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Promoting Health and Preventing Ill Health: Multiple Sclerosis (MS)

Promoting Health and Preventing Ill Health: Multiple Sclerosis (MS)

 

Introduction

Multiple Sclerosis can be defined as a chronic disease that impacts the central nervous system, specially the spinal cord and brain is affected in this disease. A large range of symptoms can be identified in the body. The term ‘multiple sclerosis’ is used as scar tissue in multiple areas It has mainly affected the cerebellum, can control balance and can coordinate movement. The optic nerves and spinal cord are affected in this disease. The optic nerves and white matter in different regions of the brain can be affected. For improving the health condition the health promotion strategy should be applied to mitigate the multiple sclerosis. This promotion of health would try to explore its arm via covering education with the health promotion as well as the accession of professional care that is necessary over the persons that is associated with the disease multiple sclerosis.

Description of the background of the health condition/issues with definition and its types

Multiple sclerosis has been explained by the scientists as the autoimmune disorder that can affect the central nervous system. It can happen when the autoimmune disease has attacked the healthy tissues; it can be a virus or bacteria. In this disease the immune system has attacked the myelin sheath that protected the nerve fibres. It can be the cause of inflammation. It has helped the nerves that conduct the electrical signals efficiently (Wang et al. 2018, p.5).  It has attacked the optic nerves, spinal cord, brain stem, and cerebellum and can control balance. The Multiple sclerosis can be four types such as –

Clinically isolated syndrome

It can be supposed to be the first episode that the symptoms can last for twenty four hours. Other episodes can occur at a later period.

Multiple sclerosis of Relapse remitting

This is the common form of this disease; it can affect eight five percent people with MS. It involves the episodes of increasing symptoms; it has been followed by the time limit of remission and the symptoms can go partially or totally (Perssonet al. 2020, p.1556).

Figure 1: Multiple Sclerosis

(Source: Evangelouet al. 2021, p.108)

Multiple sclerosis of primary progression

In this type, the symptoms have gone to worsen without any kind of remissions or relapses. Few people have experienced stability and the period when the symptoms have gone worse after it can get better (Evangelouet al. 2021, p.108).

Multiple sclerosis of Secondary progressive

In this type of MS, people have faced the relapse and remission. Some people have experienced the relapse episodes and the remission then it can go better.

Explanation of the rationale behind choice of the health condition with its importance

This Multiple sclerosis can have major types of symptoms that can affect the muscle and has bladder problems such as weakness of muscle, numbness of the arms, legs and body or the stimulation can happen due to the nerve damage. A person can experience a sensation like an electric shock that moves their neck and other kinds of signs (Olsson et al. 2017, p.25). This health condition can drive a person to death and it has consecutively increased in these days. The dizziness, fatigue and bowel problems can be found. The vision problems and other kinds of depression and emotional changes, pain can be found in those people who have suffered from MS. Even the brain cells can be destroyed in this disease. It can be argued about the severity of multiple sclerosis.

In modern lifestyle smoking and alcohol consumption is very common that can lead to Multiple Sclerosis. Vitamin d and B12 deficiency can lead to this disease. It is a severe health condition that impacts the nervous system (Amato et al. 2018, p.590). The progression of MS varies from person to person. It is hard to identify what will happen and how severe disability can be experienced by the patient. In the current scenario many scientists are involved in the development of drugs and can treat Multiple Sclerosis.

Discussion of the Epidemiology of health condition around risk factors

Epidemiology

Epidemiology has dealt with the risk factors that can be the cause of the disease in this health scenario of the patient. It has shown that the variables are associated with the increased risk with the infection of disease. It has been found that mortality has not been determined by the autoimmune process (Yuan et al. 2021, p.115). In between 1993 and 2006 the cases of MS were Even the MS patients have more comorbidities and the co medications than the non MS patients.  identified in the UK after that in the present situation it has been grown in many people. The medical records and electronic records have given the evidence.

