ABSTRACT

 

The motivation behind this study was to enlighten and establish a comparison between the role of secondary school heads as instructional leaders in public and private schools of D.I.Khan, with respect to four principle factors i.e. overseeing educational modules, observing lesson design, allotting assets and assessing instructors. These heads are playing similar duties in secondary schools, with respect to four above factors. From D.I.Khan District ten public and twelve private secondary schools were chosen haphazardly. All the Heads instructors were observed with the assistance of various other stake holders. The 5 point rating scale was awarded that comprised of 52 things in four sections. The scale was first checked and then Pilot testing was under taken. The fundamental target of pilot ponder was like a pre-trial of the instrument on a small sample. The rating scale was enhanced in the light of criticism, troubles and ambiguities which were pointed out in the meeting by the specialists of each specific field. Information were gathered practically; Z-Distribution was applied to break down and analyze the information at 0.05 level of the Significance. On the basis of various findings it was found that private secondary school heads perform their duties better than any public secondary school heads with respect to above four factors.

It is suggested that the heads of public secondary schools might be given proper training and direction with the respect of the four factors mentioned. The Public Secondary School heads might be provided with advanced procedures of instructional administration to build up the school, its students and the staff in the form of workshops and courses.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Chapter # I

INTRODUCTION

The Education System of Pakistan is divided in to three phases which are the Primary Education of the Students followed by Secondary Education and mostly terminating at the Higher Education (system commonly known as the Tertiary system of Education).

 

Semester wise Examination is based on the sessional test, various assignment tests, the presentations, midterm examination and in the end the terminal examinations. Semester framework is an instruction framework and not an examination framework. Basic instruction is learning when compared with education and its accentuation is on understudies when contrasted with instructor. The principle aim of semester system is to approach regularly, collectively and in a profound learning environment with the capacity to improve the caliber of students by working up the required instruction, conduct exams and create a systems that ends up noticeably into a true and effective Pakistani in nation.

 

The reliance of semester system of studies is in view of various contents by which it is firmly and effectively implemented. These contents are successful educational modules and as a course culmination in a predetermined time period, including the class’ administration and solid feedback of the students by their own parents, instructors and principals. Data about students such as PC, library, great level of organization and transparency in examination, secrecy in examinations and result announced on time are the advantages of this system.

 

In yearly system of examination exams are carried out in the end of the year. These are various criticisms in this arrangement of examination. It raises the absence of vitality and energy in all students. It encourages to start the preparation in a short timeframe just before an examination. It additionally bolsters a different standard of appraisal. State of mind of evaluation can’t be broke down precisely in examination system rather than semester system studies which depends on the systematic instructional procedures. To counter these disadvantages in examination framework our government had taken significant steps in the past years. A standout amongst the most countable efforts is the usage of semester system of studies in advanced education framework in Karachi December 1973.

 

 

 

The arrangement of studies at University changed to semester system of studies rather than yearly framework (khurshid 1981). This framework was set up in Punjab University Lahore (1975-76) and was getting down in 1980 (Qarshi 2006). While this system of studies is working from 1976-77 in the Agricultural College Faisalabad. (The Agricultural University Faisalabad)

 

The government of Pakistan in 2001 requested all advanced education system of studies to change over their training framework in semester system rather than yearly system. (Mahmood 2001)

At that time advanced education commission was organized in 2002, and HEC found a way to get ready and prepare all staff of Universities to introduce them proficiently in this semester system of Studies. The most significant advantages of semester framework is its formative, standard and interior kind of tests system which enable students with advanced learning techniques.     The Students learn to change rapidly through this sort of appraisal technique. They embrace association with their educator and turn out to be better in the light of instructor appraisal and giving remarks. This union or organization assumes a wonderful part in change of training and instructing, student and conduct is known as the blood of educating.

 

The testing implies assessment and evaluation of one’s instructive ability and accomplishment comparatively and its way to assess the training of a student depends upon the curriculum being taught to the students. The appraisal and assessment is a method to assess a student’s learning capacities and expertness which the students received in the specific span of stage. It incorporates the objective, aim, consolations and motivation. It includes the preparation potential of the the student and the teachers. An immaculate appraisal system checkout together the instructive and scholarly process. (Duncan, 2012 Gay, 1985)

 

 

The Teaching procedures are the contemplating aptitude or authority in strategy that is the reason the course is intended to see the impression of partners in regards to similarity of instructive practices with semester system of examination in Gomal University D.I.Khan.

 

Instructional method is the main aspect of educating in University . Educational issues are directly linked with learning and examining. The principle or essential instructive issue (in separate instructing) identifies with the centrality of the path in remote educating zones. That is the reason the present learning aspires to assess recognitions about partners with regards to similarity of Pedagogical practices with in the semester frameworks of Examination in Gomal University D.I.Khan.

 

  • Statement of the Problem:

The Government of Pakistan instructed all Universities that the instructive system is semester examination rather than yearly examination in 2001. HEC of Pakistan took significant steps to teach the authority to experts and staff of instructive framework with regards to course separation, examination, enhancing educational aptitudes and so on. The concentration of the study is to analyze about the distinction among the perspectives of stake holders with regards to correspondence of showing techniques with semester procedures of examination in the Gomal University D.I.Khan.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

  • Objectives of the study

 

Following are the Goals and objectives associated with the research being carried out. Learning was guided to think and analyze various programs of Gomal University with the accompanying goals.

 

  1. To think about the perspectives of instructors with regards to the similarity of educational practices with semester procedures of examination in Gomal University D.I.Khan.

 

  1. To think about the perspectives of students with regards to the similarity of academic practices with semester system of examination in Gomal University D.I.Khan.

 

  1. To draw a comparison of University Instructors and the students with regards to the similarity of academic practices with semester system of examination in Gomal University D.I.KHAN.

 

  • Research Questions:

 

The Research Questions included are:

  1. What were the perspectives of instructors with regards to the similarity of academic practices (pedagogical practices) with semester procedure of examination in Gomal University D.I.Khan? (In accordance with objective#1)

 

  1. What were the perspectives of the students in regards to the similarity of instructive practices (pedagogical practices) with semester arrangement of examination in Gomal University D.I.Khan? (In accordance with objective#2)

 

 

 

1.4       Research Hypotheses

Research hypotheses of this study   have been developed in relevance with the objectives  of  the  research. Research Hypothesis used contains the following details

H0:      There is absolutely no difference in the thinking of the teacher’s and students regarding compatibility of pedagogical tactics to be used in semester system in Gomal College or university D.I.Khan for the purpose of Examination. (Consistent with objective#3)

H01:   There is absolutely no significant difference in the belief of teacher’s and student’s regarding the problem based learning with semester system used in Gomal College or university D.I.Khan for the examination purposes

 

H02:   There is no noteworthy variance in the observation of instructors’ and student’s regarding collaborative learning with semester system used in Gomal University D.I.Khan for the examination.

H03:   There is absolutely no significant contrast in theobservation of teacher’s and student’s regarding learning at the workplace with semester system of exam in Gomal College or university D.I.Khan.

H04:   There is no notable difference in the conception of teacher’s and student’s regarding learning based on inquiry with the semester system of evaluation in Gomal College or university D.I.Khan.

H05:   There is no vital difference in the observation of teacher’s and student’s regarding learning established on learning with semester system of evaluation in Gomal University D.I.Khan

 

1.4     Significance of the examination think about:

The following are the advantages of the learning:

This learning is of incredible importance on the reasons that the Outcomes have the potential to help the concerned trainer and also provide an authority to construct a design of Assessment at the University Level. The study carried out was noteworthy in light of the fact that the outcomes with respect to learning will be based on the issues covering problems faced by the University Administration in various ways.

The study also focused towards noteworthy supply support system in University with regards to the development of the examination to gauge the achievement of learners under taking studies in University. The University also amid strategy seeing select directional exercises and additionally formative examination in regards to student’s accomplishments. This kind of learning gives us bolster amid the picking of directional substance through the methodology of studying and training.

This learning is an intend to improve productivity of the term exams. The overall study was extraordinarily noteworthy in light of the fact that the Findings of the research raised the accomplishment in regards to semester structure about evaluations and Assessments. This learning contributed to improve examination system being prevalent in the Universities. Specific attention is put on the disadvantage and flaw amid the structure, and supply to their answers. There is to need to completely redesign the entire term type of exam.

 

  • Delimitations

The delimitations include

  1. The study focused on 4 Faculties as a whole.
  2. The Departments and Institutions included were only where a Semester System program is offered.
  3. The Stakeholders in the Research were the Teachers and Students of the Gomal University DI Khan.

 

 

 

 

 

Chapter # II

 

REVIEW OF LITERATURE

 

  • General Description:

Atta (2014) The  explained  review  of  related  literature  mentioned  in  this  chapter  to  provide  support and  clicks  the  problems  under  study.  Its also mention the variables of the study. Moreover  it  gave  weight  age  to  the  study  and  clear  the  path  for  the  researcher.  Review of  related   literature  capture  from  Secondary  data  and  without  related  literature  we  cannot achieve  our  objectives  of  the  research.

 

Atta (2014) Explained Review of the related writing specified in this section to offer help and assistance in the problems under study. It also considers the various factors of the examination. Besides it gave weight age to the examination and clear the way for the researcher of the study. Survey of related writings obtained from Secondary information and without related writings the objectives of the Research cannot be obtained.

 

In Pakistan, Education is devised on three cycles which includes the Elementary Education, Secondary Education and tertiary Education implies over the higher Secondary level of training. Elementary and secondary is taught in schools, though advanced education is offered in universities and colleges. The examination procedures of elementary (basic) and Secondary (auxiliary) training  were based in light of the conventional arrangement of examination while advanced education faced greater changes in its approaches and overall frame both at the College and University Level.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

  • Concept of  perception

 

Heelriegel and Slocum (2017) characterize the word perception as the procedure by which individuals arrange, select, respond and decipher the data around them is called perception process. Human Being Five senses including the taste, locate, hearing, smell and touch gather the data about our general surroundings. Determination and association are the most imperative words in the meaning of the perception.

