Table of Contents
1. Site Surveying Procedures for Construction and the Built Environment ………………………………………. 2
1.1 Procedures and instrumentation for transferring control points ………………………………………………. 2
1.1.1 Horizontal control method ……………………………………………………………………………………………. 3
1.1.2 Vertical control …………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 3
1.1.3 Remote sensing control ………………………………………………………………………………………………… 3
1.1.4 GPS …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 3
1.1.5 GNSS Equipment ………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 4
1.1.6 Trilateration ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 4
1.2 procedures for producing large horizontal curves used in road construction …………………………….. 5
1.2.1 Horizontal Curves …………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 5
1.2.2 Procedure ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 6
1.3 Explain the use of electronic surveying instruments ……………………………………………………………….. 8
1.3.1 Electronic Distance measuring equipment (EDM) …………………………………………………………….. 8
1.3.2 Electronic positioning systems ……………………………………………………………………………………….. 9
1.3.3 Laser equipment ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 10
1.3.4 Total station ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 10
2. Operations of site surveying instruments ………………………………………………………………………………. 11
2.1 Setup and use of site surveying instruments ………………………………………………………………………… 11
2.1.1 Total station ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 11
2.1.2 Global positioning system ……………………………………………………………………………………………. 12
2.2 Contoured plans and traverse surveys ………………………………………………………………………………… 12
2.3 horizontal and vertical controls and small radii horizontal curves …………………………………………… 14
2.4 Procedure of checking verticality of perpendicular members…………………………………………………. 15
3. Computer software in civil engineering …………………………………………………………………………………. 16
3.1 Benefits of using computer software’s in surveying ………………………………………………………………. 16
3.2 Data for digital mapping database ………………………………………………………………………………………. 17
3.3 Use of GPS in construction and civil engineering ………………………………………………………………….. 17
4. Using survey data to draw contours ……………………………………………………………………………………… 18
4.1 Using raw survey data to determine contours and ground sections ………………………………………… 18
4.2 Calculation of areas and volumes of cut-and-fill using survey data …………………………………………. 19
4.3 Correction of coordinate points within control traverse work ………………………………………………… 20
4.4 Determination of setting out data for coordinated points ……………………………………………………… 21
5. References ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 23
1. Site Surveying Procedures for Construction and the Built
Site surveying is one of the critical and most important part of the civil engineering. In order to
proceed to the working of the project first you need to survey the location. This gives project
manager an insight of the project and also helps in determination of potential risks, troubles and
dangers of the task or project. It helps the manager to save a lot of time and money (Anon., 2018).
Site surveying is term used in civil engineering and have been used for years. According to John
Clancy 2013 Survey is to examine, to inspect, take view through high places in order to determine
the position, boundaries and natural features of the surface through angular or linear measurements
and application of trigonometry and geometry. A general look over or inspection of quality,
condition and quantity to determine the dimensions and topical particulars of earth’s surface
1.1 Procedures and instrumentation for transferring control points
There many types of surveys conducted by the surveyors every day, surveyors all around the world
start from somewhere in order to begin the plan. Surveyors use different coordinated or known
control points also known as benchmarks in order to initiate the project. Control point is basically
a ground point or a permanent structure with known vertical and horizontal location. They provide
a starting point for different types of the surveys conducted by the surveyors (M., et al., n.d.).
Procedure for the transferring of the control point is that you have to plan for the most accurate
and efficient establishments of elevations. Get information from the foreman or superintendent of
the project to see which floor needs the elevations. Then you have to determine the sides which
need elevation, either its one side, two sides or you have to make your way around it. After that
you have to locate two nearest benchmarks which will serve as your way. One will be used as the
starting point and second one will be used to check in after the establishment of the temporary
benchmark on structure. Even if one benchmark is disturbed you should check before the
measuring side of the building. After that use the basic technique of the differential leveling and
take a loop of structure in order to establish a benchmark temporarily at the bottom of structure.
Figure 1: Transferring of control point
Temporary benchmarks are the simple marks of elevation on the wall with written description.
Always keep in mind to identify and describe your chosen point. Use the starting point and
complete the loop through second benchmark and check the results generated. If the results match
your standards of the project and is acceptable then proceed with the transfer of points but if it is
failed then repeat the procedure and run the loop again.
1.1.1 Horizontal control method
Horizontal control method establish the control for different construction projects. The base of the
horizontal control is high precision GPS observation. It should be performed by approved certified
consultant. If GPS observation is not available then surveyor can use astronomic observation along
with the conventional traverses. Horizontal control points use GPS and established through Global
Positioning System. Horizontal ground control should be established with minimum accuracy level
of 1st or better order. Standard like NCGS, FGDC and class of survey should be followed in the
order. Horizontal control should match and correlate with the coordination system.
Primary control points should be set according to (PN: 100 – 150) at 5/8” rebar bar should be 48”
long and aluminum cap should be 2 1/2” with GPS point numbers. Surveyor should use rebar of
sufficient length for the stability of the condition of the soil at each point. All the points should be
stamped with the numbering and marking system of the AHTD. All the GPS controls in accordance
with the starting point should be designated and marked with surveys division. Minimum level for
the point is 800 feet and 1500 feet for the maximum level. Points consists of different inter visible
pairs. On the other hand baseline point should be set in accordance with (PN: 1 – 99) to 5/8” and
minimum rebar 24” long with point numbers and 2” cap stamped. It is set at minimum level of 500
feet and 800 feet maximum (MSK, 2013).
1.1.2 Vertical control
Vertical control uses guidelines of NGS-58 and established through GPS. Minimum acceptable
level for placement of ground point should follow the accuracy of 3rd order class I or better.
Different standards are applicable to this method which involves FGDC, NCGS and NGS. Class
of survey should be followed and proper application of standard should be followed on order.
