating The Challenges and Possible Barriers of Employee Retain and Motivation in The Hospitality Industry; A Case Study of Premier Inn Hotel, London

Figure 3.2: Residence of the employees

(Source: Created by researcher)

Findings: According to the table it can be said, the employees of this company are from all over the England. From the Greater London, it is 6.67% of people worked here as employees. Apart from that, West Midlands (16.67%), East of England (15.33%), North West (6.67%), South East (10%). South West (7.33%), North East (6.67%), Yorkshire and the Humber (10.67%), East Midlands (13.33%) are among them. Therefore, it is clear that this is a company where multicultural people are working;therefore, the motivational problem can arise due to the diverse ethnicity.    

Analysis:From the collected data, it can be said that, as Premier Inn Hotel has employees from all regions of England, therefore, a cultural difference occurs in the workplace. Most of the employees (16.67%) of Premier Inn Hotel are from West Midlands and 6.67% of people are from North East and North West. Therefore, it is visible that different cultural people are working here

3.How long have you been working in Premier Inn Hotel?

Months No. of respondents Percentage of respondents Total respondents
0-6 35 23.33% 150
6-12 55 36.67%
12-18 25 16.67%
18-24 20 13.33%
24+ 15 10%

Table 4.3:Period of working of employees

(Source: Created by researcher)

Investigating The Challenges and Possible Barriers of Employee Retain and Motivation in The Hospitality Industry; A Case Study of Premier Inn Hotel, London

Figure 3.3: Period of working of employees

(Source: Created by researcher)

Findings: Through this part, it can be identified that, if employers are comfortable to work in this organisation. As it can be seen,those maximum numbers of people belong to the 6-12 month category. And the least people are from the 24+ category. Therefore, employees are not happyto the company fails to retain their employees.

Analysis: As 36.67% of employees, are working in the company from 6-12 months. On the other hand, 10% of employees connected with the company up to 24+ months. Therefore, it is very clear that, the company fails to retain their employees and encourage them to stay in it

4. Do you have safe and secured working environment?

No. of respondents Percentage of respondents Total respondents   150
YES 50 33.33%
NO 77 51.33%
MAY BE 23 15.33%

Table 4.4:Safe and Secure workplace

(Source: Created by researcher)

Investigating The Challenges and Possible Barriers of Employee Retain and Motivation in The Hospitality Industry; A Case Study of Premier Inn Hotel, London

Figure 3.4: Safe and Secure workplace

(Source: Created by researcher)

Findings: Through this table, the secure and safety of the working environment can be identified. As most of the employees (51.33%) have said that they are not feeling save in this working environment. At the same time, 33.33% of employees have responded that they feel safe in this working environment. However, the percentage is higher in case of unsafe working environment.

Analysis:Through this data, it is easier to identify that, the employees of Premier Inn Hotel have found a security and safety issue while working there. Where 51.33% of employees responds as there is safety issue regarding work environment and workplace, On the other hand, 15.33% of people are not sure about the security and safety system of Premier Inn Hotel. Therefore, it can be said that employees are not safe enough in this working environment of Premier Inn Hotel.

5. Is your working environment motivating?

No. of respondents Percentage of respondents Total respondents   150
YES 35 23.34%
NO 85 56.67%
MAY BE 40 26.67%

Table 4.5:Motivation in working environment

(Source: Created by researcher)

Investigating The Challenges and Possible Barriers of Employee Retain and Motivation in The Hospitality Industry; A Case Study of Premier Inn Hotel, London

Figure 3.5: Motivation in working environment

(Source: Created by researcher)

Findings: Through this table, the motivation level of the working environment of  Premier Inn Hotel can be identified. 56.67% employees have said that the working environment is not motivating. Therefore, if the above 50% of employees are saying that working environment is not at all motivating, the company certainly need to adopt motivational technique in the organisation.   

Analysis: This particular table is providing the data about the motivational environment of the hotel. Here 56.67% employees are not satisfied with the working environment and they do not find it motivating. On the other hand, 26.67% of employees do not want to comment on this matter clearly, the employees of Premier Inn Hotel are not happy, as the managers are unable to motivate them.