The general population see the things in an unexpected way, they select and sort out the apparent things and after that decipher chose and compose things around them. One can give careful consideration to one perspective in one’s condition and whereas the other different angles are overlooked. People group’s reactions are influenced by their understanding of the globe. A similar thing is seen in various ways and people groups’ diverse practices relying upon their distinctive discernments. The procedure of observation comprise of the following phases.

Things in the Surroundings

 

  1. The Observation

 

  1. Its Perceptual arrangement

 

  1. Considering its Perceptual affiliation

 

  1. Better Understanding

 

  1. Overall Reaction

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The truth is not considered reality since reality itself is no reality. These are the observations which make it reality. Observations are given more centrality than the truth as these Perceptions are more essential than the truth itself. The reality seems mostly harsh. “People groups observations are more imperative than the truth itself since it is based on the recognition than they demonstration”. (Hamreforc-1988).

 

 

1.2.1     Factors that impact discernment

 

  1. Perceiver: when a man sees a thing, he or she tries to translate that thing and his/her own emotions influence intensely that understanding.

 

  1. Target: when the objective is seen, the attributes of the objective influence his procedure of observation.

 

  1. Situation: The way toward seeing is affected by circumstance like clamor, area, light and so forth (Robins 2010).

 

  • The role  of   perception  in  decision  making

 

Burton (2010) observation says that the perception is the most critical connection between the subject and its objective. Great and precise recognitions are constantly useful in settling on suitable choices and discernments are the fore sprinters of deadly slip-ups. It is said that observations are the beginning stage of decision making. Abercrombie puts the light on the particular and interpretive nature of observation and offers accentuation to how a man gets data and how the outer components like setting, past experience, learning, thinking process about the individual and the aggregate circumstance influences the data. One might say that influenced perceptions influence the different decisions and decision making process.

 

 

  • Meaning and Purpose of Examination

 

Gipps (2004) the significance of examination is to judge the information and scholastic portrayal or as it were or we can state that to break down student’s capacity by the composed or oral test in view of the given syllabus. Examination is the compelling instrument to judge the understudies capacity in the light of instructors which assume a most critical part in their profession life. Examination sets aside a particular opportunity to identify and analysze the performance of the Students in various things throughout the year.

 

Examination framework is useful for both the instructors and students since it clearly analyzed the overall performance of both the teacher and student. Instructors enhance their teaching techniques in the examination framework which builds up the abnormal state result with respect to student’s performance. It gives the extraordinary consequence of educating and learning.

 

A good system Examination analyzes the Students in depth that helps them to learn to fight back stronger after every failure. Examination delivers the performance of instructors which contributes towards the comprehensive learning process. (Khatoon and Parveen, 2006)

 

2.4     System of Examination

System of examination is improving now a day by day through different articles of different scholars, authors and educational experts and give up to mark result during study hours. Its also focus on the instructors and their teaching learning process. Its helpful in determining that how teacher teaches and how students learn in the process of learning. (Kellaghan and Greaner, 2000)

There are different system of examination, pattern and form of examination.

2.5    Main Types of Examination

There are two main kinds of examination

  1. External Examination
  2. Internal Examination

 

 

 

 

2.4        System of Examination

 

System and Procedure of examination is enhancing now step by step through various articles of various researchers, writers and instructive specialists. It additionally concentrate on the instructors and their teaching learning process. It encompasses in verifying that how instructora educates and how students learn during the time spent in learning. (Kellaghan and Greaner, 2000)

 

There are distinctive arrangement of examination, example and type of examination.

 

2.5 Main Types of Examination

 

There are two primary sorts of examination

 

  1. Internal Examination

 

  1. External Examination

 

Internal Examination are directed to finish the principle course of the instructive establishment.  For this reason instructors led this kind of exam themselves since they know the Students nature and state of work. The correct declaration are led under specialist of the establishment. These instructive establishments give a full broad guide of the performance of Students in various fields of institutional life.

 

While External Examinations are redesigned in public examination and are conducted through the University leading body of instructive foundations. The endorsements are granted to students on the premise of their overall performance. The system of internal checking are into the last outcome which turn out from the External Universities.

 

 

 

In this sort of exam no partialities are included and the students all around are arranged in this kind of exam instead of internal examination. Internal Examination is based on instructor’s assessment in the classroom while external examination is identified with the outside assessment of the University leading group of instructive organizations. (Govt, of Pakistan 1959)

 

 

2.6      Formative & Summative Examination

This type of examination give result of ongoing learning which directly goes to teachers efforts they improve their learning, skills, attitudes much effectively. Formative Examination support students in verifying their advantages and limitations and mark those place in which they want to work. Its give result at the spot. Teachers evaluates the student in learning process where student learn or not. Students actively attend the class and for up to the mark result because students compete with others in the formative examination.

While in summative examination the results of students are conducted at the end of year. It support the students to test and evaluate their overall learning. Summative means the sum of all session activities, exams, assessments which evaluates by the instructor. Summative examination are high mark out, which means they have a high point value. Summative examinations based on the midterm examination and terminal examination the midterm exam are conducted by the internally and final exam conducted by external university or board of the educational institution.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2.7      Objective and Subjective Methods of Examination

 

All of our perceptions and assessments could be arrange into two segments that is objectively and subjectively. Objectives evaluate the students intends to give the different choice in the appraisal given to the student so that he can pick the right alternative from all available choices. The Students have a decision power and an attempt to pick a right answer. The Objective type examination don’t permit to the students that he/she put their own judgment or answers from their own side.

 

While in the Subjective technique the students have a decision power to pick alternative from their own insight and understanding to the best of their knowledge. Subjective technique raises the reasoning level of the students since they compose the right answer in their own particular words and furthermore enhance the written work abilities of the students. Subjective technique incorporates the article or extensive sort examination among the students to develop their aptitudes, capacity in the increasingly challenging society.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2.8       Pedagogy

 

In the simplest terms Pedagogy is an art, workmanship or techniques for educating and teaching. The utilization of instructional method is specified in the word by specific researcher, the equivalent word for instructional method is “Guideline” “Instructing” “Training” or “Teaching”. Ever, unique creators and researchers have specified diverse instructive practices to teach, and a few speculations and strategies have been transferred. The educationist utilize bulk of research and examine about their learning hypotheses to make their own instructional method, and are therefore confronted up with difficulties in the current innovation to enhance their educating and teaching style. The prosperous tutoring for all is basically to acknowledge both the science and craft of instructional method that they perform like a guardian before their students since they comprehended their prerequisites, capacities and perception.

 

Instructional method also known as Pedagogy refers to the proposal and technique for adapting, in such a way that the teaching method determine that how well is it conveyed. Interfacing a wide extent of techniques, the useful systems are control by the student’s encompassing aptitudes and perception of realities, conditions and compulsions, comparing the particular goals manage by instructor and student. Teaching method can be clarified in the fine words that refers to the diverse styles and varieties of learning which can called as an instructional method. It demonstrate the genuine way in which both the instructors’ students can work together in the best learning environment.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2.9        The History of Pedagogy in Education

From the beginning of the time, the researchers attempted all more fascinating techniques to select the odds of discerning and confidence of instruction from their pupil’s. The approach of composing around 3000 B.C.E brought about a style of instruction that was more self-intelligent, with specific occupations requiring specific aptitudes and information, copyists, space experts et cetera. In antiquated Greece, reasoning helped inquiries of instructive strategies to enter the national and public talk. In both republic and exchanges, Plato upheld an arrangement of guidelines utilizing the Socratic strategy for instructing through inquiries. Through the sharp utilization of inquiries and answers, Plato’s instructor, Socrates, could indicate even an uneducated slave kid that how the rationale prompted the Pythagorean Theorem was inside him in his mind.

 

From the early days they propelled their primary school in the year 548, the Jesuits trusted that an excellent education is the best way to ensure the full existences of administration and administration skills. The Jesuits adjusted accessible instructive models while building up their own particular academic strategies to wind up noticeably the “schoolmasters of Europe”. Ignatian instructional method, which epitomizes five key instructional components, setting, background, reflection. Activity and assessment is the procedure by which instructors go with students in the deep rooted quest for fitness, still, small voice and humane duty. This technique expects to help instructors to be the best educators, and propels the students by customizing their learning knowledge and stresses the social measurement of both learning and instructing. Under the curtains of the instructive procedure completely lies the religious measurement, for a definitive motivation behind such teaching that is thought to be the search and discovery of ALLAH.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Amid the mid-1600s, in the region which is presently the Czech Republic, the teacher Comenius composed the primary youngsters’ reading material containing distinctive outlines, entitled the obvious world in pictures. Known as the “Father of current instruction,” Comenius trusted in an all-encompassing way to deal with system of training. He showed that instruction started in the soonest days of adolescence and proceeded all through life, and that learning, otherworldly, and enthusiastic development were altogether woven together.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

During the 1700s, the philosopher jean-jacques Roussean presented his methodology on the education of children in his novel Emile. The story of the education of a young boy. Within his novel, Rousseau described the importance of having a focus on both environment and personal experience. He described different learning stages i.e. the “the age of nature” (from ages 2 to 12), Rousseau argued that he should receive no moral instructions or verbal learning, as the mind should be “left undisturbed until its faculties have developed.” Instead, education during his stage should be focused on physical and sensory development.