1.1.3 Remote sensing control
Remote sensing control is a technique of surveying and it uses placing different targets, locate
identifiable features of the photos, using measurements to calculate the third possible position of
the location. It also involves scale and orientation for this technique for LIDAR, Sonar and
Photogrammetry. This procedure include identifiable photo locations and pick points for placing
targets. You can locate HPT’s near the flight line center and VPT’s close to 70% lines of
photography. This is all based on the Neat model which represents width and breadth of the
different pairs that overlap aerial photographs.
Global Navigation Satellite System also known as GNSS use GPS which stand for Global
Positioning System. It is used with different other tools like GLONASS and many other satellite
systems in order to measure the longitude, altitude and latitude. These tools help the surveyor in
the establishment of the vertical and horizontal coordinates of the project. In order to collect the
electronic radio signals of the GNSS satellite surveyors use ground based receivers and different
antennas. In order to utilize the GPS system for surveying purpose, system will export data formats
of SDMS with indication of X, Y and Z coordinates and feature codes with different attributes.
AHTD survey division used the system known as Trimble equipment and software.
1.1.5 GNSS Equipment
GNSS equipment includes antenna shall and receiver for the minimum collection of the signals
through GPS satellites. Receiver’s geodetic quality should be L1/L2 with dual frequency and full
wavelength capabilities. They should be able to track satellites with 5 degree angle of elevation.
It should be able to track a minimum number of 8 satellites at the same time on parallel channels.
It should also be able to receive the carrier phase, full wavelength and signal strength of L1 and
L2 frequencies. Data collection should be done with 15 second collection interval using the dual
frequency receivers in compression mode.
Another method for transferring the control point is known is trilateration. This method is for the
control breakdown, control densification and control extension which employs (EDMI) known as
electronic distance measuring instrument. It is used just like triangulation in order to measure
triangles side length instead of horizontal angles. The calculations of the triangle angles are based
on the law of cosines measured distance. This method includes a system of overlapping and joined
triangles, sometimes forming a polygon or quadrilaterals to provide check angles and azimuth
controls along with observations of the horizontal angles. In order to minimize the slop distance
when elevations are not established and leveling of differentials is not completed. At that moment
you require Zenith angles to minimize the distance of slope.
Different leveling instruments are being used in this process in order to transfer control points from
one location to another. The tripod, its level, staff bubble and staff are all precision equipment and
accuracy of the project is highly dependent on these equipment. In order to get accurate results
they should be accurately calibrated. Level should be transferred through vehicles and into padded
box while staves should be kept in plastic sleeve or canvas to prevent them from damage. Level
equipment is a telescope which is attached with the leveling device and placed onto the tripod
where it can move horizontally 360 degrees. On the other hand levelling staff is an aluminum box
which can extend to 5 meters in height through telescoping. One side of the instrument is used for
reading with cross hair of the level. Faces differ in accordance with the graduation and pattern, but
usually graduation of 5mm is good for accurate leveling of the gauging station (NIWA, 2004).
There are different instrument that are being used of transferring control point from one location
to another. Some of the instruments are calibration of instrument, electronic and laser instruments
which includes electronic reading levels, electronic logging of field data, laser construction levels,
laser alignment levels, EDM’s and global position system for digital terrain modelling. A modern
instrument is the total station, its theodolite with EDM also known as electronic distance
measurement device. This equipment is also being used in leveling when used on a horizontal
plane. Total station developed with the change in technology from optical mechanical device to
fully electronic device. Latest total station doesn’t require prism or reflector to send the distance
measurements. It is fully robotic and it generate and send email point data to office computer and
even connect with the satellite positon system like GPS. Although kinematic GPS increased the
speed of system and precision of survey but still they are only accurate at horizontal level of 20mm
and vertically around 30-40 mm. There are certain areas where GPS systems doesn’t work properly
because of the dense cover of tree so robotic guided stations are used to gather the accurate
measurements without extra worker and even record the data. Another faster method is through
the helicopter equipped with laser scanner and GPS system in order to determine the elevation and
position of the helicopter. Surveyors place the beacons on the ground which result in 5-40 cm
precision level which is higher level than previous method but this method is more expensive.
1.2 procedures for producing large horizontal curves used in road construction
1.2.1 Horizontal Curves
Whenever highway changes its course toward horizontal direction, it leaves behind a new
intersection point between two straight lines where highway changed its direction. That point
becomes another point of intersection which is not practical. This change of direction would be
too swift for the modern high speed car that it would risk the safety of the vehicles. Thus it is
essential that to change the straight lines with interpose of the curve between them. Straight lines
are also known as Tangent, it is because these lines are tangent to the curves which used to
manipulate the direction. In today’s modern world where we have lots of high speed vehicles most
of the curves on the highways are circular curves because it brings smoothness and increase the
safety of the car and drivers. Circular curves are also known for the circular arcs because the shape
the circular arc on highways.
These curves can be sharper or flat depending on the construction of the road. Roads or highways
where there is not enough space and have short radius of the circular curve, it become sharp and
dangerous for high speed vehicles. On the other hand if the curve is flat it will cover the larger area
and increase the overall radius of the curve. It will lead to flat curve which is smoother and safe
for the high speed vehicles. In modern world flat curves are more preferred and constructed by the
engineers in order to insure the safety and security of the driver and vehicles. During the highway
work, there are many curves needed for the improvement and location of smaller secondary road,
those roads are mostly worked during the field. Most of the time horizontal curves are computed
and completed after certain tasks which are: selection of the route, field survey, and topographic
features plotted along with survey base line features. When all of these tasks have been completed
then engineer can work on horizontal curves and their computation.