6. Does your working environment need change?

No. of respondents Percentage of respondents Total respondents   150
YES 95 63.34%
NO 35 23.34%
MAY BE 20 13.34%

Table 4.6:Responds to change in working environment

(Source: Created by researcher)

Investigating The Challenges and Possible Barriers of Employee Retain and Motivation in The Hospitality Industry; A Case Study of Premier Inn Hotel, London

Table 3.6: Responds to change in working environment

(Source: Created by researcher)

Findings: This table shows that 63.34% of employees want change in the working environment of Premier Inn Hotel. On the other side 13.34% of employees have no specific view on this point Therefore, it can be said half of this section also in for of changing the working environment of the Premier Inn Hotel.

Analysis: In this section, 63.34% of employees want change in working environment. Whether that is regarding motivation or wage system, but to work effectively and efficiently, an employee needs a healthy and motivating working environment. In this part, also 13.34% of employees deny to provide clear information, as they are afraid to reveal the data of the company.

7. Is there lot of work pressures and bad behaviour from your superiors?

No. of respondents Percentage of respondents Total respondents   150
YES 93 62%
NO 37 24.67%
MAY BE 20 13.34%

Table 4.7:Responds of work pressure and superior behaviour

(Source: Created by researcher)

Investigating The Challenges and Possible Barriers of Employee Retain and Motivation in The Hospitality Industry; A Case Study of Premier Inn Hotel, London

Figure 3.7: Responds of work pressure and superior behaviour

(Source: Created by researcher)

Findings: This table shows the information about the work pressure on the employees of Premier Inn Hotel. Here different type’s opinion can be seen, while 62% of employees are not happy with the workload and behaviour of superior. On the other hand, 24.67% employees have found it is okay, at the same time 13.34% of employees are not willing to answer the question in an appropriate manner.     

Analysis: From this particular data, it can be said, as 62% of employees want change in working environment, therefore, certainly the company has major issues with their working environment. On the other hand, the 13.34% of employees who are not giving proper data are also can be concern about this factor.  

8. Are you satisfied with the current salary and reward system in your workplace?

No. of respondents Percentage of respondents Total respondents   150
YES 40 26.67%
NO 45 30%
MAY BE 65 43.34%

Table 4.8:Responds to salary and reward system of the company

(Source: Created by researcher)

Investigating The Challenges and Possible Barriers of Employee Retain and Motivation in The Hospitality Industry; A Case Study of Premier Inn Hotel, London

Figure 3.8: Responds to salary and reward system of the company

(Source: Created by researcher)

Findings: When it comes to salary, most of the employees are not comfortable or willing to share that with others. In this case, it is the same, as 43.34% of employees of Premier Inn Hotel are not willing to comment on this topic. However, 30% of the employees responded that they are not happy with their current wage system. On the other hand, 26.67% of employees are happy with their present wage.   

Analysis: Through this data, it can be identified that employees are not satisfied with their salary and 43.34% of employees do not provide clear information about their salary and their desired salary. However, the percentage of employees who are happy (26.67%) with their salary is lesser than others who are either not happy or not willing to share their comment on that. This concludes that the company definitely has the problem of salary and promotion.  Thus, the company fails to retain their employees, as they fail to provide them appropriate salary accordingly.

9. Is your salary at par with your workload?

No. of respondents Percentage of respondents Total respondents   150
YES 55 36.67%
NO 75 50%
MAY BE 20 13.34%

Table 4.9:Salary at par the workload

(Source: Created by researcher)

Investigating The Challenges and Possible Barriers of Employee Retain and Motivation in The Hospitality Industry; A Case Study of Premier Inn Hotel, London

Figure3.9: Salary at par the workload

(Source: Created by researcher)

Findings: Through the table the salary at par has been identified, as 50% of employees of Premier Inn Hotel have answered that the salary is not appropriate according to their workload in the organisation. However, 36.67% of employees agree that it is appropriate with their workload and 13.34% of employees do not answered to this question.      

 Analysis: As the data shows, 50% of the employees do not agree that their wage is appropriate according to their workload. It refers that the company pressurises its employees and allocate more than their capability. However, the percentages of satisfied employees (36.67%) are lesser than dissatisfied employees, therefore it is clear that the company has the tendency to pressurise their employees with workload and pay less as compared to work pressure.     

