NEETs and the Disengaged: the ‘New’ Youth Problem – Case Study

Analysis of case study 1: “NEETs and the disengaged: the ‘new’ youth problem”

Criterion 1: Clearly identify a socially excluded group

In case study 1 “NEETs and the disengaged: the ‘new’ youth problem”, a socially excluded group of young people from 16 to 18 in Wales are unable to cover employment, training, and education (France, 2016). Additionally, the “youth problem” is becoming a core indicator that is used through ILO (International Labour organization), OECD (“Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development”), and EU (“European Union”). This becomes a key statistical indicator towards less social activities of youth and unemployment as per the “EU’s growth strategy 2020”.

Criterion 2: Provide evidence of the social exclusion of your target group using at least two approved data sources

According to OECD 2014a, the unemployment rate is observed among 20-24 years old people and in 2011 the highest level of youth unemployment was observed. Additionally, Spain, Chile, Greece, Ireland, Turkey, and Italy have faced more than 20% of youth unemployment from 15-29 years old people (OECD, 2014a). From the total NEET population, 70% of people in Spain are involved with “lower levels of educational attainment”. Apart from that, it also indicates strong evidence of youth vulnerability and failure to manage policies and their recognition (Furlong, 2006).

Criterion 3: Identify systemic & structural factors impacting this target group; cite and briefly outline three approved Key Readings and identify relevant features for further research

Several NEET problems are observed in this case study and major key readings for the systemic and structural factors are followed as:

“Early intervention at school”

“Making employment, education or training compulsory”

“Targeting intervention for 16–17-year-olds”

These features can save youth employment with great strategies and effective government policies and plans. From these, “Targeting intervention for 16–17-year-olds” is exceptional for the youth to develop their educational and social process with effective policies of the government. It provides £30 to the youth from 16-17 years old who are engaged with low income (France, 2016). This helps to push them to attend the education system and reduce the number of NEETs in the UK. In 2010, the policy was changed and that became more reliable and effective interventions and policies. The coalition government provided approximately £1 billion for youth set up with the age of 18-24 years old. This is only suitable for those who are experienced for 12 weeks and are unpaid. As per the case study analysis, a recent record shows that a minimum of 71,000 youth had disengaged from training, education, and employment (McGinty and Brader, 2005). More than 96% of educated people are aware of helping them for their growth and employment.

Criterion 4: Identify and outline a policy/program/intervention directed towards the selected target group, and identify relevant features for further research and analysis

With the election of “Tony Blair”, a new deal was introduced on the basis of “third-way” policies and that had been funded by a large amount of tax. This policy helped young people from 18 to 24 and pushed them to participate with effective clarity about education, employment, and training (Furlong, 2006). In 2010, a new deal replaced the policy and indicated the restructure of the “universal credit” system that involves an extraordinary transition between benefits and work. In the case of Australia NEET, WFD (“Work for Dole”) program has been introduced for developing the scheme related to unemployment of 18 to 24 years old (France, 2016). Additionally, it was helpful for those who have not managed to earn a big amount and they are included with different loans and private benefits within Australia. Thus, intervention or policy can help youth and that has been analysed through this case study regarding NEET.

Analysis of case study 2: “Outside the mainstream”

Criterion 1: Clearly identify a socially excluded group

The noticeable youth group in this case study is from 12-16 years and Mark is an example in this study that left school to manage a job and his troubling behaviour has been described in this study. “Mainstream” is a part of young people in Western Cultures like Mark who have not completed their schooling and are able to manage a job at an early age (Peter and Wyn, 2001). The study also indicates the “outside the mainstream” and this is not valuable for school dropouts who are unable to join a job.

Criterion 2: Provide evidence of the social exclusion of your target group using at least two approved data sources

It is not an isolated case and Mark is a pure example of “mainstream” and he is referred to as a counterpart. According to GED (general educational development), the US has larger school completion than other countries and 40% of the students are able to manage their GED certificate and subsequent return (Peter and Wyn, 2001). On the other hand, in the case of the Australian schooling system three-way split has been worked for higher education or university, vocational training and education, and involvement of formal study with anything. From the age of 16-19, the youth are able to manage their education, training, and employment along with 23% in Australia (Department of Employment, Education, and Training [DEET]).