In case of road construction in urban areas, curves of different streets are designed as the most
critical part during the final and preliminary layouts of the roads. This is most done through the
topographic map. As comparison to the local roads highway work is the final outcome and purpose
of the design itself. While on the other hand street work and curves in urban areas of secondary
nature or importance. Engineers focus more on the primary tasks first as they are of greater
importance, so building the primary task first take priority over the secondary task. Main thing in
the design of the horizontal curve is length of its radius. This can greatly affect the impact and
overall structure of the highway. While planning for the horizontal curve engineers look for certain
consideration and take them into account before designing the curve. For instance speed of
highway, sight distance, obstructions and limitation of sight because of head lights are the some
of the factors to be considered in designing of horizontal curve. Some of the radii for the roads are:
50m for residual streets, 150m for industrial zone roads, 300 m for the fare of the city and 4000 m
or even longer on the highway.
Figure 2: Road alignment on map and from air
Figure 2 of the project shows a large horizontal curve in road construction through map and air
view of the curve. Traverse technique have been used by the surveyor in this large horizontal curve
and different points have been used along the approximate line of the construction. It is essential
for each curve to use the same position line of curve’s center line in order to establish alignment
of full curve accurately. To achieve this we have to establish different number of control points
closer to the road center line as compared to the establish framework of control points.
As shown above in figure 2 of the project, you can clearly see the horizontal alignment of road. It
includes number of circular curves which are connected through a straight lines. There will number
of transition curves on the road between the circular curves and straight lines in order to make sure
that drivers can leave the straight section of the road and enter the curve without being affected by
forces of centrifugal while driving at a certain speed. It will be developed according to the speed
and movement of the vehicle around the circular curve of the road.
Figure 3: Geometry of circular curve
As you can see in the figure 3 of the project Intersection point I and Tangent point T1 and T2 is the
place of interstation of the two straight sections of the road. Exactly at that point circular curve
joins two straight sections. R is the radius of the curve while infinity represents the angel and
subtends at the center of curve.
Figure 4: Length of Tangent formulas
If there is any distance along the road it is denoted by chainage, it is measured through the center
line of the road and starts from the starting point or chosen origin of the road. Chainage is basically
a technique from the past in order to measuring distance through the chains with 100 links. In
today’s modern age of technology we don’t use chains anymore but the name still exist and
commonly used in surveys. It is used for the measurement of point of distance beside the center
line of the road. If we know the location of interaction point I then:
If the intersection point of the road is in a position where it is easily accessible then the engineer
will inaugurate its position according to the plan and data developed in the design office. Engineer
will set up the total section or theodolite, electronic measuring instruments at intersection point
and look alongside the line I to T1. First tangent points position can be entrenched in the field
through measurement of calculated tangent distance from point I to T1. Using the same technique
engineer can establish another tangent point. This procedure can be easily done manually by the
engineers through hammering a wooden peg in the ground and positioning the nail accurately at
the center of peg at precise place of tangent point. Before the electronic method engineers used to
measure the distance through long tape but now electronic methods are being used and replaced
the old techniques. These new electronic techniques of the measure the distance are so accurate
and provide valid and accurate data. This data help engineers in a great way and make their work
easier and time saving.
Circular and horizontal curves certain chords alongside the arc of the road. Circular curves are
drawn and laid in the field by measuring those series of chords with respect to the arc. Some of the
chords length can be replaced with the arc length without the danger of losing the precision.
1. Curves up to 4 degrees will use 100 foot chords
2. Curves up to 10 degrees will use 50 foot chords
3. Curves up to 25 degrees will use 25 foot chords
4. Curves up to 100 degrees will use 10 foot chords
8 | P a g e
Procedure for those curves is to set the instrument at PI, keep the telescope direct and index of
horizontal circle set to zero. Plunge the telescope and sight alongside the back tangent with set PC
and lower motion. After that plunge telescope back to direct position, Set and with the help of
upper motion lay off delta angle. Then set the instrument to PC, keeping the index of horizontal
circle to zero and telescope direct, this time use the lower motion to sight PI. Next using the upper
motion cut the consecutive suitable deflection chords and angles. Sometimes you have to move up
on the curve because of blockage of vision due to obstructions.
In case of moving up the curve procedure changes, First make the telescope direct, take index of
horizontal circle to zero, set the instrument to intermediate curve station, using lower motion sight
PC and plunge the telescope. After plunging the telescope to the direct position, cut any deflection
angles of instrument using upper motion toward the curve. Keep cutting off the deflection chords
and angles using upper motion until you achieve PT. One half of central angle subtended is from
PC to point on the circular curve.
1.3 Explain the use of electronic surveying instruments
Surveyors and engineers use electronic surveying instruments in order to measure orientation,
positioning and features of large objects in the field of engineering, defense, mapping, construction
and other industries. Different instruments like land and construction surveying equipment help
engineers with mapping and marking of layout and position of new structures. These tools have
helped surveyor in making their lie easier. They used to do the measurement through tapes,
compasses, dumpy levels and chain which was very time consuming (Naomi, 2017). Modern
technology had mad life easier for both engineers and surveyor in doing their work. Some of the
most commonly used surveying equipment’s are discussed below.
1.3.1 Electronic Distance measuring equipment (EDM)
This equipment is used to determine the distance during engineering work. While measuring the
distance of horizontal or sloped straight line distance between two stations or points this equipment
is used to send electronic pulses of known rate of speed or velocity. It also measures the total time
of the impulse to reach other end of the point from starting point. In order to determine the length
of the interval surveyor use the equation distance = rate x time.
There are two types of the EDM which are most commonly used by the surveyors. They are known
as electro optical also called light wave and electromagnetic also called microwave instruments.
18.104.22.168 Electromagnetic EDM
The very first electromagnetic microwave equipment was very useful and precise in measuring the
long distances but it was very heavy and bulky for the surveyors to practice their needs and fulfill
them. With the passage of time electromagnetic EDM evolved and become more portable and
smaller in size. It just not become portable but its measurements are precise also. It is also equipped
with direct readout capabilities. In order to measure the line with this equipment two
interchangeable and identical instruments are set up toward the end of the line on both sides. The
line should not be intervisible but it can be unclogged or clear. Even during the fog or other weather
condition doesn’t affect the reading or observation of the equipment. Observation is also possible
even during the unfavorable conditions like fog.