10. Are you willing to work here for a long time?

No. of respondents Percentage of respondents Total respondents   150
YES 44 29.34%
NO 90 60%
MAY BE 26 17.34%

Table 4.10:Responds for staying in the company

(Source: Created by researcher)

Investigating The Challenges and Possible Barriers of Employee Retain and Motivation in The Hospitality Industry; A Case Study of Premier Inn Hotel, London

Figure 3.10: Responds for staying in the company

(Source: Created by researcher)

10.  Findings: Through this table, the researcher is able to find out the percentages of people that are willing and unwilling to work with the Premier Inn Hotel for a long time. However, 60% of employees are not willing to work this company for a long time. On the other hand, 29.34% of employees are willing to work with it for a long time and 17.34% of employees do not respond to this topic.   

         Analysis: As 60% of employees are not willing to work with this company for a long time, therefore, it can be said that the working environment is not motivating enough to retain their employees for a long time. Moreover, the percentage of willing employees (29.34%) are very low, this is one more indication that the company fails to motivate their employees to stay a long time in this company.     

4.2 Qualitative analysis

In qualitative data analysis, there are 5 managers from different sections of Premier Inn Hotel. Customers manager, sales managers, marketing, resource and internal resource manager haven been asked the questions. Here 7 questions have been made to collect data from them. Here each manager have been asked all the 7 questions to collect different dimensions of information.  

1. What are the motivational issues in your company?

According to manager 1, has said that the cultural diversity is one of the most important issues that the company is facing. Managers need training about motivating employees. Based on the different types of cultures, it is difficult to motivate different types of people at the same time with same kind of techniques. On the other hand, manager 2, has replied that the employees of the company are not at all interested in learning more than their allocated work. Therefore, if the employees will not show interest in learning then managers and leaders will become demoralised instead of employees. Then certainly, the quality of work will go down and employee will leave the company. On counter manager, 4 and 5 have said that manager of the company need more training to motivate employees and extract quality work from them. However, manager 3 has said that employees are not attentive to their leaders and not following the orders, therefore leaders and employees both feel demoralised at workplace.   

2. Are you satisfied with the working of the employees?

In this part, the managers are needed to answer whether they are happy with the employees and their performances. The first manager has replied, employees are leaving too early and it is not very good sign for the company and its development. According to the second manager, the employees are good at their performance but they leave the company too early. Similar to the fist manager, it also point out the same thing that employees are leaving the company very early. On the other hand, the third manager has said that the employees are not skilled enough to produce good quality work. In this case, the third manager has pointed out a new issue related the employees and their performances. However, the fourth manager has said, employees are demanding the salary than they deserved to be paid. This shows a clear dissatisfaction about the employees of the company, that they want more salary compare to their workload. On the other hand, according to the fifth manager, the employees are not able to handle pressure or workload and leave the company. Therefore, it is also dissatisfied with the performances of the employees. Therefore, here different types of issues can be identified as         

3. What are the reasons for less retention power?

Different managers have ideas and identification for their less retention power. In this case, first manager has said that, there is lack of skilled communication among the employees. Moreover, the managers are not at all interactive with the employees, therefore, the issues cannot be possible to resolve. Apart from that, the second manager has said, there are lack of proper recognition and reward in this company, which leads the company to less retention power. Third manager has said, the wage system is one of the reasons for the less retention power of the company. The fewer wages of the employees has directly affected the company on its retention power. However, according to the fourth manager, if employees will be loaded with more work than its capability, then they will not stay there for a long time. In this company, the workload is very high, this one of the main reason of the less retention power of the company. The fifth manager has replied in this case, the superiors of this company are not good at their behavioural status. They are not behaving appropriately with each employee. If employees will not get proper behaviour and guidance from its superior, they will not stay in that organisation for a long time.        

4. In what way do you believe in motivating employees?

On this questions manager 1 has said, training with new and enhanced working procedure will help the employees to be motivated and work more effectively. On the other hand, the second manager has said that interactive communication among the employees will help to increase the motivational level. However, the third manager has said that, reward system is one of the most important motivational systems. Therefore, incorporating reward system, employees can be motivated.  Fifth manager has also said that by rewarding the employees, it can be possible to motivate them and increasing the quality of work. Moreover, the fourth manager has replied that if recognition can be given to the employees for their positive efforts on organisational work, then employees can be motivated in the highest extend. Here it has been seen that different managers have different thoughts of encouraging and motivating employees, so that they can do their work more effectively.          