Criterion 3: Identify systemic & structural factors impacting this target group; cite and briefly outline three approved Key Readings and identify relevant features for further research

On the basis of the available evidence, it can be seen that school performance is a key contribution related to dropping out. Besides, this is involved with family income and ethnicity as well as resorting to sole explanation (Iu, 2015). The author indicates four major features within this study and these are followed as:

“An adolescent’s own development of self, particularly as a learner”

“Occurrence of role conflict within the school and between the school and other environments”

“The existence of cultural dissonance for students and staff”

“Structural deficits and limitations within the school (in particular), families, and communities”

These are major features of this study about whether the “mainstream” and proper education systems in schooling in different countries are not effective for job and employment. Besides, the new world is selected “outside the mainstream” and this provides about the African American, Mexican Migrants, “some jobless white skinheads in a down-at-heel Los Angeles suburb” (Peter and Wyn, 2001). This is the evidence of “Liberal consumerism” and that prevailing American ideology and in most of the cases, it is considered that schooling systems are not effective for employers and job roles.

Criterion 4: Identify and outline a policy/program/intervention directed towards the selected target group, and identify relevant features for further research and analysis

“Culture of poverty” is an excellent program about the survival strategies of middle-income outsiders. In this regard, “Liberal consumerism” is the best approach to adopt education, opportunities, and shrinking growth. Many countries like Australia, US are involved with the “outside the mainstream” and these are helpful for effective berries. These are “less committed students”, “age discrepancies with troublesome dynamics”, poor responsibility, and less individual autonomy (Dyson and Plunkett, 2012). Mark is the special case of this study to influence others to leave school and look for a job at an early age like 12-19 years old (Peter and Wyn, 2001). Some active and inactive social responsibilities are involved with this culture and Terry is an example who is earning “a meagre $50 a week to deal in drugs’ ‘ and the illegal drugs trade influence many youths for making illegal activities for financial support.

Analysis of case study 3: “Youth transition”

Criterion 1: Clearly identify a socially excluded group

The selected socially excluded group is from 9-12 years old people and the study is focused on the transition of youth. In this regard, from education to employment, youth have faced many difficulties and they are involved with part-time work before permanent employment. Low-level jobs and entry-level jobs are considered for 9-12 years youth and the labour market is highly engaged with these activities (Vickers, 2010). This becomes challenging for youth and these harmful situations are continuously growing for the last three decades.

Criterion 2: Provide evidence of the social exclusion of your target group using at least two approved data sources

An effective feature was observed in 1980 between university admission and school graduation and in this regard, youth are not able to follow the ATAR pathway. Besides, according to OECD standards, the rate was still over 14% in 2016 over Australia. Additionally, a crucial range of “VETiS” became available for the school students. This can be effective for managing the ATAR pathway or not (Cuervo and Wyn, 2011). In 2014, the unemployment rate for 15-24 years youth rose up to 13.9% and GFC (Global financial crisis) led to the collapse of “Lehman Brothers Bank” in 2008 and that indicates contraction within employment.

Criterion 3: Identify systemic & structural factors impacting this target group; cite and briefly outline three approved Key Readings and identify relevant features for further research

In order to identify the structural and systematic factors towards the target groups, several features are observed in analysing the case study. These are entry to apprenticeship or workforce, secondary school competition, involvement of education programs, and admission to a university. For the Indigenous Australians, youth living in “low socio-economic households” and they are living in rural and remote areas instead of large cities (Vickers, 2016). For example “Young people from LBOTE families are more likely to complete school than those whose main language at home is English; the difference is about 11 percentage points (83.4% versus 72%)”. They are unable to manage the proper development of their educational growth and services and due to this employment are not managed by them. From the age of 15-24 years, youth along with socio-economic backgrounds try to involve with NEET for their transition of education, training, and employment processes. Added to this, 2.6% of youth are engaged with highest SES and 14.2% of youth are in lowest socio-economic that are devilled to NEET. After the categorization of NEET, women are unable to work because of disability. For discouraged workers, NEET is no longer for youth to confirm about their jobs and is reflected as precariousness towards circumstances.

Criterion 4: Identify and outline a policy/program/intervention directed towards the selected target group, and identify relevant features for further research and analysis

An effective, as well as additional career course must be included in career fields along with a wide range of opportunities and meeting several requirements. VETiS programs are more reliable for youth transition compared to vocational traditional programs or interventions. Besides, it provides different opportunities for plumbers, carpenters, electrical trades, and should include effective subjects like physics and mathematics. As a result, good knowledge and skills are involved with these and that is most appropriate for the youth VETiS coursework (Worth, 2009). These effective programs can serve better quality employment services and proper educational training for young people from 15-24 years old (Vickers, 2010). Apart from that, “Researchers from the University of Melbourne group” indicate that schools must include better human resource management and finance to achieve success and manage partnerships with external providers and companies of vocational training programs. Additionally, the poor effect of these partnerships can be indicated as lower-quality training and services that are not relevant to higher-quality work experiences.  Thus, a transition of youth can serve better quality higher education and training to the age of 15-24 for attending proper girth and employment.

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