Figure 5: Electromagnetic distance measuring instrument
Two instruments are used one is served as sending instrument while other is served as remote
instrument. Sending instrument sends modulated radio waved to the remote instrument in form of
series. Receiving instrument interprets signals and then send it back toward the master or sending
instrument. This measures the total time required by the radio waves to complete the round trip. It
is calculated on the basis of velocity of the radio waves. Velocity changes according to the
atmospheric condition and according to the correlation of the temperature and barometric pressure.
It should be applied as per the instructions provided with the operating equipment.
22.214.171.124 Electro optical EDM
Electro optical EDM instrument is also used to measure the distance within two points. It uses
velocity of the light waves in order to measure the distance. Previous version of the electro optical
EDM was known as Geodimetet and it was so heavy and bulky to carry around and wasn’t best
instrument to practice al the surveying needs. Modern technology developed new version of this
device and shorter version is used to measure distance of 0.3 miles to 3 miles while longer version
measures the range using new coherent laser light from 50 feet to 36 miles.
In order to use it efficiently you have to set it up at the line which needs measurements and set the
reflector at the other end of the line. The line should be completely free of obstacles in order to
measure accurately. Once the equipment is placed and ready to use it uses the modulated light
beams and send it to reflector. Reflector reflect the light pulse back to EDM. After receiving the
light pulse from the reflector the reliever converts the light flash reading in linear distance from
reflector to EDM in accordance with the atmospheric conditions (Anon., n.d.).
1.3.2 Electronic positioning systems
Electronic positioning system is used to regulate the position on the surface of earth. Surveyors
use two classes of positioning system which includes initial positioning system and Doppler
positioning systems. Initial positioning system deals with the navigational systems which are being
used in aircraft and require a lot of experience. On the other hand Doppler system uses signals
from satellite. Third class of the positioning system in known as electronic positioning system.
This instrument is used to measure the distance range from short to medium, it is connected with
EDM to theodolite and measures directions and distances from setup of the instrument. There are
many types of electronic positioning system which they all fall into these categories:
1. Combined theodolite and EDM is used for optical reading, directions or repeating
theodolite with EDM transmitter which can be used for independently or with EDM.
2. Computerized theodolite and EDM system is smaller in comparison to the combined
theodolite and EDM and uses built in electronic computers.
3. Electronic tachometers equipment uses digital and integrated electronic system and incudes
digital theodolite, EDM transmitter and microprocessor into the instrument. It can also be
equipped with the magnetic tape, solid state memory or punched paper tape storage unit in
order to store the data.
Surveyors input the controlling data like atmospheric pressure and temperature and with proper
manipulation of instrument control the instrument provides horizontal angles, slop distances,
vertical angles, relative elevation, horizontal distance and coordinates of unknown points. The
results are displayed through liquid crystal display and can be stored into different data collector.
1.3.3 Laser equipment
Laser equipment uses lasers in order to help in construction layouts. It uses single color light and
that waves of light are in step with one another. Spread of the light beam in slight to the distance
from light generator to the target. This very method of the laser equipment make it very useful and
effective for the different types of the construction layouts. There are also different types of the
instruments to ease the work in construction layouts.
One is known as single beam laser alignment instrument which is mounted on a framework like
transit with vertical and horizontal motions. Spirit level of the instrument is parallel to axis of the
laser and horizontal and vertical circles. There is also a telescope on the laser housing in order to
give sight of the location of transmitted laser spot to the operator. There is a fanning lens in the
equipment which makes it easier to convert the laser beams into vertical or horizontal lines instead
On the other hand rotating laser level uses a laser unit which is mounted on the platform vertically
which consists of 2 orthogonally mounted sensors. Those sensors work just like the spirit levels
and it deviates from the center whenever level of the platform is not correct. Deviation levels are
detected and sensed electronically and as the response it changes the axis of laser vertical with
impulse data. Horizontal reference plane is formed through the optical train and optics rotate,
which uses emitted laser beams to 90 degrees angle to the axis. The instrument uses self-plumbing
and self-leveling within 8 degrees range and it will not work beyond 8 degrees. During the
measurement of 330 feet distance there is deviation level of 0.03 feet.
1.3.4 Total station
Total station is another instrument used by surveyors in order to make their work easier. It uses
tripod and auto lock technology which is semi-robotic operation and enabled by default which
makes total station able to record and measure using the instrument. This instrument uses active
remote measuring tool and lock onto it then follow its movements during the work between
different points. This instrument will locate the target in all the condition even during the dark.
Auto lock features makes it easier to gather and pile up the survey data with the movement of the
operator. This instrument offers higher quality of measurement, saves time and manpower. All of
the control initiations and registration work at the measuring points. It can measure the long range
with regard to white object up to 600 meters while 200 meters in Kodak Grey which is used by
international standards. This instrument uses one prism of 5.5 kilometers. With the inclusion of D
200+ overall performance, speed and effectiveness of the equipment increases dramatically
2. Operations of site surveying instruments
2.1 Setup and use of site surveying instruments
Proper setup and use of the equipment can make a huge difference in the project. Before using the
instrument in surveying you have to make sure and check the calibration of the instrument. All of
the survey equipment must be properly checked and maintained regularly. Surveyors should also
calibrate the instruments at the start of the survey projects in order to make sure the proper
operation or working of the equipment. Most of the errors are caused by the improper calibration
or poorly maintained equipment and it is not acceptable in the field of surveying. During the
checking of the instrument before the start of the project if there are some errors they should be
reported to Region Survey Coordinator before the start of the project or survey. Those errors should
be verified and then eliminated before performing the survey in order to get accurate results. The
project which last longer the duration of 6 month period, equipment should be checked, calibrated
and maintained after every 6 months in order to ensure their proper acceptable working conditions.