5. Is there any kind of motivational technique followed by the company at present?

On reply of this question, mixed answers have been identified. The first manager has said that there is the system of recognising employees for their performances. On the contrary, the second manager has said that there is no such motivational technique that has been practiced to motivate the employees of this company. However, the third manager has replied that the company has practiced the recognition system to motivate the employees. Here, it can be seen that the company has focused on recognition but not on the reward system. Mental satisfaction and encouragement is needed but monetary reward is also playing an important role to motivate the employees. Moreover, the fourth manager has said that manager groups of this company are not united to motivate entire set of employees. Here, the fifth manager has said that reward system is present in the company, but it is not practiced in an appropriate way. Therefore, after all the replies, it is concluded that the company do not have such motivational technique at present to retain their employees.               

6. What is your view on adopting motivational technique to improve their retention power?

This is one of the most important questions of this set. As the managers here, need to explain their opinion on adopting motivational technique. According to the first manager, to increase the retention power the company does not need to adopt any kind of motivational technique. On the other hand, the second manager opposes it by saying, if the company will adopt motivational technique, then it will surely enhance the rate of retention. Moreover, the fourth manager has said that motivational techniques and retention really do not have any kind of relation between them. Therefore, to increase the retention power the company does not need to adopt any kind of motivational technique. However, in this case, the fifth manager has said that, if the company wants to increase the retention level then it needs to adopt different types of motivational techniques in the company.     

7. What strategies can be adopted to motivate the employees of your company?  

On reply of this question, the first manager has replied that, one of the main reasons of employee turnover is bad communication skills of the managers and poor interactive session with the employees. Therefore, according to the first manager, improvement in communication skills of the managers can be beneficial to retain the employees longer. On the other hand, the second manager has said, if the company wants to retain their employees, they need to focus on the personal and professional issues that the employees are facing in while working. If those issues can be resolved then retention power of this company can be increased. However, the third manager has replied that, workload on each employee is more than actual. Therefore, in order to increase the retention power of the company, workload can be divided among all employees. If workload will become less than the work, quality will be increased and employees can work more effectively. According to the fourth manager, recruiting of more employees can encourage existing employees to work more efficiently. Therefore, it can be act as an important step to increase the retention power of the company. On the contrary of all these comments, the fifth manager has said that the managers can be trained with behavioural training so that, they can interact with the employees in an appropriate manner. This is one of the ways to increase the retention power of the company.               

 4.3 Thematic analysis

4.3.1 Training of the superior can enhance the retention of employees.

As opined by Holmberg et al. (2017) to enhance the retention rate of employees, superiors of an company or organization need to be well trained to deal with organisational issues. Moreover, if an organization is facing problem regarding employee retention, then the higher authority needs to take care of this matter immediately. In this case, the superiors need to be trained with effective ways to retain employees. As recommended by Holmberg et al. (2017) increasing sense of responsibility of superior is very important. If retention power of a company is low, superiors are also responsible for this situation. Therefore, the first thing is, the superiors need to be trained to take responsibility and perform them actively. Apart from that, employees and superiors are connected with direct communication; therefore, a direct impact of superior’s behaviour can be identified on employees. However, to improve the retention power training on behavioural changes is very important. Moreover, if retention power needs to be developed, then training of the superior is one of the most important steps, an organisation need to take. As it can be seen in the primary research also that the managers of Premier Inn Hotel lacks the training of the superiors and faces problems regarding motivation.    

4.3.2 Improved communication can motivate employees

As cited by Sanders and Yang (2016) discussion and interactive communication is one of the most effective ways to solve a problem. In case of increasing retention power, the first thing a company needs is to identify, the core problem of their less retention power. If there are any communication issues, then it can be solve with effective and interaction with the employees. As pointed by Sanders and Yang (2016) the, when an employee faces a problem, then only it leaves a company, therefore, if managers are talking to them and trying to resolve their issues then it can motivate the employees to a high extend. On the other hand, if managers or other employees are not good at interacting with each other, the work will become more difficult than it is. Therefore, to motivate employees and to build efficient relationship with them, continuous and interactive communication plays an important role. Moreover, improved communication is helpful in increasing the employability of a company also. As suggested by Sanders and Yang (2016) to improve or to extend business retention and recruitment both are equally needed. From the primary research, also it is seen that where managers pointed out that the interactive communication system can help the Premier Inn Hotel to improve to motivate employees.        