 

Amid the 1700s, the thinker and a philosopher Jean-Jacques Roussean displayed his philosophy on the instruction of kids in his novel Emile. The tale of the training and training of a young man. Inside his novel, Rousseau depicted the significance of having an emphasis on both condition and individual experience. He depicted diverse learning stages i.e. “the period of nature” (from ages 2 to 12), Rousseau contended that he ought to get no ethical directions or verbal learning, as the psyche ought to be “left undisturbed until the point when its resources have created.” Instead, teaching and instruction amid his stage ought to be centered around physical and tactile advancement.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The later piece of eighteenth and mid nineteenth several years, Johann Heinrich Pestalozzi, a swiss educator and enlightening reformer, essentially affected the change of the informational system in Europe and America. His informative methodology underlined the centrality of giving a worshiping family sort condition in which the child can create and succeed typically, changing their clever individual, physical and particular limits, with enthusiastic good and religious advancement. Pestalozzi certified that preparation should be centered around the youth, not the instructive modules. Since data exists in people, the purpose behind educating is to find the best way to deal with spread out that covered learning. Pestalozzi proposed direct understanding as the best strategy to accomplish this, supporting suddenness and self-development instead of the unbendable teacher engaged and instructive projects based systems all around used as a piece of schools. He maintained an inductive methodology, in which the adolescent at first makes sense of how to see, to determine in its own specific slips and to analyze and depict the challenge of demand. Remembering the true objective to empower adolescents to get all the more understanding from nature.

 

Friedrich Wilhelm August Frobel a German teacher likewise made considerable advances in youngsters’ instruction, especially the creation of the kindergarten framework for youthful kids. His own particular troubles as a tyke his affection for nature and his confidence in ALLAH, joined with his encounters with Pestalozzi instructive framework were the establishment for his bits of knowledge into the training of exceptionally youthful youngsters. He perceived the significance of play with a specific end goal to enable their inventiveness to unfurl and bloom.

 

A contemporary of Frobel, Johann Friedrich Herbart had an altogether different way to deal with training. In view of his perspectives of theory, which depended on a philosophical authenticity and brain research that all mental wonders result from the cooperation of rudimentary thoughts, Herbart trusted that an exploration of training was conceivable. Herbart’s work and his conviction that an art of training was conceivable prompted the foundation and acknowledgment of instructional method as a scholastic teach contemplated on the college level.

Friedrich Wilhelm August Frobel a German instructor additionally made considerable advances in kids’ training, especially the innovation of the kindergarten framework for youthful youngsters. His own particular troubles as a tyke his adoration for nature and his confidence in ALLAH, consolidated with his encounters with Pestalozzi instructive framework were the establishment for his experiences into the training of extremely youthful youngsters. He perceived the significance of play with a specific end goal to enable their inventiveness to unfurl and bloom.

 

A contemporary of Frobel, Johann Friedrich Herbart had an altogether different way to deal with training. In light of his perspectives of logic, which depended on a philosophical authenticity and brain research that all mental wonders result from the association of rudimentary thoughts, Herbart trusted that an exploration of instruction was conceivable. Herbart’s work and his conviction that an exploration of training was conceivable prompted the foundation and acknowledgment of teaching method as a scholarly train examined on the University level.

 

 

In this work university pedagogy (1906), Herbart advocated five formal steps in teaching, which were translated into a practical teaching methodology:

  1. Preparation -relating new material to be learned to relevant existing ideas to motivate the student’s interests
  2. Presentation – presenting new material in the form of actual experience of concrete objects
  3. Association – comparison of new idea with existing ideas to find similarities and differences and thus implant the new idea in the mind of the student
  4. Generalization – procedures designed to take learning beyond perception and experience of the concrete into the realm of abstract concepts.
  5. Application – using the newly acquired knowledge so that it becomes an integral part of the life of the students.

Herbart’s ideas were widely adopted in Germany and also the united states, translated into the simple five steps teaching methods that became the basic pedagogical practice in the nineteenth century. In the twentieth century, the steps had become mechanical and Herbart underlying ideas on ethics, psychology and aesthetics had been forgotten. I n their place new pedagogical theories such as those of John Dewey in the United States, which freed the child from what had become a controlled learning environment grew in popularity.

Although his teaching methodology was overtaken by new ideas, Herbart’s institution of pedagogy as an academic field has remained. The idea of a science of education, including psychology as a source of information about the nature of the learner as well as the learning process, has continued to advance teaching methods.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2.10          Pedagogical Skills

Pedagogy refers to the teaching skills teachers use and the activities these skills generate to enable students to learn the knowledge and skills related to different subject areas. Research shows the pedagogical approaches which are most effective in promoting learning and in particular highlights that the more students are involved as active participants in their own learning, the better they do This student-centered approach contrasts sharply with the traditional teacher-directed approach (sometimes referred to as didactic or transmission teaching) where the teacher is viewed as the font of all knowledge and where that knowledge is passed from teacher to student. With a teacher directed approach, teachers do most of the talking and students work, mostly individually, on tasks provided by the teacher, such as worksheets and text book exercises. With a student-centered approach students take a much more active role, engaging in discussion with their teacher and peers. Just as research highlights effective pedagogy, it also shows how teachers can best develop their professional skills. Experimentation with new approaches, support from specialists, and the use of tools all play an important role in effective continuing professional development

 

 

 

2.11       Pedagogical Approaches

The residential provided an opportunity for staff to experiment with several effective pedagogical approaches, in particular those that emphasized the active role of students.  Approaches used by clusters included.

2.11.1   Collaborative Learning

  Collaborative learning (CL) is an educational approach to teaching and learning that involves groups of learners working together to solve a problem, complete a task, or create a product. This article seeks to present the basic concept of CL, enabling one to understand it while ensuring important elements are taking into account. The term CL refers to an instruction method in which learners at various performance levels work together in small groups toward a common goal. Five fundamental elements involved in CL, are: Positive interdependence, Individual and group accountability, Interpersonal and small group skills, Face to face promotive interaction and Group processing.

Despite the term of collaborative learning (CL) has been used in a wide variety of ways across different disciplines and fields, there is a lack of consensus upon definition of the term (Jenni, R. & Mauriel, J., 2004). While there is no consensus on what CL is there are some underlying features that will be identified. Collaboration has become a twenty-first-century trend. The need in society to think and work together on issues of critical concern has increased (Austin, J. E., 2000; Welch, M., 1998) shifting the emphasis from individual efforts to group work from independence to community. In the CL environment the learners are challenged both socially and emotionally as they listen to different perspectives and are required to articulate and defend their ideas. In so doing the learners begin to create their own unique conceptual frameworks and not rely solely on an expert’s or a text’s framework. In a CL setting learners have the opportunity to converse with peers present and defend ideas exchange diverse beliefs, question other conceptual frameworks and are actively engaged (Srinivas, H., 2011).

CL represents a significant shift away from the typical teacher-centered or lecture-centered milieu in college classrooms. In collaborative classrooms the lecturing, listening note-taking process may not disappear entirely, but it lives alongside other processes that are based in student’s discussion and active work with the course material. Teachers who use CL approaches tend to think of themselves less as expert transmitters of knowledge to students and more as expert designers of intellectual experiences for students-as coaches or midwives of a more emergent learning process (Smith, B. L. & MacGregor, J. T., 1992).

CL occurs when small groups of students help each other to learn. CL is sometimes misunderstood. It is not having students talk to each other, either face-to-face or in a computer conference, while they do their individual assignments. It is not having them do the task individually and then have those who finish first help those who have not yet finished. And it is certainly not having one or a few students do all the work, while the others append their names to the report (Klemm, W.R., 1994).

There is persuasive evidence that cooperative teams achieve at higher levels of thought and retain information longer than learners who work quietly as individuals. Further evidence comes

From Samuel the shared learning gives learners an opportunity to engage in discussion, take responsibility for their own learning and thus become critical thinkers. Proponents of CL claim that the active exchange of ideas within small groups not only increases interest among the participants but also promotes critical thinking (Gokhale, A.A., 1995). This paper aimed at enabling one to understand the concept of CL ensuring the basic elements have been considered.

A good way to understand what CL means is to refer to the definitions presented by experts in the field, as follows:

  1. Collaborative teaching and learning is a teaching approach that involves groups of students working to solve a problem, complete a task or create a product (MacGregor, J.T., 1990).
  2. CL is an umbrella term for a variety of educational approaches involving joint intellectual effort by students or students and teachers together. Usually students are working in groups of two or more mutually searching for understanding, solutions or meanings or creating a product. CL activities vary widely, but most center on student’s exploration or application of the course material not simply the teacher’s presentation or explication of it (Smith, B.L. & MacGregor, J.T., 1992).
  3. CL is based on the idea that learning is a naturally social act in which participants talk among

Themselves. It is through the talk that learning occurs (Gerlach, J.M., 1994, p.12).

  1. CL has as its main feature a structure that allows for student talk in which students are supposed to talk with each other and it is in this talking that much of learning occurs (Golub, et al., 1988).
  2. CL is a situation in which two or more people learn or attempt to learn something together. Two or more may be interpreted as a pair, a small group (3-5 subjects) or a class (20-30 subjects). Learn something may be interpreted as follow a course; perform learning activities such as problem solving. Together may be interpreted as different forms of interaction which may be face-to-face or computer mediated (Dillenbourg, P., 1999).

2.11.2 Problem Based Learning

                               Education today is changing from one of factual based to one of inquiry based.  This new approach to learning is bringing about new ways in which students are involved in the learning process.  Teachers know that students do not learn at their highest potential when they are in a classroom where the teacher stands at the front of the room and gives them knowledge.  Students learn best when they are engaged in the learning process and discover for themselves the meaning of knowledge (Gentry, 2000, pg. 3). Problem-Based Learning (PBL) in the student centered classroom gives students the chance to discover knowledge in a meaningful and applicable way.

The familiar model of learning can be described as one in which students learn identified content and process through lecture, direct instruction, and guided discovery, and then apply their knowledge to a well-structured situation or problem (Torp & Sage, 2002 pg. 14).  In contrast, PBL lessons model real-world problems.  Problem-Based Learning is generally described as “an instructional strategy in which students confront contextualized, ill-structured problems and strive to find meaningful solutions” (Rhem, 1998).

 

As students take on the role, the problem becomes their own. This personal connection between the student and the problem at hand drives the learner to discover whatever it is they feel they need in order to arrive at a viable solution or conclusion to the problem. The three main characteristics of PBL. Torp and Sage (2002)

  1. Engages students as stakeholders in a problem situation.
  2. Organizes curriculum around a given holistic problem, enabling student learning in relevant and connected ways.
  3. Creates a learning environment in which teachers coach student thinking and guide student inquiry, facilitating deeper levels of understanding.