2.1.1 Total station
Total station is the widely used instrument in the field of surveying. It is most commonly used for
the measurements of the slope distances, zenith and horizontal angles. Total station also have
different features of measurements for those points which cannot be observed directly. This
concept is also known as offset measurements. The equipment also provides basic coordinate
Geometry (COGO). At start total stations were considered to be repeating and directional
instrument but most of the stations have the capability of making horizontal angular measurements
using the method of direction or repetition (Hugo, 2012).
Direction method of the total station, a number of observations are collected and during those
observations horizontal circle remain fixed. The surveyor measure the direction of different
foresight with the relation of back sight. At that point the overall horizontal angle mean is equal to
average of all angles. Meanwhile during repetition method, surveyor can accumulate different
successive measurements of the angles. At this point mean of the angle is equal to sum of total
angle and divided by the number of observations.
Directional method should be used only for the aerial photography of control points, right of way,
control survey, property corners, and secondary control traverse and property control corners.
Horizontal angles should be measured through back sight and clockwise without the size of angle
Total station should be properly setup in order to achieve your desired goals and have efficient and
effective results. Tripod legs should be spaced and placed equally, keep the head of the tripod at
approximate level, keep the head of the tripod directly over the survey point. After that you have
to mount the instrument on the tripod and secure the instrument on tripod using a centering screw
and keeping the instrument in place. Before start leveling or using the instrument insert the battery
within the instrument. Once the battery is inserted the operator will focus on the optical plummet
on survey point. Then it is time to adjust the level of the instrument, in order to adjust the level the
operator will level the foot screws of the instrument to the center of the survey point in optical
plummet reticle. In order to adjust the circular level operator have to adjust the tripod legs and
center the bubble in circular level. Once all is done operator will start leveling the instrument by
loosening the horizontal clamp and match the level of the plate with two of the leveling foot screws
by turning the instrument. Operator will turn the screws clockwise in order to make the bubble
move toward the center using leveling screws. After that operator will use third leveling screw to
level by rotating the instrument to 90 degrees (Anon., 2003).
Survey point will be observed though the optical plummet and loose the centering screws in order
to focus on the center point by sliding the whole instrument. After that operator will have to tight
the screw again in order to make the plate level bubble leveled into different directions. Then press
the “On” button and hold it until you hear a beep and turn on the instrument. This will result in
“MEAS” screen where you will select tilt function and adjust the screw at foot level in order to
take the electronic bubble into center. Then rotate instrument and repeat the procedure. In order to
adjust the image and reticle focus, operator will release vertical and horizontal clamps and point
the telescope to the background of featureless light. Adjust the cross hair of the instruments focus
until the image is focused sharply through the reticle. After that focus on the target by pointing
telescope toward it and adjusting the ring. Check the image shift through the instrument by moving
your head side to side. If it is not clear then repeat the process (N.W.J., 2009).
2.1.2 Global positioning system
Global positioning system is used by many departments in order to survey and collect data, it is
also known as GPS. These receivers can be differentiate into mapping grade, survey grade and
hand held receivers. Despite the type of the receivers, the end results of horizontal position of all
the marked observations will be related to the North American Datum 1983. It will not be linked
with North America Datum of 1927 also known as (NAD27). Hand held receivers are the less
expensive receivers and they obtain limited information through he satellite. These receivers can
be acquired from different sporting stores, they are very small and easily portable. They are
powered by the battery and have a small built in display. Positioning accuracy of this instrument
is currently at approximately 30 feet horizontally.
Mapping grade receivers are used to gather and export the gathered data to external database like
Geographical Information System. This instrument not only collects the data but it can also be
differentially corrected as compared to hand held receivers. Two receivers are used in this process,
one known as the base receiver and located on known position while second one is called roving
receiver and placed on the point which is being positioned. After that common data is stored on
both receivers and processed through the office in order to compensate the errors of the position
marked by the rover receiver. The expected accuracy of this instrument on horizontal level can be
good to the point of 3 feet (Jan, 2011).
2.2 Contoured plans and traverse surveys
Contouring in the field of surveying is the identification and determination of elevation of different
points on ground and then fixing those points with same horizontal positions on the contour map.
Leveling work is used for the vertical control while chain survey, plane table survey or compass
survey is conducted for the horizontal control. Contour plan is the plan of coverall complete project
which shows the complete detail of the project and relevant information. It shows the site levels,
location and features, infrastructure and urban services, existing buildings, trees, retaining walls
and structures. This also helps to identify the constraints of the project and minimize them before
the start of the project. Once the point data is downloaded and drawn through Carlson software
then, in order to create a contour plan following process is followed.
First of all figure out the overall boundaries of the contour area, if there are some areas which
should be included into the contoured then draw a map including the boundaries of that area. Then
if there are some areas which should be excluded from the contoured map, draw a boundary for
the exclusion of the area. All of the exclusion and inclusion lines should be closed polylines. Start
creating contour from points: Civil design to surface to triangulate and contour. New dialogue box
of the triangulate and contour will appear where you can see 4 tabs across the top box known as
labels, contour, triangulate and selection. Triangulation tab shows the option of ignore zero
elevations, inclusion/exclusion areas and erase previous contour entities. From there go to contour
tab and check if the draw contour box is checked. Here select interval method known as contour
by interval. If user needs contour of certain elevation then they can select contour an elevation,
and change the name of the layer. In case of contour by interval you have to select the contour
interval desired by the user for the site which is being contoured and change its layer name.