4.3.3 Satisfactory and motivating work environment can enhance retention of employees

As opined by Jerome (2013) all employees want to work in a good and motivating working environment so that it can be helpful for them to complete their work by the end time. On the other hand, mental satisfaction of an employee helps it to work more efficiently and contribute to meet the organisational goal. However in case of retention, if an employee gets a satisfactory and motivating working environment, where it can complete its task efficiently then it would prefer to stay a long time rather than leaving it early. From the point of view of Jerome (2013) if employees are provided with proper mental satisfaction then they can easily cope up with any kind of work they will allocated. On the other, motivating environment is also helpful in encouraging people to execute a task in an appropriate manner. Therefore, if a company wants to improve the retention system of their company, then it needs to improve their working environment and make it motivating and satisfactory accordingly. Here in the primary research also it has been seen by the researcher that a set of employees replies that Premier Inn Hotel lacks motivating and satisfactory work environment.       

4.3.4 Sense of unity can be helpful to enhance the motivation of employees

Dusek et al. (2015) states that to retain employees, it is very important to motivate them. Similarly, if an employee gets motivation from its superiors and other employees to execute a difficult work, then the employee will be encouraged to attempt difficult work in future also. In order to motivate employees, the managers of an organisation need to aware its team member, that they are a team and work as a team to achieve the same thing. Therefore, there should not be such discrimination of work or position. As recommended by Jerome (2013) teamwork is itself is a way of motivating the employees. Therefore, while the employees are working in an organisation they need to be motivated with the sense of unity and team, so that they can complete the work with all their efforts. Moreover, one of the main reasons of low retention and motivating power of companies is that they fail to build the sense of unity among their employees. In that case, sense of unity and team makes a task easier to complete, and it helps to gain more knowledge about professional career (Sanders and Yang, 2016). From the interview section of the primary research, it also can be identified that, few of the managers are pointing out that the managers of Premier Inn Hotel, are not well trained to work as a team or there is lack of unity that affect the company on its retention power.       

4.4 Summary

Through the thematic analysis, four important and relevant themes have been chosen and discussed. Moreover, it has been linked with the Premier Inn Hotel to focus on their own employee retention and motivation system. In order to motivate and retain employees training of managers and superiors are important. On the other hand, improvement in communication and working environment are also effective to motivate employees.  

Chapter 5

5.1 Conclusion

This research is based on the employee motivation and retention challenges in a hospitality industry. Here the discussion is based Premier Inn Hotel, and their employee retention power and the challenges they have faced while motivating employees. In order to gather enough knowledge of the topic and to discuss it according to Premier Inn Hotel, the researcher has done literature review and discuss different theories and their relevance in this particular research. However, as the research is based on Premier Inn Hotel, therefore, the researcher to collect appropriate data has done primary research. Through the collected data and different types of analysis, the loopholes of the company and their retention and motivation procedure have been identified. After the researcher has done primary research, the data shows that the Premier Inn Hotel has different problems related their motivational and retention techniques. As one of them is, they need to train their managers and superiors. There are others like, improvement of communication, sense of unity and development of working environment are much needed to increase their employee retention power. On the other hand, importance of motivating employees is one of the focuses of the study, therefore as identified by the survey, employees wants recognition and reward for their positive impact on organisation. Therefore, Premier Inn Hotel needs to take care of the motivation and retention factors.           

5.2 Objective linking

5.2.1 To discuss the factors responsible for the occurrence of employee turnover

Through different sources, the researcher has gathered relevant data to meet the objectives of the research. This particular objective is related with 4.3.1, 4.3.2 and 4.3.3 themes from the findings and analysis chapter. Moreover, the primary research has provided enough data about the factors, responsible for the occurrence of employee turnover. As it is identified from the interview that poor, management skills and communication skills are one of the reasons for the employee turnover. These things have been analysed and discussed throughout the research, therefore, the objective has been met.     

5.2.2 To assess the retention rate of employees in Premier Inn Hotel

The researcher has collected the primary data by interviewing and surveying the employees of Premier Inn Hotel. This objective is linked with 4.3.2, 4.3.3 and 4.3.4 is related with it. These themes are based on the ways; the company can improve their retention power. Moreover, through primary research, the present situation and employee retention capacity of the company has been identified. Therefore, though themes and primary data analysis this objective has been met, as the primary data has been collected from managers and employees of Premier Inn Hotel.    