 

 

 

 

PBL helps students develop deeper analytical skills.  Analytical skills such as critical thinking, problem defining and problem solving are at the heart of PBL. Students use these skills by looking at possible solutions to a problem.  Students start to develop skills such as research techniques, data analysis and working as a team member as they move through these analytical skills.  All of these skills assist students in becoming lifelong learners.  By working in a team, students learn to be responsible to other learners.  The learner to set both long and short term goals as they relate to the problem.  Students learn to communicate effectively with other members of a team and learn the importance of effective communication. These skills are what the business world has been telling the educational community that students lack when entering the workplace.

PBL is an approach that does not just allow students to be an active participant in the learning process, but forces them to take an active role by engaging them in a meaningful, thought provoking way. PBL facilitates in giving students tools to become lifelong learners, tools that cannot be taught out of a text book, but only by being an integral part of the learning process.

2.11.2.1    Implementing Problem-Based Learning in the Student-Centered Classroom

In designing a PBL lesson, teachers should first identify what standards or outcomes they want their students to know by the time they reach a viable conclusion to the problem.  By first knowing what outcomes teachers want from their students, teachers can then choose or develop a problem that allows students to successfully reach those assigned standards or outcomes. There are many resources teachers can use in developing a problem for a PBL lesson. Knowing that PBL should mirror real-world problems and situations, teachers can turn to their community and colleagues.  Torp & Sage (2002 pg. 16) suggest scanning local newspapers, and speaking with community members and colleagues about problems that could be used in the classroom.  “When looking for problems teachers should assess the opportunities of ‘curriculum payback’, including integrating across disciplines and making community connection.” (Torp & Sage, 2002, pg 16)  Teachers should also look for problems that provide multiple ways in which the content can be displayed or presented (i.e. projects, presentations).

PBL should allow for multiple perspectives.  Students need to have the freedom to choose which perspective interests them and allows them to become engaged in the learning process.  “We want students to own the problem and the inquiry, and to have a personal investment in the solution” (Torp & Sage, 2002, pg.18).

2.11.2.2     Teacher Role

The teacher’s role in PBL changes from one of “all-knowing”, to one of helper or guide. The teacher must give the control to the students and allow them to make their own path to the answer, rather than the teacher laying the path out for them.  Gentry (2000, pg 11)

“Teachers are the channel through which the students acquire the skills for learning…not as a supplier for knowledge but as a prod for students to gain that knowledge on his or her own.”   The giving up of control is the part of PBL that teachers usually struggle with the most.

However, it is not only the teacher who has to change.  Students, too, have to learn to view their teacher as a guide, not the person with all the answers.  Only after this partnership between student and teacher is formed can true inquiry learning take place.  “Teachers have a huge responsibility because they are the first point of contact with their students and have a tremendous influence over the way they learn.” (Gentry, 2000, pg. 11)

 

 

2.11.2.3   Students Assume the Role

Once the problem has been developed, students need to assume a role in the problem. They need to feel the problem directly affects them, this allows them to take ownership in the problem. The problem is presented to them in a way that makes the problem theirs.  There are many different parts to the question and there is an assortment of unknowns that the students must identify and then research in order to start solving the problem.

2.11.2.4  Students immersed in the problem

After reading and taking a role in the problem, students will presumably have more questions than the problem seems to have at first glance.  The students need to become immersed in the problem, to look at what information is given and what information is not given. Students should identify what is needed to solve the problem. This does not allow for students to investigate the problem on a deeper, more meaningful level.  Instead well-structured problems only allow the learner to comprehend and apply knowledge rather than analyze and synthesize the information gained.  (Torp & Sage 2002 pg. 20)

2.11.2.5   Students identify knowledge needed

Once students understand their role, the problem, and the limited information, they can start to break the problem apart. Students will categorize what information they know, what they need to know, and what ideas they have that might help them solve the problem.  Only after students have ideas of what information is needed can they start their investigation into solving the problem.

2.11.2.6 Students identify the problem

During the data/information gathering stage of a PBL lesson, students should have an opportunity to share their data/information with other class members.  This sharing gives further ownership to the students, as well as allows for discussion and sharing of information.  The teacher as a facilitator helps to keep the students focused on the essential problem, though the problem might change over time, and even become more complex. “Many teachers post evolving problem statements in the classroom to help tighten and target the investigation.” (Torp & Sage, 2002, pg. 21)

 

2.11.2.7 Students produce possible solutions

As students start to produce possible solutions to the problem, they must revisit the original problem to see if there is a solution that is a “best fit.”  After every student has settled on what they think is the best solution to the problem, they start to prepare to present their solution to the teacher or class.  Allowing for diversity in the way in which students are allowed to present their solution is another way of giving students ownership in the process.  “They may choose to share their solution by using concept maps, charts, graphs, proposals, position papers, memos, maps, models, videos, or a web site.” (Torp & Sage 2002, pg. 22)

2.11.2.8 The use of Technology

Technology has allowed for the advancement of student-centered teaching as well as PBL.  Technology is a tool that gives students access to an almost unlimited amount of information.  In the student-centered classroom, students can become active learners by looking for information quickly and efficiently on the World Wide Web or by using research software.  “When technology is thought of as a support tool or creation of student projects, the classroom starts becoming learner-centered and takes on a different feeling” (unknown, n.d.).

When it comes to presenting the final solution to a problem, again technology can play a major role. Students are no longer limited to writing a report or making a poster to show their thoughts and share information.  With technology, students have multiple ways they can present the information to an audience.  One student might choose to create a video, while another might choose to build a website to inform others.  Yet another student might feel it best to present a solution using presentation software such as PowerPoint or Hyper Studio. Technology has opened up numerous possibilities to both teachers and students. Using technology as a tool to solve problems, is a skill students are going to need to be successful in the coming age.  PBL and technology gives both students and teachers a wide range of options when looking for answers to real-world problems.  Technology is a tool that students will need to become comfortable with and know how to use.  PBL and student-centered classrooms offer the opportunity to become comfortable with these tools now rather than later.

2.11.3  Work Place Learning

                                       Working is interconnected with learning and consequently, workplace learning is the way in which skills are upgraded and knowledge is acquired at the place of work.  The literature in this thesis concerns workplace learning and offers different definitions. Broadly speaking however, it can be defined as the acquisition of knowledge or skills by formal or informal means that occurs in the workplace.

According to Collin et al (2011) learning in the workplace is perceived as an ever-present practice that occurs through customary work systems (2011: 303).  Workplace learning mostly occurs through work-related interactions, and is generally described as contributing to the learning of both the individual employee and the organization as a whole (Collin et al, 2011: 303; Doornbos et al, 2008: 131; Felstead et al, 2005: 360, 363; Fenwick, 2008a: 228).

According to some authors, workplace learning is also ‘culturally bound’, meaning that the skills that an employee learns represent the requirements of his or her tasks within the organization (Muhammad & Idris, 2005: 65)

In addition, workplace learning can be identified as a two-way representation in which employers and employees can mutually address skills development through a process of social discourse in relation to the workplace.

2.11.3.1   Categories of Workplace Learning that Involve Intervention

                  Workplace learning is more concerned with informal learning rather than formal education and qualifications.  However, methods of workplace learning may take many forms and, according to Silverman (2003), these can be categorized into three types that involve a learning intervention of some sort: in-house training, experience-based learning opportunities and training through coaching and mentoring, and continuous learning (2003:2).

In-house training involves planned learning activities that take place near the job or outside work. Here, the organization provides either short training courses at the workplace setting or information and communication proceedings that have a learning element.  Trainers are usually from the organization itself or from external entities.

According to Silverman (2003), experience-based learning is an on the-job learning activity that is supported and evaluated, mostly through coaching and mentoring (2003: 4).  However, Eraut (2000) states that experience-based learning often occurs in an either unplanned or in an unaware manner during the usual day-to-day tasks (2000: 115).  In the case of learning that is supported and evaluated, one or more employees are identified as people who trainees and other employees can go to for advice.

Continuous learning may include a group of employees working together to identify how to improve certain processes, either formally or informally.  Accounts such as those above promote the view that continuous learning occurs where the work environment is all the time focused on the learning of new skills and knowledge and largely free of political conflict.  In this scenario employees are continuously encouraged and provided with resources to learn for themselves from e.g. books, manuals, videos and computer-based learning.

 

 

2.11.4  Inquiry Based Learning

Developed in the 1960s, many teachers see inquiry-based learning as a new pedagogy — meaning they have questions about how to use it and if it’s worthwhile.

Like problem-based learning, proponents state that letting students investigate solutions to open questions has a range of advantages. But the pedagogy must be shaped by research-backed approaches to reap these advantages.

To highlight the pedagogy’s nuances, it is important to define inquiry-based learning from both a learner and teacher perspective.

From a student point-of-view, inquiry-based learning focuses on investigating an open question or problem. They must use evidence-based reasoning and creative problem-solving to reach a conclusion, which they must defend or present.

From a teacher point-of-view, inquiry-based teaching focuses on moving students beyond general curiosity into the realms of critical thinking and understanding. You must encourage students to ask questions and support them through the investigation process, understanding when to begin and how to structure an inquiry activity.

Using methods such as guided research, document analysis and question-and-answer sessions, you can run inquiry activities in the form of:

  • Case studies
  • Group projects
  • Research projects
  • Field work, especially for science lessons
  • Unique exercises tailored to your students

Whichever kind of activity you use, it should allow students to develop unique strategies for solving open questions.

2.11.4.1  Types of Inquiry-Based Learning

There are different kinds of inquiry-based learning, which become decreasingly structured and suit different classrooms:

2.11.4.1   Confirmation Inquiry

You give students a question, its answer and the method of reaching this answer. Their goal is to build investigation and critical-thinking skills, learning how the specific method works.

2.11.4.2  Structured Inquiry

You give students an open question and an investigation method. They must use the method to craft an evidence-backed conclusion.

2.11.4.3  Guided Inquiry

You give students an open question. Typically in groups, they design investigation methods to reach a conclusion.