In order to draw contours faster use the reduce vertices option which is selected by default. Offset
distance shows the maximum distance which will be shifted from original contour in order to
decrease the number of vertices. If you put a larger value it will result in removing a higher number
of the vertices, which will shift more from the contour line. After that select the option to draw
index contours and change its layer name. You should also select the interval of the index and
width of the lines for the index line. It will lead you toward the hatch zone. After selecting the
hatch zone it will automatically create hatching for the contours based on the users defined
elevation zone. This hatch can be a certain hatch pattern or user defined solid color. If you select
this option then it will open the dialogue box of the range. Here you have to select the range of the
elevation or select automatically. After selecting the range click ok then go to Labels tab and make
sure that you selected the label contour option. This tab will let the user select layers for the contour
text and index contour text. You can also change the style of the label in this tab. User can select
the labeling according to their preferences in this tab. You can break the contour into labels or end
the labeling of the contour. After that final tab under triangulate and contour is selection. This tab
let the user specify the type of entities which have been used in routine triangulate contouring order
to create contour. After making all the changes you need to make click okay. Next window will
ask the user to select the inclusion area polylines, select them if applicable. After that select the
exclusion area polylines if applicable. Finally user will select all the points and break lines to use
for the creation of contours. At stage select break line which shows slope breaks and unselect the
points which are not on the ground level. Draw a pick line around the break line and points to be
contoured and click enter. This process will then show you the contoured plan of the project.
Contour plans can also be developed through control station while using electronic notebook of
the control station. Notebook show a menu named Survey menu which consists of number of the
sub menus and include specific software which uses and converts the data already being recorded
by the total station and then transform it into the survey results or contour plans. There is the sub
menu names topography if you select this option control station will generate a topography of the
region to be measured through control station and show you the contour plan. Other aspect of the
control station is that it will also show you the traverse adjustments of the project. This option
allows the control station to identify the number of stations which are being used as traverse and
ready to calculate the closure. At that point program of the station can calculate the required
adjustment in order to ensure the closure of the project.
Traversing is used in surveying projects in order to establish horizontal control an determine the
relationship within different existing points on ground in order to make sure that survey is fulfilled
under the scope of current project and can be used in future for correlation and tied together. A
traverse is the chain of straight lines and they are connected with the traverse station. Those are
the established points of the route of the survey. If traverse is using zigzag course then it shows
that traverse is changing its direction at every station.
Field procedure for the traverse survey is that you should form the team of 3 and minimum one
person from each team should have ESRM 250 or experience of using ArGIS. Every team should
have clinometer, field notebook, measuring tape and compass. Identify and traverse the positons
according to the survey. Take notes of everything like time, date, weather conditions, state and
city, crew members and model of measurement equipment. Two people should stay at the 1st
station which will be taking notes and measurements respectively. 3rd person should take the small
end of the measuring tap to next station. First person at the station number 1 will measure while
second person will record the fore shot angle. Distance to station number 2 and elevation angle.
Then the crew will move toward the second station with notebook and compass wile one person
is staying at station one. Second person will measure the back shot angel from station 2 to station
number one. Repeat this procedure in order to measure all the stations.
2.3 horizontal and vertical controls and small radii horizontal curves
Horizontal control consists of the reference marks of plan positions. This is the point from where
you can set out salient points of designed structures. Primary and secondary controls can be used
for the larger structures. Triangulation stations serve as the primary control points while secondary
control points are used as a reference to primary control stations.
Reference grid are used to set out the accurate working of large magnitude. Survey grid is one of
the one of the method which can be drawn on survey plan using original traverse. Through the
control point of grid to original traverse station. Actual setting out of the controls is done through
a grid most commonly used by the designers known as site grid. All of the points in site grid are
related in coherence with the site grid coordinates. Where there is a scenario where you have large
number of structural components of the buildings, and they are at a position from where they
cannot be set out accurately then we use structural grid. It is set out through the site grid points.
Some of the details of the structure are not visible through the structural grid. In order to check the
internal details of the building we use secondary grid which is placed into the structure.
Vertical control of the survey includes the establishment of the reference mark of known height
which is related to special datum. All the levels of the site face normal reduction to the nearest
benchmark. It is also called master bench mark. Setting out of the vertical control can be done
through boning rods, sight rails, slope rails or batter boards and profile boards.
Boning rod contains a pole and board which shape “T form” where you have upright pole and on
top of it you place a horizontal board. Surveyors use 3 pieces of these rods and they contains 3 T
shaped rods. All of them are equal in size and shape, sometime surveyors use 2 identical T’s while
3rd one contains a longer rod and have a detachable T piece. This 3rd detachable piece of the rod is
known as traveling rod.
A sight rail contains horizontal cross which is nailed with a single or pair of uprights which are
placed into ground. Operator uses these uprights and set them out to a convenient height above
required plane of structure. It should always be above the ground in order to make it convenient
and easy for the operator to align and see through the upper edge. Surveyors mostly use sight rail
or stepped rail in falling or undulating grounds.
Slope rails or batter boards are used during the phase of cutting and embankment to control the ide
slopes. These rails define and use a plane which is collateral to proposed slope of embankment,
but also at the suitable vertical distance over it. During the operation of filling surveyors use
travelers in order to control the slope.
Profile boards are just like the sight rails but their main purpose is to define corners and sides of
the buildings. Surveyors erect a profile board close to each corner peg. Each and every unit of
board contains one horizontal, 2 verticals and 2 cross boards. In order to interpret line of outside
the wall and width of the foundation surveyors place saw cuts or nails are placed on top of the
Small radius curves can be set out with the help of tape swing from peg which is indication of the
center of the curve. But larger radius curve which are more than 25 meters or different obstructions
require methods which are less direct for setting out the curve. In order to set out the curves
surveyors use total station or theodolite which is placed and set up on a control point with known
coordinates. Then it is pointed toward the other control point to orientate the instrument toward
the north. If you are using a conventional theodolite then you can use it to normal and turn the
instrument to north, also reset the horizontal angle to the zero. The points which require setting
out will be in the position and located with the help of bearings and distances from this control
point to the others required for setting out. In order to achieve the maximum accuracy of the set
out check the control point closer to the structure which is in need of setting out. If the surveyor is
using the total station for setting out than coordinates will be entered in the software and the prism
of the equipment will allow the distance and bearing to be located for each of the points. On the
other hand of you are using the theodolite it will compare coordinates of the control points and
each point which is being set out. This method will require distance and bearing of whole circle to
be calculated for each and every point. After this just simple return to required bearing in order to
measure distance and ensure that tape is held near horizontal as near as possible.