5.2.3 To analyse the impact of employee retention in organisational growth

As the primary data has shown that, the employees and managers have different views about the bad performance of their company in employee retention. Moreover, few managers have said that there are skilled managers or their lack of unity to improve the employee retention. On the other hand, few employees have said that the wage system and work environment is not motivating. Apart from these, 4.3.1, 4.3.2, 4.3.3 and 4.3.4 all based on this objective, as they are all focused on the ways company will be benefited by motivating and retaining skilled employees.  

5.3 Recommendation

After the research, the researcher has identified few factors, mostly affected the company and its retention rate of employees. Here is little recommendation that will help the company to increase and maintain their employee retention rate.

Interactive communication: If the managers of the company will communicate with the employees about the problems they are facing, the occurrence of employee turnover can be reduced. Moreover, interactive communication helps in building strong bond in organisation and employee, which will help the organisation to retain the employees.

Better knowledge about the company: If, higher authority will train their managers so that they can train the employees with the company policies, rules. Motivate them to stay with the company for a long time. Training about mission and vision of the company can also motivate the employees to stay in the company, as everyone wants to work in a motivating and standard working environment.   It will make them work in accordance with the objectives of the company.

Incorporation of reward system: If reward system can be incorporated in this, company to motivate their employees to work even harder and contribute to meet organisational goal. This in turn will give a new vigour to the employees to work well and will motivate them.

Balance the pay scale with workload: If the company balance the workload among employees and pay them accordingly, then employees will be motivated to continue working with the company.

5.4 Limitations of the research   

  • Sources of this particular research need to be gathered from wide range of secondary sources, but the researcher did not have the time to gather all those. Therefore, while conducting the research the researcher faced lack of time and could not gather all the resources of needed for the research.
  • Money is one of the main issues that the researcher has faced and which is one of the limitations of the study, as few journals were need to be bought and few has security problem. Therefore, the researcher could not afford them for the research.
  • While gathering primary data, the researcher has faced problem to collect answers from all the participants. In all survey, questions there are minimum 10% of the participants were denied to answer.

5.5 Future scope of the research         

The researcher has focused on motivation and retention of employees but it did not identify the way to maintain the retention power. Therefore, in further research the researcher can discuss on the ways to maintain the retention rate of employees. If the study is based on increasing the retention of employees then it needs to be recommended with the ways to maintain it throughout the year. However, as in this research the researcher has discussed about the Premier Inn Hotel and their motivation and retention rate of employees. Therefore, there is a scope to recommend the ways to maintain the retention rate in future study.

Reference list

Journals

AlBattat, A.R.S. and Som, A.P.M., 2013. Employee dissatisfaction and turnover crises in the Malaysian hospitality industry. International Journal of Business and Management, 8(5), pp.62-71.

Armstrong, R. and Matters, R.T., 2017. Modern slavery: risks for the UK hospitality industry. Progress in Responsible Tourism, pp.67.

Brown, E.A., Arendt, S.W. and Bosselman, R.H., 2014. Hospitality management graduates’ perceptions of career factor importance and career factor experience. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 37, pp.58-67.

Christensen Hughes, J. and Rog, E., 2013. Talent management: A strategy for improving employee recruitment, retention and engagement within hospitality organizations. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, 20(7), pp.743-757.

Dhar, R.L., 2015. Service quality and the training of employees: The mediating role of organizational commitment. Tourism Management, 46, pp.419-430.

Dusek, G.A., Ruppel, C.P., Yurova, Y. and Clarke, R., 2014. The role of employee service orientation in turnover in the US hotel industry.Journal of Organizational Culture, Communication and Conflict, 18(2), pp.87.

Holmberg, C., Caro, J. and Sobis, I., 2017. Job satisfaction among Swedish mental health nursing personnel: Revisiting the two‐factor theory. International Journal of Mental Health Nursing.

Jehanzeb, K., Rasheed, A. and Rasheed, M.F., 2013. Organizational commitment and turnover intentions: Impact of employee’s training in private sector of Saudi Arabia. International Journal of Business and Management, 8(8), p.79.