2.11.4.4  Open Inquiry

You give students time and support. They pose original questions that they investigate through their own methods, and eventually present their results to discuss and expand.

Regardless of the type, inquiry-based learning aims to develop students’ abilities to analyze, synthesize and evaluate information indications of high-level thinking according to Bloom’s Taxonomy.

2.11.5  Project Based Learning

Project Based Learning, or PBL, is an instructional approach built upon learning activities and real tasks that have brought challenges for students to solve. These activities generally reflect the types of learning and work people do in the everyday world outside the classroom. PBL is generally done by groups of students working together toward a common goal.

PBL teaches students not just content, but also important skills in ways students have to be able to function like adults in our society. These skills include communication and presentation skills, organization and time management skills, research and inquiry skills, self-assessment and reflection skills, group participation and leadership skills, and critical thinking. Performance is assessed on an individual basis, and takes into account the quality of the product produced, the depth of content understanding demonstrated, and the contributions made to the ongoing process of project realization. PBL allows students to reflect upon their own ideas and opinions, and make decisions that affect project outcomes and the learning process in general. The final product results in high quality, authentic products and presentations.

2.11.5.1  DOES PBL WORK?

There is forty years of accumulated evidence that the instructional strategies and procedures that make up Project Based Learning are effective in building deep content understanding. Research also shows that PBL raises academic achievement and encourages student motivation to learn. Research studies have demonstrated that PBL can:

 Be more effective than traditional instruction in increasing academic achievement on annual state-    administered assessment tests

 Be more resultant than traditional instruction for teaching mathematics, economics, science, social science, clinical medical skills, and for careers in the health occupations and teaching

 Be more practical than traditional instruction for long-term retention, skill development and satisfaction of students and teachers

 Be more serviceable than traditional instruction for preparing students to integrate and explain concepts

 Be especially effective with lower-achieving students

 Improve students’ mastery of 21st-century skills, such as critical thinking, communication, collaboration, creativity and innovation

 Provide a fruitful model for whole school reform

2.11.5.2  Characteristics of PBL 

Project based learning varies from classroom to class room, but its often characterized by the following attributes:

  • Organized around a problem or challenge without a predetermined solution
  • Creates a need to know of essential content and skills
  • Students design the process for reaching a solution
  • Requires critical thinking, problem solving, collaboration, and various forms of communication
  • Provides the opportunity for students to examine the task from different perspectives using a variety of resources, separate relevant from irrelevant information, and manage the information they gather
  • Students learn to work independently and take responsibility when they are asked to make choices
  • Students regularly reflect on what they’re doing
  • A final product (not necessarily material) is produced and is evaluated for quality
  • The classroom has an atmosphere that tolerates error and change
  • The teacher takes on the role of a facilitator rather than a leader

The project-based learning approach creates a “constructivist” learning environment in which students construct their own knowledge. Whereas in the “old school” model the teacher was the task master, and in the “new school” model the teacher becomes the facilitator.

“Project based learning allows many students to shine who might struggle on typical assessments.”

2.11.5.3  Students as Teachers

The age of the teacher as the primary fount of knowledge in the classroom is gone. Today, with the universe of experts and information available through the Internet, students can access new and relevant information not yet discovered by their teacher. Internet-using educators are discovering a new mode of learning that we call “Side-by-side learning.” It is becoming a more and more common experience to find students assuming both informal and formal roles as teachers of their peers and younger students, and in many cases of teachers.

 

2.11.5.4  Teachers as Coaches

Teachers who involve their students in project-based learning activities also find their own role changing. Rather than being simple dispensers of knowledge, they discover their primary tasks are to guide and coach and mentor their students. They teach their students how to question, and how to develop hypotheses and strategies for locating information. They become co-learners as their students take on a variety of learning projects which could be unfamiliar territory. In the end, most teachers who experience this find it a rewarding experience.

2.11.5.5  Parent and community Involvement

With the growth of the Internet, more and more of “the community” can be found online, therefore allowing closer relationships between people inside schools and outside in the “real world”. Parents, business leaders, scientists, and many other members of the community can play more effective and innovative roles as motivators, role models, sources of information, critics, evaluators, guides, and mentors.  The Internet also creates new model of school-community involvement. As students move from simply consuming, to producing and publishing new and original information and knowledge, members of the community seek out and appreciate the information presented on their Web site.

2.12  Pedagogical Leadership

Pedagogically leadership is broader view of the learning and teacher acts as the role of instructional leader. He keeps into account why’ how and when to teach. Pedagogical leadership is based on dialogue with learner. (Evan, 1999)

 

2.12.1  Pedagogy and Curriculum

According to schuber 1988 major conception of curriculum has been categorized as following:

  1. Curriculum as content or subject matter.
  2. Curriculum as a program of planned activities.
  3. Curriculum as intended learning outcomes.
  4. Curriculum as cultural reproduction.
  5. Curriculum as discrete tasks and concept.
  6. Curriculum as agenda for social reconstruction.
  7. Curriculum as currier (interpretation of lived experience)

The problem is that curriculum does not interpret about pedagogy. Pedagogy represents a more global human way of looking at the teaching act and interaction. Pedagogy as a theoretical perspective is more appropriate, more democratic and inclusive learning environment (Hargreaves 2003).

2.12.2  Quality of pedagogy

The method of authentic pedagogy is related to achieve the goal. The quality outcome for all the students regardless of background is help to restructure school to focus on high quality intellectual achievement. (Newmann 2004)

High quality intellectual achievement or authentic achievement was described by three man criteria. Construction of knowledge discipline inquiry and value of learning beyond school. (Wehlaga, Newmann)

2.13  Practices in university teaching

2.13.1  Lecture method

Institutions of higher learning across the nation are responding to political, economic, social and technological pressures to be more responsive to students’ needs and more concerned about how well students are prepared to assume future societal roles. Faculty are already feeling the pressure to lecture less, to make learning environments more interactive, to integrate technology into the learning experience, and to use collaborative learning strategies when appropriate.

For many years, the lecture method was the most widely used instructional strategy in college classrooms. Nearly 80% of all U.S. college classrooms in the late 1970s reported using some form of the lecture method to teach students (Cashin, 1990). Although the usefulness of other teaching strategies is being widely examined today, the lecture still remains an important way to communicate information.

Used in conjunction with active learning teaching strategies, the traditional lecture can be an effective way to achieve instructional goals. The advantages of the lecture approach are that it provides a way to communicate a large amount of information to many listeners, maximizes instructor control and is non-threatening to students. The disadvantages are that lecturing minimizes feedback from students, assumes an unrealistic level of student understanding and comprehension, and often disengages students from the learning process causing information to be quickly forgotten.

The following recommendations can help make the lecture approach more effective (Cashin, 1990):

  1. Fit the lecture to the audience
  2. Focus your topic – remember you cannot cover everything in one lecture
  3. Prepare an outline that includes 5-9 major points you want to cover in one lecture
  4. Organize your points for clarity
  5. Select appropriate examples or illustrations
  6. Present more than one side of an issue and be sensitive to other perspectives
  7. Repeat points when necessary
  8. Be aware of your audience – notice their feedback
  9. Be enthusiastic – you don’t have to be an entertainer but you should be excited by your topic.

2.13.2  Case Method

Providing an opportunity for students to apply what they learn in the classroom to real-life experiences has proven to be an effective way of both disseminating and integrating knowledge. The case method is an instructional strategy that engages students in active discussion about issues and problems inherent in practical application. It can highlight fundamental dilemmas or critical issues and provide a format for role playing ambiguous or controversial scenarios. The case study approach works well in cooperative learning or role playing environments to stimulate critical thinking and awareness of multiple perspectives.

 

 

2.13.3  Discussion

There are a variety of ways to stimulate discussion. For example, some faculty begin a lesson with a whole group discussion to refresh student’s memories about the assigned reading(s). Other faculty find it helpful to have student’s list critical points or emerging issues, or generate a set of questions stemming from the assigned reading(s). These practices can also be used to help focus large and small group discussions. Obviously, a successful class discussion involves planning on the part of the instructor and preparation on the part of the students. Instructors should communicate this commitment to the students on the first day of class by clearly articulating course expectations. Just as the instructor carefully plans the learning experience, the students must comprehend the assigned reading and show up for class on time, ready to learn.

 

2.13.4  Active Learning

Meyers and Jones (1993) define active learning as learning environments that allow students to talk and listen, read, write, and reflect as they approach course content through problem-solving exercises, informal small groups, simulations, case studies, role playing, and other activities — all of which require students to apply what they are learning. Many studies show that learning is enhanced when students become actively involved in the learning process. Instructional strategies that engage students in the learning process stimulate critical thinking and a greater awareness of other perspectives. Although there are times when lecturing is the most appropriate method for disseminating information, current thinking in college teaching and learning suggests that the use of a variety of instructional strategies can positively enhance student learning.

 

 

2.13.5  Cooperative Learning

Cooperative Learning is a systematic pedagogical strategy that encourages small groups of students to work together for the achievement of a common goal. The term ‘Collaborative Learning’ is often used as a synonym for cooperative learning when, in fact, it is a separate strategy that encompasses a broader range of group interactions such as developing learning communities, stimulating student/faculty discussions, and encouraging electronic exchanges (Bruffee, 1993). Both approaches stress the importance of faculty and student involvement in the learning process.

 

 

2.13.6  Integrating Technology

Today, educators realize that computer literacy is an important part of a student’s education. Integrating technology into a course curriculum when appropriate is proving to be valuable for enhancing and extending the learning experience for faculty and students. Many faculty have found electronic mail to be a useful way to promote student/student or faculty/student communication between class meetings. Others use list serves or on-line notes to extend topic discussions and explore critical issues with students and colleagues, or discipline- specific software to increase student understanding of difficult concepts.

2.13.7  Distance Learning

Distance learning is not a new concept. We have all experienced learning outside of a structured classroom setting through television, correspondence courses, etc. Distance learning or distance education as a teaching pedagogy, however, is an important topic of discussion on college campuses today. Distance learning is defined as ‘any form of teaching and learning in which the teacher and learner are not in the same place at the same time’ (Gilbert, 1995).