Figure 2: Graph of multiple sclerosis patients

(Source: (Jicket al. 2015, p.2033)

The risk of mortality has been developed in the MS patients rather than non MS patients (Jicket al. 2015, p.2033). The epidemiology can be discussed about the linked risk factors. In these mortality cases it has been found that a total amount of 115 MS patients have died during the follow up. It has been found that the patients who have died at the age of 54 or 55 means after 50 the people who have smoked are at higher risk of death in multiple sclerosis. The patients who have the history of alcohol consumption are also at higher risk of death. The original clinical records have confirmed that the PPMS cases are at higher level risk of death than the other patients with the RRMS.

Figure 3: Epidemiology of Multiple Sclerosis

(Source: Yuan et al. 2021, p.115)

Multiple Sclerosis can be the most frequent disease with the prevalence that varied in a considerable manner.

Risk factors of the Multiple Sclerosis are –

Age: Most of the people have been diagnosed as the Multiple Sclerosis patient between the age of twenty to forty years.

Sex: All types of MS are more effective on women than men.

Genetic factors: The scientists have believed the susceptibility can be passed down in the genes for the development of MS. Even in people who have specific genetic features (Yuan et al. 2021, p.115).

Figure 4: Risk factors of Multiple Sclerosis

(Source:AlJumahet al. 2020, p.12)

Smoking: Smokers have appeared to be more prone to develop the (Yuan et al. 2021, p.115). A deep lesion has occurred due to smoking.

Vitamin D and Ba12 deficiency: This deficiency of vitamins can have less amount of exposure to the bright sunlight that is necessary to create the vitamin D. Few experts have thought about the low amount of vitamin D can affect the immune system of the body.

Infections: Infection by viruses may increase the risk of developing Multiple Sclerosis. The pneumonia and herpes virus can play a major role to develop the infection and can increase the risk of multiple sclerosis.

These risk factors are very common in people in the present situation so it should be treated on an immediate basis to mitigate the risk factors from the body otherwise it can lead to Multiple sclerosis. The women should take care of them as the study has found the females are more prone to get multiple sclerosis (AlJumahet al. 2020, p.12).

Figure 5: Risk factors of multiple sclerosis

(Source: AlJumahet al. 2020, p.12)

Explanation of assessment over health condition using tools

The physical test can be conducted which is a vital tool for the assessment of MS relapse. This can involve the vital signs that may reveal the alterations in blood pressure, body temperature and the rate of heart. A full type of examination off neurology test should include the assessment of the strength, coordination and sensation or gait. The testing of vision has consisted of examination of colour vision, visual activity and the visual fields can be assessed in this assessment (AlJumahet al. 2020, p.12). Abnormal findings on the testing of vision can indicate a new episode of the optic neuritis. Additionally, the visual evoked potentials and the optical coherence tomography can be adjunctive types of studies that are developing that are utilized for providing the objective evidence of multiple sclerosis. The neurological test can uncover the double vision, facial sensation and other changes in speech have been found. These abnormalities in the strength and sensory test of the patient could point to transverse myelitis. The coordination trouble, tremor and gait can be linked to the cerebellum (AlJumahet al. 2020, p.12). The test of neurology should be compared with the previous documented results that new findings have indicated a new type of relapse or the progression of the symptoms.

Figure 6: Assessment of multiple sclerosis

(Source:

Magnetic Resonance imaging tool is another effective tool in the diagnosis and can monitor the MS disease activity and the progression over a time period. MRI of brain and lesions can be helpful and given the results of multiple sclerosis. It is necessary for scanning the whole spinal axis the transverse myelin can be suspected. This is the method which is cost prohibitive and time intensive. A practitioner has needed this to choose the most vital imaging modality and location on the localized information that can be gathered during the test and history. The Composite of Multiple Sclerosis Function can use the status of neurological and can track the changes over time. These tools can be used to identify the severity of multiple sclerosis. This assessment can be conducted to measure the health condition in multiple sclerosis. After the assessment the treatment can be proceeded and the quick assessment can give more reliability to recover fast (AlJumahet al. 2020, p.12). The guidelines should be used in the assessment of multiple sclerosis. This results in proper prolonged treatment for recovering the health condition.