Jerome, N., 2013. Application of the Maslow’s hierarchy of need theory; impacts and implications on organizational culture, human resource and employee’s performance. International Journal of Business and Management Invention, 2(3), pp.39-45.

Jiang, S., Scott, N. and Ding, P., 2015.Using means-end chain theory to explore travel motivation: An examination of Chinese outbound tourists.Journal of vacation marketing, 21(1), pp.87-100.

Jiang, S., Scott, N. and Ding, P., 2015.Using means-end chain theory to explore travel motivation: An examination of Chinese outbound tourists. Journal of vacation marketing, 21(1), pp.87-100.

Jones, P., Jones, P., Hillier, D., Hillier, D., Comfort, D. and Comfort, D., 2016. Sustainability in the hospitality industry: Some personal reflections on corporate challenges and research agendas. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, 28(1), pp.36-67.

Karatepe, O.M. and Uludag, O., 2017. Conflict, exhaustion, and motivation: A study of frontline employees in Northern Cyprus hotels. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 26(3), pp.645-665.

Kingir, S. and Mesci, M., 2014.Factors that affect Hotel Employees Motivation the case of Bodrum. Serbian journal of management, 5(1), pp.59-76.

Lopes, M., 2016.The hospitality industry (Doctoral dissertation).

Lundberg, C., Gudmundson, A. and Andersson, T.D., 2014. Herzberg’s Two-Factor Theory of work motivation tested empirically on seasonal workers in hospitality and tourism. Tourism management, 30(6), pp.890-899.

Munar, A.M. and Jacobsen, J.K.S., 2014.Motivations for sharing tourism experiences through social media.Tourism management, 43, pp.46-54.

Pan, F.C., 2015. Practical application of importance-performance analysis in determining critical job satisfaction factors of a tourist hotel. Tourism Management, 46, pp.84-91.

Poulston, J. and Jenkins, A., 2013. The persistent paradigm: Older worker stereotypes in the New Zealand hotel industry. Journal of Human Resources in Hospitality & Tourism, 12(1), pp.1-25.

Sanders, K. and Yang, H., 2016. The HRM Process Approach: The Influence of Employees’ Attribution to Explain the HRM‐Performance Relationship. Human Resource Management, 55 (2), pp.201-217

Simons, T. and Enz, C.A., 2015. Motivating hotel employees: Beyond the carrot and the stick. The Cornell Hotel and Restaurant Administration Quarterly, 36(1), pp.20-27.

Tangthong, S., Trimetsoontorn, J. and Rojniruntikul, N., 2014. HRM Practices and Employee Retention in Thailand–A Literature Review. International Journal of Trade, Economics and Finance, 5(2), p.162.

Tsai, C.Y., Horng, J.S., Liu, C.H. and Hu, D.C., 2015. Work environment and atmosphere: The role of organizational support in the creativity performance of tourism and hospitality organizations. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 46, pp.26-35.

Vasquez, D., 2014. Employee turnover in the hospitality industry: A qualitative phenomenological study (Doctoral dissertation, Argosy University/Sarasota).

Zopiatis, A., Constanti, P. and Theocharous, A.L., 2014. Job involvement, commitment, satisfaction and turnover: Evidence from hotel employees in Cyprus. Tourism Management, 41, pp.129-140.

Books:

Boella, M. and Goss-Turner, S., 2013.Human resource management in the hospitality industry: A guide to best practice. Routledge.

Boella, M.J., 2017. Human resource management in the hotel and catering industry.Taylor & Francis.

Bryman, A. and Bell, E., 2015. Business research methods. Oxford University Press, USA.

Kothari, C.R., 2009. Research methodology. New Age International Publishers, New Delhi.

Mok, C., Sparks, B. and Kadampully, J., 2013. Service quality management in hospitality, tourism, and leisure.Routledge.

Prebensen, N.K., Chen, J.S. and Uysal, M. eds., 2014.Creating experience value in tourism.Cabi.

Riley, M., 2014.Human resource management in the hospitality and tourism industry.Routledge.

Saunders, M. Lewis, P. Thornhill, A. 2012. Research methods for business students fifth edition, Pearson Education.

Taylor, S.J., Bogdan, R. and DeVault, M., 2015. Introduction to qualitative research methods: A guidebook and resource. John Wiley & Sons.