Distance learning technologies take many forms such as computer simulations, interactive collaboration/discussion, and the creation of virtual learning environments connecting regions or nations. Components of distance learning such as email, list serves, and interactive software have also been useful additions to the educational setting.

2.14  Semester system of Education

Our education system is devided into two major parts school education and college education. The school education consist of elementary, secondary and seniour secondary stages. The college education also consist of three stages, graduation, post graduation and research degree level. First public examination is conducted at the end of secondary stage (class X), second at the end of senior secondary education (class XII), and after this examination are held every year. After one year of instructions a public examination is conduted by the institution. Every student has to apear in an examination after one year or academic session. An academic session is the duration of teaching, aproximately equalent to one year between two annual successive examination.

In semester system each acedamic year is devided into equal parts of about six months each semester I and II semester. So, a semester is a period of six months during teaching work is conducted. After the end of teaching work of the six months, examinations are held. In this system examination are held half yearly instead of yearly.

In semester system, the students get more advantage; since examinations are held within months. The syllabus load also will be less. Different topics need not be combined in the same paper. Students get more chances to improve also. Since examinations come within a few months student unrest also will be less in a semester system. There were many challenges to be faced by the under graduate colleges in preparing the students for the semester system. The semester system is a very proactive system as it engages both the faculty and the students throughout the year in academic activity. Semester system not only involves students more throughout the year but also reduces examination burden. The semester system is the need of hour and a very effective one. (Myron Tribus, 1994)

2.15    Implementation of Semester System in Higher Education Institution of Pakistan

The universities are gradually adopting the semester system of examination in Pakistan. Accordingly, depending upon the infrastructure of each university and the findings of their expert committees, the universities are switching over to the semester system of examination in phased manner. The University of Agriculture Faisalabad was the first to adopt this system in 1968, Quaid-e-Azam University Islamabad adopted it in 1971, and the University of Karachi in the year 1974. Other universities have adopted it from 1975-76. The universities following the annual system hold their examinations twice a year, namely the first annual and second annual examinations and the universities following the semester system hold examinations at the end of each semester in addition to the periodic evaluation during the semester (University Grant Commission 1976).

The Policy Guidelines for the uniform implementation of Semester System in Pakistani higher education institutions have now been reviewed and developed keeping in view all the concerns of the stakeholders with the expectation that the HEC across Pakistan will mold their examination systems accordingly. The Draft Policy Guidelines 2014 cover broad range of policy matters pertaining to the semester system and will be able to provide holistic guidance at all levels of application and implementation.

  1. Standardized Scheme of Studies for degree Programs

1.1 Undergraduate Program

Credit Hours 124–136 Credit hours
Duration of semester 16–18 Weeks
Total Duration No of semester 8 (3.5-4years)
Session 1–2 in one academic year
Total credit hours for Regular students per semester 15–18 Credit hours

 

1.2 Master Program:

Credit Hours 30 Credit Hours
Duration of Semester 16–18 Weeks
Total Duration No.of Semester 4 (1.5–2years)
No.of Semester Session 3–4 Semesters

 

 

1.3 Course Design for undergraduate students:

  • Between 124-136 Credit hours are required for UG Degree
  • 51-63 Credit hours should be taken in courses prescribed as major
  • 34 Credit hours must be earned taking courses outside the major but within the same school as major
  • 30 Credit hours must be earned taking multi-disciplinary courses outside the school of major.

1.4 Credit Hours

  • One credit hour for theory= 50 minutes per week
  • One credit hour for lab/project work = Two hours per week
  • 3(3-0) means three contact hours
  • 4(3-1) means six contact hours

1.5 Degree Program for UG Students

  • Students who have done 2 years in Annual System (BA, BSc etc) and want to go for Bachelor Honors…..
  • 2 years in Annual system= 60 Credit hours
  • 64-76 Credit hours should be completed for Bachelor Honors Program
  • Student with 2 years bachelor degree in arts many not be eligible for Bachelor Honors in Sciences, But a 2 years bachelor degree in Science may be eligible for BBA
  • Institute must develop their own criteria for this

1.6 Degree Program for Graduate Students

  • Students who have done 2 years in Annual System (BA, BSc etc) and want to go for Master’s program
  • 2 years in Annual system= 60 Credit hours
  • May be enrolled into Masters directly by offering 94-106 Credit hours. Subject to the following
  • Complete 64-76 as UG
  • Complete another 30 for Masters.
  • Institute is obliged to issue a Bachelor Honors degree after completing the UG requirement and then Masters
  1. Semesters
  • Fall and spring semesters every year (16-18 weeks)
  • May offer one or two summer session of 8 weeks with double contact hours

2.1 Course Load for Fall/Spring

  • Regular UG student required to take 12 Credit hours, but can take maximum 18 Credit hours if GPA > 3.5
  • Regular Graduate student is required to take 9 Credit hours but can take maximum 12 if he meets the above condition
  • HOD may allow a student in last semester to take maximum Credit hours

2.3 Course Load for summer

  • Regular UG student can take 6 Credit hours
  • Regular Graduate student can take 6 Credit hours

2.4 Academic Calendar

  • Semester starting date
  • Holiday during semester
  • Semester termination date
  • Final Exam week
  • Grade notification date

2.5 Attendance

Attendance in classes is normally considered mandatory especially in a semester system.  10.2 Each Institution may develop a policy for minimum attendance (≥75%) in a course to be eligible to sit in the examination.

2.6 Examination

Nature of Activities Course with lab Course without lab
Quizzes 5–10% 5–15%
Mid Semester Examination 20–30% 30–40%
Assignment 5–10% 5–10%
Practical/Project if applicable 10–20%  
Final Examination   40–50%

 

For missed quizzes marks are zero while for other missed components make-up tests, assignments, projects can be arranged. No Supplementary/Special exam for students who fail the course, they are required to repeat it

2.7 Grading Policy

  • Relative grading is recommended
  • Screening students according to their performance relative to their peers

 

2.8 C.GPA for Degree Completion

  • Minimum C.GPA of 2.0 for Undergraduate degree
  • Minimum C.GPA of 2.5 for Graduate degree
  • During the semester If C.GPA falls below 2.0 or 2.5
  • Issue first probation
  • If no improvement issue Last probation
  • Still no improvement drop from the institute

 

 

 

2.13  Practices in university teaching

2.13.1  Lecture method

Institutions of higher learning across the nation are responding to political, economic, social and technological pressures to be more responsive to students’ needs and more concerned about how well students are prepared to assume future societal roles. Faculty are already feeling the pressure to lecture less, to make learning environments more interactive, to integrate technology into the learning experience, and to use collaborative learning strategies when appropriate.

For many years, the lecture method was the most widely used instructional strategy in college classrooms. Nearly 80% of all U.S. college classrooms in the late 1970s reported using some form of the lecture method to teach students (Cashin, 1990). Although the usefulness of other teaching strategies is being widely examined today, the lecture still remains an important way to communicate information.

Used in conjunction with active learning teaching strategies, the traditional lecture can be an effective way to achieve instructional goals. The advantages of the lecture approach are that it provides a way to communicate a large amount of information to many listeners, maximizes instructor control and is non-threatening to students. The disadvantages are that lecturing minimizes feedback from students, assumes an unrealistic level of student understanding and comprehension, and often disengages students from the learning process causing information to be quickly forgotten.

The following recommendations can help make the lecture approach more effective (Cashin, 1990):

  1. Fit the lecture to the audience
  2. Focus your topic – remember you cannot cover everything in one lecture
  3. Prepare an outline that includes 5-9 major points you want to cover in one lecture
  4. Organize your points for clarity
  5. Select appropriate examples or illustrations
  6. Present more than one side of an issue and be sensitive to other perspectives
  7. Repeat points when necessary
  8. Be aware of your audience – notice their feedback
  9. Be enthusiastic – you don’t have to be an entertainer but you should be excited by your topic.

2.13.2  Case Method

Providing an opportunity for students to apply what they learn in the classroom to real-life experiences has proven to be an effective way of both disseminating and integrating knowledge. The case method is an instructional strategy that engages students in active discussion about issues and problems inherent in practical application. It can highlight fundamental dilemmas or critical issues and provide a format for role playing ambiguous or controversial scenarios. The case study approach works well in cooperative learning or role playing environments to stimulate critical thinking and awareness of multiple perspectives.

 

 

2.13.3  Discussion

There are a variety of ways to stimulate discussion. For example, some faculty begin a lesson with a whole group discussion to refresh student’s memories about the assigned reading(s). Other faculty find it helpful to have student’s list critical points or emerging issues, or generate a set of questions stemming from the assigned reading(s). These practices can also be used to help focus large and small group discussions. Obviously, a successful class discussion involves planning on the part of the instructor and preparation on the part of the students. Instructors should communicate this commitment to the students on the first day of class by clearly articulating course expectations. Just as the instructor carefully plans the learning experience, the students must comprehend the assigned reading and show up for class on time, ready to learn.

 

2.13.4  Active Learning

Meyers and Jones (1993) define active learning as learning environments that allow students to talk and listen, read, write, and reflect as they approach course content through problem-solving exercises, informal small groups, simulations, case studies, role playing, and other activities — all of which require students to apply what they are learning. Many studies show that learning is enhanced when students become actively involved in the learning process. Instructional strategies that engage students in the learning process stimulate critical thinking and a greater awareness of other perspectives. Although there are times when lecturing is the most appropriate method for disseminating information, current thinking in college teaching and learning suggests that the use of a variety of instructional strategies can positively enhance student learning.

 

 

2.13.5  Cooperative Learning

Cooperative Learning is a systematic pedagogical strategy that encourages small groups of students to work together for the achievement of a common goal. The term ‘Collaborative Learning’ is often used as a synonym for cooperative learning when, in fact, it is a separate strategy that encompasses a broader range of group interactions such as developing learning communities, stimulating student/faculty discussions, and encouraging electronic exchanges (Bruffee, 1993). Both approaches stress the importance of faculty and student involvement in the learning process.