2.4 Procedure of checking verticality of perpendicular members
Tall buildings are so popular in modern engineering and architectural design and every country
have variety of tall buildings as the landmark. In today’s world you can see a lot of tower buildings
with restaurants and housing at top floors. Except for those there are other like oil rig columns,
radio masts and bridge towers which are built on the ground. These types of structures mostly
designed flexible in order to handle the wing load and thermal expansion of the sides. These types
of issue often lead to departure of the verticality and affect it badly. If you look at the buildings
that are taller than 200-300 m you can see that the top floors are displayed 10 cm or even more
horizontal in any direction from its base. That’s why it is important to check these deviations
during construction of tower buildings.
Modern method of checking verticality of the structure is to use remote positioning systems which
can be land based or satellite. Most commonly used method of checking verticality is through
Global Positioning System (GPS). GPS uses a single operator who will set up the antenna or
receiver over control points to be used as base. It is also known as the mobile receiver and
sometimes called GPS total station. Operator place the antenna on unknown points in order to
record the positioning through signals transmission with minimum satellites. Then baseline of the
survey is determined through the mobile unit to base unit. These control points can be used further
in the survey in order to measure the unknown points and become base for them. All of the GPS
satellites will transmit 2 coded L bad carrier signal and enable the compensation of propagation
delay. All of the receivers have almanac of data though satellite orbits while using ephemeris
corrections. By comparing the receiver signals and total signal produced are used in order to
determine the distance between the satellite and antenna and reduce the distance from time code.
Satellites which are above the horizon can provide the position measurements. That distance is
then measured through the global ellipsoid WGS-84.Elevation coordinates can also be determined
using datum transformation and map projection. Using the RTK real time kinematic technique
operator can obtain position measurements in seconds of antenna placements on unknown points
(Gary, et al., 1998).
GPS receiver have the ability to check and determine the distance between the satellites and then
position itself accordingly on a sphere of known point and detach another sphere within the range
of receiver which becomes circle of intersection within 2 spheres. One of them will be positioned
thousands of miles away from earth in order to give a possible position to receiver. Error in the
calculation at this point is only caused by the clock in receiver. Main disadvantage of the GPS is
number of GPS instruments their employment simultaneously and time required for the
measurements readings on different positions. In order to solve this issue DGPS works more
accurately and with less time. DGPS can work with limited number of DGPS employed, take
relevant readings in less time and produce accurate results (Milind & Dr. Sumedh, 2014).
3. Computer software in civil engineering
3.1 Benefits of using computer software’s in surveying
Today is the era of modern technology and computer software’s are being used in almost every
field. They are saving cost, time and resources used in the process, while producing accurate and
fast results. Surveying is no different and most of the instruments used in surveying are based on
computer software’s like total station and satellites etc…Surveyors work through the drawing and
other maps which are directly derived and coordinated from the computer. Technology bring the
change and introduced the point number based geometry which is being used in today’s
technological instruments of surveying and many other fields.
During the 1970’s many surveying programs were used under the name of “COGO” it was a term
specifically used for the program coordinated geometry. Today computers can store a lot of
surveying data and figures and even coordinate them to their destination which makes the life of
surveyors easy. It also helps them to locate and pinpoint the coordinates and generate maps and
drawings in quickest way possible. When the software was offered in 1970 it had enough memory
to store 9,999 points and thousands of figures without the use of tapes in surveying work. Internal
memory increased the speed of work done dramatically. The software was known as HP-85 and it
had ability to store and generate the complete drawing of large scale project and print it with
thermal printer automatically. After 1980 new era started with the introduction of AutoCAD, this
software took surveying to another level and increased the productivity and accuracy of surveying
work. Many competitors stated using CAD in order to make their work easier and more accurate.
It also helps them to draw with accuracy and with further detail of the project. During the 1990’s
a software named GIS was used in field of civil engineering and achieved huge success. The results
generated by this software were extremely accurate.
GIS software was able to precisely measure and compute the land surveying coordinates geometry
including land innovation, Intergraph and UltiMap. Another software named Building Information
Modeling can be used to design buildings and place them on site using navigational software’s.
3D technology changed the world in a whole new systems and introduced more detailed planned
and focused work. Which makes it easier for the customers and user of the software. With the help
of CDIS technology surveyors can draw and line the curves in single point and fuse the corners
while eliminating the restrictions. For example a software named SiteComp can define and use a
specific point number to location. Which makes it possible to extend 10 lines from point of 1024
intersect at same location. It also made it possible to fuse the lines of the project.
3.2 Data for digital mapping database
Digital mapping database is the process of computational procedures which focus on the
semiautomatic or automatic recognition and extraction of the geographical features of the images
of maps. Maps can cover a huge area over the passage of time. It is also a document o represent
almost everything on a single map in order to fulfill the surveying goals. Geographic Information
System also known as GIS is the software that help the engineers in their work. Processing of the
map images and then recognition and extraction of the geographical information with referenced
data can easily be maintained using GIS. This stored data in GIS later helps the surveyor to review
the map in detail and focus on different areas according to their geographical features. They can
even perform certain analyses before starting the project and get complete detail with this software.