Online articles

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Alfes, K., Truss, C., Soane, E.C., Rees, C. and Gatenby, M., 2013. The relationship between line manager behavior, perceived HRM practices, and individual performance: Examining the mediating role of engagement. Human resource management, 52(6), pp.839-859.

Bamel, U.K., Rangnekar, S., Stokes, P. and Rastogi, R., 2013. Organizational climate and managerial effectiveness: an Indian perspective. International Journal of Organizational Analysis, 21(2), pp.198-218.

Bashir, S. and Nasir, M., 2013. Breach of psychological contract, organizational cynicism and union commitment: A study of hospitality industry in Pakistan. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 34, pp.61-65.

Bustamam, F.L., Teng, S.S. and Abdullah, F.Z., 2014. Reward management and job satisfaction among frontline employees in hotel industry in Malaysia. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 144, pp.392-402.

FK, H. and TF, N. (2015). Practices and Challenges of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) in the Hospitality Industry: The Case of First Level Hotels and Lodges in Gondar City, Ethiopia. Journal of Tourism & Hospitality, 04(05).

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dissertationprime (2017). Importance of Motivation and Retention in Restaurant Industry Sample.

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Appendices

Appendix 2: Interview questions and transcript

1. What are the motivational issues in your company?

Customer service manager (Manager 1) “Cultural diversity is an issue in communication”
Sales manager (Manager 2)   “Employees are not interested to learn more”
Marketing manager (Manager 3)   “Employees are not following leader’s orders properly”
General Manager (Manager 4)   “Managers need training about motivating employees”
Internal resource manager (Manager 5) “Managers need training about motivating employees”

2. In what way do you believe in motivating employees?

Customer service manager (Manager 1) “Train them with updated working system”
Sales manager (Manager 2)   “By interactive communication with employees”
Marketing manager (Manager 3)   “Incorporating reward system among employees”
General Manager (Manager 4)   “Recognise them for their positive contribution to the employee”
Internal resource manager (Manager 5) “Starting the reward system in organization”

3. Is there any kind of motivational technique followed by the company at present?

Customer service manager (Manager 1) Yes, the recognition system is followed by the company”
Sales manager (Manager 2)   “There are no such motivational technique practices in this company”
Marketing manager (Manager 3)   “Recognising the employees for their good work, have been practiced in this company”
General Manager (Manager 4)   There are lacks of unity in managerial group; therefore no motivational technique has been practiced in this company”
Internal resource manager (Manager 5) Reward systems is there, but not have been practiced correctly”

4. What is your view on adopting motivational technique to improve the retention power?

Customer service manager (Manager 1) “There is no need to adopt motivational technique”
Sales manager (Manager 2)   “If motivational technique can be applied, retention rate will be high”
Marketing manager (Manager 3)   “Motivational technique has no relation with employee retention”
General Manager (Manager 4)   “Yes, motivational technique will help the organization to increase the retention power”
Internal resource manager (Manager 5) “In order to retain the employees, adopting motivational technique is very important”

5. What are the reasons for less retention power?

Customer service manager (Manager 1) “Lack of interactive communication with managers and other teammates”
Sales manager (Manager 2)   “Lack of reward and recognition is also one of the reasons of less retention” 
Marketing manager (Manager 3)   “Less wage system”
General Manager (Manager 4)   “Workload is very high”
Internal resource manager (Manager 5) “Bad behaviour of Superior”

6. Are you satisfied with the working of the employees?

Customer service manager (Manager 1) “No, as employees leave the company too early”
Sales manager (Manager 2)   “The employees are good at their performance but they do not stay for long”
Marketing manager (Manager 3)   “Employees are not skilled enough to produce good quality work”  
General Manager (Manager 4)   “They demand more money than they deserve according to the designation”
Internal resource manager (Manager 5) “The employees are capable of handling pressure”  

7. What strategies can be adopted to motivate the employees of your company?

   
Customer service manager (Manager 1) “Interactive communication between managers and the employees can improve the retention”  
Sales manager (Manager 2) “Personal and professional issues can be resolve to provide them a better knowledge of work”
Marketing manager (Manager 3) “Workload can be divided to encourage employees”
General Manager (Manager 4) “Recruitment of new employees would be helpful to divide the workload among others”
Internal resource manager (Manager 5) “Managers can be trained with behavioral techniques to retain the skilled employees”

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