 

 

2.13.6  Integrating Technology

Today, educators realize that computer literacy is an important part of a student’s education. Integrating technology into a course curriculum when appropriate is proving to be valuable for enhancing and extending the learning experience for faculty and students. Many faculty have found electronic mail to be a useful way to promote student/student or faculty/student communication between class meetings. Others use list serves or on-line notes to extend topic discussions and explore critical issues with students and colleagues, or discipline- specific software to increase student understanding of difficult concepts.

2.13.7  Distance Learning

Distance learning is not a new concept. We have all experienced learning outside of a structured classroom setting through television, correspondence courses, etc. Distance learning or distance education as a teaching pedagogy, however, is an important topic of discussion on college campuses today. Distance learning is defined as ‘any form of teaching and learning in which the teacher and learner are not in the same place at the same time’ (Gilbert, 1995).

Distance learning technologies take many forms such as computer simulations, interactive collaboration/discussion, and the creation of virtual learning environments connecting regions or nations. Components of distance learning such as email, list serves, and interactive software have also been useful additions to the educational setting.

2.14  Semester system of Education

Our education system is devided into two major parts school education and college education. The school education consist of elementary, secondary and seniour secondary stages. The college education also consist of three stages, graduation, post graduation and research degree level. First public examination is conducted at the end of secondary stage (class X), second at the end of senior secondary education (class XII), and after this examination are held every year. After one year of instructions a public examination is conduted by the institution. Every student has to apear in an examination after one year or academic session. An academic session is the duration of teaching, aproximately equalent to one year between two annual successive examination.

In semester system each acedamic year is devided into equal parts of about six months each semester I and II semester. So, a semester is a period of six months during teaching work is conducted. After the end of teaching work of the six months, examinations are held. In this system examination are held half yearly instead of yearly.

In semester system, the students get more advantage; since examinations are held within months. The syllabus load also will be less. Different topics need not be combined in the same paper. Students get more chances to improve also. Since examinations come within a few months student unrest also will be less in a semester system. There were many challenges to be faced by the under graduate colleges in preparing the students for the semester system. The semester system is a very proactive system as it engages both the faculty and the students throughout the year in academic activity. Semester system not only involves students more throughout the year but also reduces examination burden. The semester system is the need of hour and a very effective one. (Myron Tribus, 1994)

2.15    Implementation of Semester System in Higher Education Institution of Pakistan

The universities are gradually adopting the semester system of examination in Pakistan. Accordingly, depending upon the infrastructure of each university and the findings of their expert committees, the universities are switching over to the semester system of examination in phased manner. The University of Agriculture Faisalabad was the first to adopt this system in 1968, Quaid-e-Azam University Islamabad adopted it in 1971, and the University of Karachi in the year 1974. Other universities have adopted it from 1975-76. The universities following the annual system hold their examinations twice a year, namely the first annual and second annual examinations and the universities following the semester system hold examinations at the end of each semester in addition to the periodic evaluation during the semester (University Grant Commission 1976).

The Policy Guidelines for the uniform implementation of Semester System in Pakistani higher education institutions have now been reviewed and developed keeping in view all the concerns of the stakeholders with the expectation that the HEC across Pakistan will mold their examination systems accordingly. The Draft Policy Guidelines 2014 cover broad range of policy matters pertaining to the semester system and will be able to provide holistic guidance at all levels of application and implementation.

  1. Standardized Scheme of Studies for degree Programs

1.1 Undergraduate Program

Credit Hours 124–136 Credit hours
Duration of semester 16–18 Weeks
Total Duration No of semester 8 (3.5-4years)
Session 1–2 in one academic year
Total credit hours for Regular students per semester 15–18 Credit hours

 

1.2 Master Program:

Credit Hours 30 Credit Hours
Duration of Semester 16–18 Weeks
Total Duration No.of Semester 4 (1.5–2years)
No.of Semester Session 3–4 Semesters

 

 

1.3 Course Design for undergraduate students:

  • Between 124-136 Credit hours are required for UG Degree
  • 51-63 Credit hours should be taken in courses prescribed as major
  • 34 Credit hours must be earned taking courses outside the major but within the same school as major
  • 30 Credit hours must be earned taking multi-disciplinary courses outside the school of major.

1.4 Credit Hours

  • One credit hour for theory= 50 minutes per week
  • One credit hour for lab/project work = Two hours per week
  • 3(3-0) means three contact hours
  • 4(3-1) means six contact hours

1.5 Degree Program for UG Students

  • Students who have done 2 years in Annual System (BA, BSc etc) and want to go for Bachelor Honors…..
  • 2 years in Annual system= 60 Credit hours
  • 64-76 Credit hours should be completed for Bachelor Honors Program
  • Student with 2 years bachelor degree in arts many not be eligible for Bachelor Honors in Sciences, But a 2 years bachelor degree in Science may be eligible for BBA
  • Institute must develop their own criteria for this

1.6 Degree Program for Graduate Students

  • Students who have done 2 years in Annual System (BA, BSc etc) and want to go for Master’s program
  • 2 years in Annual system= 60 Credit hours
  • May be enrolled into Masters directly by offering 94-106 Credit hours. Subject to the following
  • Complete 64-76 as UG
  • Complete another 30 for Masters.
  • Institute is obliged to issue a Bachelor Honors degree after completing the UG requirement and then Masters
  1. Semesters
  • Fall and spring semesters every year (16-18 weeks)
  • May offer one or two summer session of 8 weeks with double contact hours

2.1 Course Load for Fall/Spring

  • Regular UG student required to take 12 Credit hours, but can take maximum 18 Credit hours if GPA > 3.5
  • Regular Graduate student is required to take 9 Credit hours but can take maximum 12 if he meets the above condition
  • HOD may allow a student in last semester to take maximum Credit hours

2.3 Course Load for summer

  • Regular UG student can take 6 Credit hours
  • Regular Graduate student can take 6 Credit hours

2.4 Academic Calendar

  • Semester starting date
  • Holiday during semester
  • Semester termination date
  • Final Exam week
  • Grade notification date

2.5 Attendance

Attendance in classes is normally considered mandatory especially in a semester system.  10.2 Each Institution may develop a policy for minimum attendance (≥75%) in a course to be eligible to sit in the examination.

2.6 Examination

Nature of Activities Course with lab Course without lab
Quizzes 5–10% 5–15%
Mid Semester Examination 20–30% 30–40%
Assignment 5–10% 5–10%
Practical/Project if applicable 10–20%  
Final Examination   40–50%

 

For missed quizzes marks are zero while for other missed components make-up tests, assignments, projects can be arranged. No Supplementary/Special exam for students who fail the course, they are required to repeat it

2.7 Grading Policy

  • Relative grading is recommended
  • Screening students according to their performance relative to their peers

 

2.8 C.GPA for Degree Completion

  • Minimum C.GPA of 2.0 for Undergraduate degree
  • Minimum C.GPA of 2.5 for Graduate degree
  • During the semester If C.GPA falls below 2.0 or 2.5
  • Issue first probation
  • If no improvement issue Last probation
  • Still no improvement drop from the institute

 

 

Chapter # III

 

 

MATERIALS AND METHODS

Research Methodology

3.1 Introduction

Investigative procedure is the art of teaching that in what way of investigation can be achieve. Necessary, the methods through which investigator make start on their efforts about expressing in words, narrating and estimating facts is known as research methodology. To find the difference among the perceptions of university teachers and students about the pedagogical practices with semester system of examination in Gomal University D.I.KHAN. The province Khyber PakhtunKhwa has been divided into four districts and dera Ismail khan is one of them. The total area of this district is 7326 square kilo meter, it is situated at the west bank of the famous river Indus River and according to the found figures of 1998 census the total population of the district Dera Ismail khan was 85299. The literacy rate of this district is 31.28.

According to Wikipedia Gomal University main campus is located 15 kilo meters away from dera Ismail khan on Multan Road and the city campus is in the city. The founder of the university was the former prime minister of Pakistan zulfiqar Ali Bhutto, Bhutto laid the foundation stone of this great seat of learning on 1st may 1974. Sardar Nawab Allah Nawaz Khan was the first vice chancellor and founder vice chancellor of this university. He was the man who donated 1000 Kanals of land for the establishment of the university. Gomal University was the second University the province and now it at 12th position among the best category of Pakistan.

 

The following five faculties are working in the university.

  1. Faculty of Arts
  2. Faculty of science
  3. Faculty of Agriculture
  4. Faculty of pharmacy
  5. Faculty of engineering

The following bachelor degrees are being offered by Gomal University

  • Bachelor of computer science

 

 

  • Bachelor of education
  • Bachelor of veterinary Medicine
  • Bachelor in telecommunication Engineering
  • Bachelor of commerce
  • Bachelor of Business of Administration
  • Bachelor of biotechnology
  • Pharm D
  • Bachelor in Information Technology
  • L.B

 

The following postgraduate degrees are being offered by Gomal University.

  • Master of computer science
  • Master of science in Physics
  • Master of science in Biology
  • Master of science in Health Physical Education
  • Master of science in Chemistry
  • Master of science in Economics
  • Master of science in Mathematics
  • Master of science in statistics
  • Master of science in journalism and Mass Communication
  • Master of Arts in English
  • Master of Arts in Islamiyat
  • Master of Commerce
  • Master of Business Administration
  • Master in Public Health
  • Master in Banking accounting
  • Master in Public Administration
  • Master of Business Administration

 

 

3.2 Research design

The tool of questionnaire was used to collect the data for the study so the form of the study was descriptive. The latest position of a thing was investigated in such type of research. It deals with the present situation in a well arranged and well organized matter. It ignores why they are that why? – As its whole focus is on what think are like? Mostly the descriptive type of research is directed to uncover the nature of present situation, different condition of present situation, degree of present situation and detail of present situation, (De Vous 1985).