Description of the achievement of the three goals associated with health promotion with ensuring SMART objectives

SMART objectives

Specific Measurable Achievable Relevant Time-bound
Reduce the burden of Multiple Sclerosis A patient who is suffering from high Multiple Sclerosis needs to take care of it its health although taking self-care is just next to impossible. Multiple Sclerosis patients always need an extra hand of help in order to properly cure (Nugent et al. 2018, p. 2029). Reducing the burden of Multiple Sclerosis is very much achievable by following a proper diet, doing checkups on a regular basis. In the morning the patient should some morning exercise in order to make they fit. Not only the doctors but patients should also try to reduce the burden of Multiple Sclerosis. Otherwise, it can get worse in some cases. Multiple Sclerosis takes time to form fully eliminate from the entire. That is why medicine needs to be taken timely.

Table 1: For goal 1

(Source: Self-created)

 

Specific Measurable Achievable Relevant Time-bound
Improving the quality of life By improving the quality of life diabetic patients can live their life to the fullest. In many cases, it can be seen that people who are suffering from Multiple Sclerosis lose all hope in life. This goal is very much achievable by the diabetic patient in order to achieve this patient needs to change their food habits, need to take every medicine one time. This is the right time for improving the quality of life otherwise, diabetic patients cannot be cured It would take around 6 to 1 year of time

 

Table 2: For goal 2

(Source: Self-created)

 

Specific Measurable Achievable Relevant Time-bound
Avoid acute decomposition and treat Multiple Sclerosis  well In order to promote health diabetic patients needs to treat Multiple Sclerosis well. Patients should always consult good doctors who can treat them well in this situation. It is an achievable goal in every aspect of life. In order to cure Multiple Sclerosis patients needs to take care of them (Hone et al. 2018, p. 1472). It would take around 1 year to 2 year time.

 

Table 3: For goal 3

(Source:Self-created)

Critical discussion of the interventions to access goals with health promotion over different roles included from stakeholders

First, let’s take a look at what is known as an intervention in healthcare. Intervention can be defined as the important elements or strategies that are implemented in such a way that there is improvement in the health of a person or an entire population. It includes various features that are very much important for the implementation of health care (LeRoith et al. 2019, p. 1521). It must include the giving of proper education to the people about Multiple Sclerosis and implement new policies that are very much important to control it and also the improvement of the environment. The interventions can also include the health promotion campaign in which people are advised to look after their health and take proper measures when someone from the family society is having trouble with their health. However, in the case of Multiple Sclerosis affects at least 100 million people worldwide and is increasing at an alarming rate which can be a major problem (Nazir et al. 2018, p. 1545). There is lots of intervention that helps the person to control the effect of Multiple Sclerosis because it has no cure till date. Moreover, it includes taking proper medications at the proper time, do regular exercises, take a healthy diet that contains all the important nutrients and the appropriate use of health care services which can be very much important for the person. Rather than staying physically fit one must also strengthen the mind and must know about all the precautions that are needed by the person who is suffering from Multiple Sclerosis. The health care department must also keep a record of the statistics of the people who are suffering from Multiple Sclerosis and help them in case those people need help. The people who are suffering from Multiple Sclerosis must take these proper interventions so that Multiple Sclerosis can be controlled and people can stay fit as the complete care of the disease is not yet found (Poudel et al. 2018, p. 11).

Evaluation of the success of intervention on health promotion based goals

Interventions are very much required in order to improve the Multiple Sclerosis outcomes that can be directed at individuals with Multiple Sclerosis, the health system and health providers. Patient-level interventions are self-management that includes taking medicines, maintaining proper diet, self-monitoring and use of other health care services.

After considering different facts, it can be assumed that education should be one of the top priority in order to prevent Multiple Sclerosis  along with that people should change their lifestyle and food style as well (Turunenet al. 2017, p. 177).