(Jackson 2009) Illustrative investigation is that type of research which is initially committed expressing in words the creation or state and level in detail about the current condition. The objective of illustrative research is to clarity draw up research hypothesis which is mention in current condition in sequence to clarify it. This study will attempt to know about the compatibility of pedagogical skills with semester system of examination in the Gomal University. Therefore, information will be collected regarding the compatibility of pedagogical skills with semester system.

3.3 Population of the study

Population of this study will comprise of all the teachers and students from four faculties of Gomal University D.I.Khan. The total number of students enrolled in 2015-2016 is 4788, similarly the total number of teachers is 252 in Gomal University D.I.KHAN.

  • All Teaching staff and students of the faculty of arts
  • All Teaching staff and students of the faculty of science
  • All Teaching staff and students of the faculty of agriculture
  • All Teaching staff and students of the faculty of engineering

 

STATUS TEACHERS STUDENTS TOTAL
FACULTY OF ARTS 87 1451 1538
FACULTY OF SCIENCE 82 1780 1862
FACULTY OF AGRICULTURE 73 1382 1455
FACULTY OF ENGEENIRING 10 175  

5040

GRAND TOTAL 252 4788

 

3.4 Sampling

A sub set of units, things or objects taken from the entire population which is under study is called sample. A sample is the representative of the whole population. It is practically unachievable to examine each and every member of the targeted population as it is nearly impossible to connect and get time from every member of the selected population in the given time. A lot of money, efforts and time are required to get the information from a big volume of the population so this big volume minimizes through the art of sampling. (Butcher 1966)

 

In this study the following individuals became the sample.

  • 5 departments were taken as sample from each faculty of Gomal University where semester system program offered.
  • 10 teachers were taken from each department of Gomal University
  • 22 students were taken from each department of Gomal University dera Ismail khan

 

3.4.1 Sampling Technique

The population of the present study comprised of teachers and students. The convenient sample technique was used in making selection of teachers because non availability of some teachers the data collected from another teachers to fulfill the requirement of research. The simple random sampling technique was used in making selection of students as it is the most simple and easy form of sampling. It could be used in an unbiased selection of individuals which are from the whole set. Each member of the population has an equal and independent chance of being selected as a sample unite in the process of this technique. Similarly the stratified random sample technique was used in making selection of faculties of Gomal University where semester system program being offered.

 

3.4.2 Sample size

There are 29 Institutions/Department exist in Gomal University which offering semester system program, in which quite large number of students are enrolled in each faculty, it will practically be not possible to reach every student and teacher for the collection of require data.

To tackle the problem, sample were selected according to the table given by Krejcie and Morgan (1970). A sample of 512 individuals, in which total number 155 Teachers, 357 students were selected. A total of 512 questionnaires distributed among the teachers (155) and students (357) and 512 questionnaires successfully back because the researcher personally visit  all the departments which were selected as a sample for the research thesis and were applied in the process of analysis for this study.

 

STATUS TEACHERS STUDENTS TOTAL
FACULTY OF ARTS 54 107 161
FACULTY OF SCIENCE 50 130 180
FACULTY OF AGRICULTURE 45 103 148
FACULTY OF ENGEENIRING 06 17 23
TOTAL 155 357 512

 

 

 

 

Table of sample with finite population given by krejcie and morgan (1970)

Table 3.1:      Table for determining sample of a known population
N S N S N S N S N S
10 10 100 80 280 162 800 260 2800 338
15 14 110 86 290 165 850 265 3000 341
20 19 120 92 300 169 900 269 3500 346
25 24 130 97 320 175 950 274 4000 351
30 28 140 103 340 181 1000 278 4500 354
35 32 150 108 360 186 1100 285 5000 357
40 36 160 113 380 191 1200 291 6000 361
45 40 170 118 400 196 1300 297 7000 364
50 44 180 123 420 201 1400 302 8000 367
55 48 190 127 440 205 1500 306 9000 368
60 52 200 132 460 210 1600 310 10000 370
65 56 210 136 480 214 1700 313 15000 375
70 59 220 140 500 217 1800 317 20000 377
75 63 230 144 550 226 1900 320 30000 379
80 66 240 148 600 234 2000 322 40000 380
85 70 250 152 650 242 2200 327 50000 381
   90 73 260 155 700 248 2400 331 75000 382
95 76 270 159 750 254 2600 335 1000000 384
Note: N is population size; S is sample size                                                              Source: krejcie & Morgan, 1970

 

3.5 Data collection

   The articles, research reports, academic publications, books, research journals and internet were the chief resources used by the researcher to gather information and data about the topic under study.

 

3.6 Pilot Study

   The use of minor study for the possibility and the preparation of the major study is termed as the pilot study. The process of pre-testing a research tool or data collecting instrument is also termed as pilot study. It is revealed by the pilot study that the research tool/instrument is appropriate, impropriate, reliable or problematical for the further study. The soundness of the research instrument (questionnaire) may be improved to highest level in the light of received results of pilot testing. This is thought the smaller scale version of the main study so it maximizes the validity of the coming study. The problems indicated by the pilot study are corrected before the main study is conducted. It makes the researcher work easier and suggests the desired positive changes, (Hall 2008)

This scale was filled by the 10 students and 5 teachers for pilot testing. More than one pilot studies are conducted before the main study when the studies are conducted on the huge levels. The technique of a written questionnaire can be employed as the initial stage of pilot testing. The arrangement of items, arrangement of words in those items and variety of different answers are tasted in the second phase of the pilot study. The methods of circulation, distribution and collection of the questionnaire are tasted at the final stage of a pilot study. Several things like assessing the value of questions, order and proper use of words and ways of distribution and data collection are modified with the help of testing, (Broide 2007).

 

3.6.1 Data Collecting Tool

A structured and well organized questionnaire (see appendix- ) on five point Likert scale was used for the purpose of collecting data about the perceptions of Gomal University Teachers and Students about the status of pedagogical practices with semester system of examination.

 

3.7 Validity and Reliability

   The Cronbach’s Alpha formula was applied to measure the validity and reliability of the data collecting tool or measuring scale and the outcomes were analyzed through a computer software namely statistical package for social sciences (SPSS 21). The score from cronbach’s Alpha based on standardized item was 0.788 for the entire questionnaire (Data collecting tool). The calculated score uncovered that measuring tool was reliable and valid. The content validity and reliability was checked by the experts and M.Phil. Scholar in the field of social sciences. (List of expert is given in Appendix-). Totally 66 questions were made by the researcher in which 11 questions have rejected on the basses of difficult language and impropriate words. Similarly total 512 questionnaires were sent to teachers (155) and students (357). The received amount of the questionnaire was 155(100%) from teaching staff and 357(100%) from students were applied in the present study for the process of analysis.

Table#3.7.1: Alpha reliability co-efficient of total and subscale of pedagogical practices.

Subscales #of Questions Alpha co-efficient
1. Problem based learning 14 0.91
2. Collaborative learning 09 0.73
3. Workplace learning 12 0.79
4. Inquiry based learning 07 0.81
5. Project based learning 13 0.70
  TOTAL 55 0.788

 

 

Initial psychometric analysis, using cronbach alpha coefficient yielded an internal consistency coefficient of .788 for the whole 55 items that ranged from .70 to .91 for the subscale of pedagogical practices.

 

3.8 Measuring Scale

   A five point Likert scale which ranged from strongly disagree tp strongly agree was used for the purpose of calculating the opinion of respondents. Likert scale has been continuously called as ranking scale and evaluation scale. This is generally used in questionnaires. Renis Likert developed this famous and often used scale. He was a sociologist at the University of Michigan and he introduced this technique in the report having the title “A Technique for measurement of Attitudes”. That report was published in archives of psychology in 1932. He had the desire to develop a tool of measuring psychological attitude in a scientific manner. Finally he found a method that could be used for producing psychological attitudes measurements which could be presented as measurements on a paper matric scale in the same way as grams or degrees or true measurements scales are presented. Often this scale is used to measure the responses of participant in a survey research. This scale generally ranges from strongly disagree to strongly agree. The instructions lead the respondents to encircle or click the answer of their choice for each given statement. Two to seven answer choices are used in different types of this scale but five point Likert scale is commonly used and more famous than others.

A five point Likert scale was employed in the present study which ranges from strongly disagree to strongly agree. The format of five point Likert scale was used in this study has been given in figure 3.10

 

Figure 3.10 an illustration of five points Likert scale used in the study for data collection.

 

Version Strongly Agree Agree Undecided Disagree Strongly Disagree
Numeral value 5 4 3 2 1

 

3.11 Data Analysis

   The data collected through rating scale of students and teachers was organized, arranged, tabulated and analyzed separately. For the purpose of analysis a statistical package for social sciences (SPSS Version 21) was used, and also all the result were verified manually. The collected data was analyzed to make difference between perceptions of teachers and students. The scores of all samples were calculated; summed, means score and standard deviation (S.D) were calculated. Co-efficient of variation (C.V) and “z” test was used as statistical technique to compare the significance difference between the means on the pedagogical practices with semester system of examination in Gomal University D.I.KHAN.

 

Alam (2000), “This accomplished by calculating a quantitiy which expresses the standard deviation as a percentage of the mean, called co-efficient of variation (C.V). A data is considered more stable if it has less variation and likewise it is less stable if variation is more. Co-efficient of variation is therefore used to determine the stability or consistency of a data” (P.51)

 

Atta (2012) “when sum of the series is divided by its number of items with in the same series than so obtained value is called arithmetic mean “. Arithmetic mean is most popular and stable average and is based on all observations. It is used in the calculation of z distribution.

Arithmetic Mean

 

STANDARD DEVIATION

CO-EFFICIENT OF VARIATION

The co-efficient of variation was first suggested by Professor Karl Pearson. “Co-efficient of variation is the standard deviation as a percentage of Arithmetic Mean”. To compare two or more sets of a data, we make the use of co-efficient of variation. If the co-efficient of variation is smaller the performance is more consistent.

     

When Population variance σ2 or Standard Deviation σ is not known and n>30 then we use Z-Statistic to test the population mean μ in the given form.

 

 

 

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