After executing several pieces of research on the prevention of Multiple Sclerosis it can be concluded that properly organized interventions can improve the condition of Multiple Sclerosis in reality. In order to prevent Multiple Sclerosis, people need to recognize the features of the key intervention for predicting success. Predicting successful interventions requires an additional source of resources. At least 171 people all around the world are dealing with Multiple Sclerosis. In many countries, the number of Multiple Sclerosis patients dramatically increased.

Due to poor lifestyle, bad food habits ageing population and increased ion obesity increase the number of a Multiple Sclerosis patient. Through interventions, the outcomes of Multiple Sclerosis can be improved up to a certain level.

Critical discussion of health care promotion planning with its effectiveness, justification, recommendation

For achieving the nursing goal the health care promotion should be as followed:

Evaluating Health care promotion planning

Step 1: Management of the planning process

Health care promotion needs six stamps in the planning to reduce Multiple Sclerosis. First step should be the management of the process of planning.

Purpose : To improve a plan for managing the participation, engagement, timeline,determine methods for gathering data, interpretation and the decision making process.

In this section the staff of the hospital and nurses should be engaged and should establish a timeline for the creation of a work plan. In this planning the materials, resources and financial resources are taken into consideration for eradicating Multiple Sclerosis and promoting health.

Step 2:  Conducting a situational assessment

Purpose: To know the interest of people, trends and the Multiple Sclerosis issues that have an impact on the needs, assets of the community.

This step has involved the activity of campaign or spreading awareness of Multiple Sclerosis and identified the issues that related to Multiple Sclerosis. The trends about the cause of Multiple Sclerosis  and other aspects have been followed.In this step the patients of Multiple Sclerosis  have been taken for interview purposes (Fernandez et al. 2019, p.209). The data from diverse sources has been used in this practice. The guidelines are followed in this section.

Step 3: Identifying the interest of people, outcomes and other outcome objectives

Purpose: To apply the outcomes of the situational assessment that can give results for determining the outcomes, goals and people of interest.

This step has ensured the strategic directions for the health promotion practice. In this step the entire direction has been given for a particular time period.

Step 4: Identifying the strategies, process and resources

The strategy of Brainstorm can be used to communicate health and promote health education and other organizational changes (Su et al. 2017, p.326). The Ottawa Charter for promoting health can be used as the socioecological model that can be implemented on the result of the situational assessment.

Step 5: Develop indicators

The results of Multiple Sclerosis patients can be divided into the different elements that intended to result. The indicators can measure the outcome and process of the health promotion and performing a quality check on the suggested indicators.

Step 6: Reviewing the program plan

The program plan can be analysed by the logic model of graphic depiction of the relationship between different parts of the program. These best activities can be chosen for the advanced strategy.

Interventions

The main interventions for Multiple Sclerosis are physical therapy, occupational therapy, speech therapy, vocational therapy, counselling, and psychotherapy(Capolongoet al. 2018, p.2698).

Alternatives

Medications should be taken on a regular basis.Medication can control this nervous system in the patients.

Justification

These intervention processes and health promotion planning are very effective on the patients to give a healthy lifestyle to them (Laverack, 2017, p.25). It promotes a healthy diet and livelihood.

Recommendations

As ocrelizumab (Ocrevus) is the only FDA-approved disease-modifying therapy (DMT) for primary-progressive MS, it is needed to be taken based on the prescription of the medical professionals. It can also be recommended thatproper therapies are needed to be used for recovering this health issue.

Conclusion

Conclusively it can be said from the studies that Multiple Sclerosis is a serious disease that can affect mainly mid-aged people and it might get very serious if not controlled properly. So, it is very important for the people to follow the intervention which is very important for them to control the symptoms of Multiple Sclerosis. The description as well as the background of the disease must be known to all the people so that they can take proper measures to control it. Furthermore, it can be said that the health care department should implement smart methods that are very much important for the people and the health care services must give proper education to the people about the symptoms as well as how to control Multiple Sclerosis . Moreover, there are various ways in which Multiple Sclerosis can be prevented and those are given in the intervention’s sections of the study. However, different tools are there that are used to control the health conditions.Thus, it can be said that Multiple Sclerosis is a very important and dangerous disease and can be controlled if proper precautions are taken.

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