Main objective of the map processing is to generate the images or vector layer of the geographical
featured in map images in order to be used in GIS. In order to achieve that goal first operator have
to separate the layer of geographic features from map images in order to group image pixel with
same colors. This layer can be converted into the vector data by recognition of the single feature
of geographical types from different layers. Before printing the map it is necessary to scan the
document, it helps the operator to see the quality of the map images and scanned maps. The
software provide the detail for the maps like spatial sampling rate, bit depth of data, sampling spot
size , contrast setting, brightness setting and calibration procedures are determinants of the final
image (Yao , et al., 2014).
LIDAR is another software used for the mapping database. It is also called Light Detection and
Ranging is a technology which is used to determine the shape of surface on the ground and
different natural and manmade features. It is an aircraft laser system which is designed to measure
3D coordinates of earth surface. It can generate one of the most accurate, cost effective and
expedient map for the surveyors. A laser beam of high frequency pulses is used which range from
4000 to 30,000 pulses per seconds put it on the mirror and throw it downward on the ground.
Beams hits the ground object and then reflect it upon the monitor of the craft. Travelled distance
of the beam can be calculated easily using the time of emission of laser and reception of return
signal (S.K. & Shefali, 2003).
3.3 Use of GPS in construction and civil engineering
Civil engineering work is very complex and difficult task which require extra care and attention
toward the work. The task is such that sometimes it becomes unfriendly and difficult which makes
it harder for the personnel’s to work efficiently. A slight mistake in the accuracy of anything can
lead toward drastic impact on the whole project. GPS or Global Positioning System is one of the
tool being used in construction and civil engineering works in order to provide most effective,
accurate and cost effective positioning. GPS makes it easier for the engineering works to work into
hazardous condition where human lives are in danger. Surveyors use GPS in those areas which are
automatically guided and controlled and save a lot of time and money along with protection of the
personnel’s. It can also be integrated with different tools in order to assist in the project. Some of
the integrations of the GPS in construction and civil engineering are GPS with total station, GPS
with lasers and GPS with Inertial Navigation System.
GPS provides with the sub meter and centimeters level of accuracy which changed the construction
industry dramatically. GPS is being used in different construction projects like civil engineering,
fleet management and construction and earth movement. In earth moving and road construction
projects, GPS is combined with the wireless communication and computer system which is
installed on the board of the earth moving machine (Anon., 2013). All the information is stored
and uploaded in digital format and with the help of GPS positioning and display of the computer
operator can see whether the correct point have been reached or not. GPS can also help in
construction work where millimeter elevation is required by integrating it with rotated beam lasers.
It is also used in precise structure placement and foundation works. These method replace the old
method and guide operator with the on board display. It is also used for the tracking of locations
and integrate with the usage of different equipment at different sites. It allows the contractors to
send information to different locations in order to help them in deployment of the equipment
efficiently. It can also help operators as the guide for the destinations (Prof. Madhav, 2003). There
are certain products which are integrated with GPS and serve as the asset tracking needs of fleet
management operators. Asset vision is one of the product which uses mobile communication with
the help of tracking unit GPS and black box which gives the user a complete solution for the unit
and data management software. This software can help the operator to track and monitor the engine
diagnostics including the rear and front attachments hours, location of the equipment and other
parameters. Structural deformations also require higher level of the accuracy of measurements.
These deformations can be divided into slow motion which includes dam deformations, Cyclic
structural deformation includes fast changing load and bridge vibrations caused by the change in
traffic loads. Most of the time GPS is combined with the terrestrial geodetic survey which provides
connection within the local terrestrial monitoring system and control point. (El-Rabbany, 2001).
4. Using survey data to draw contours
4.1 Using raw survey data to determine contours and ground sections
Using raw survey data in order to determine the contour plans of the project is one of the critical
aspect of the project. Volume calculation is wide spread and used in many different fields like
irrigation canal project, earth moving project, road works and tank survey’s. These projects often
require flat surface or remodeling of the ground in order to create a specific platform to build on.
Surveyors have to calculate accurately different volumes of the soul and sometimes cut or fill the
ground in order to create a final favorable ground for the project. It is one of the essential part of
the project in order to start your construction work. Surveyors need accurate estimates of the earth
work quantities and without accurate estimate no contractor can present their accurate bid. Which
makes it more important because without the accurate estimation of the soil will result in the failure
of the project initiation and contractor will not be assigned to formulate the project schedule.
There are three main methods to determine contours and ground sections, they involve cross
section, grid and contour method. Here are more focused on the contour method which is most
commonly used and most accurate method of all three methods. But this method needs to be used
with some specialist software in order to get excellent results. This method is quicker and provides
a convenient way for the companies to use this project more often. There are a lot of software’s
which assist in contour method but they vary on the basis of price and complexity of the software.
For the purpose of contour methods 2 conditions must be fulfilled which are: initial level which
require original ground level survey data and Final level which require proposed level survey data.
In order to use raw survey data to determine contour and ground sections for an area of ground
following steps are followed.
While using RTK or total station surveyor will pick up the survey data with the outline of
earthwork heap. If you are using the total station then it is preferable to set it up on the top of the
heap so you have a proper line of sight with the reflector (Soliman, et al., 1992). Most of the heaps
are different and irregular in form of shape so data have to be gathers at points which are curved
on outline. While walking on the heap you also gather formation level data and it should be gather
where there is change of slope and state proper code while recording the data whether it is GL or
FM which indicates it’s excellent or disaster level. After that separate both codes with the data in
order to have set of GL and another set of FM. After that select the software which you want to
use and then input the data in form of GL and another set of GL and FM and create surface for
both groups. This will generate contours automatically using civil3D. After that surveyor can
compare both surfaces in order to see the difference (Derrick, 2016).
4.2 Calculation of areas and volumes of cut-and-fill using survey data
There are many software’s to calculate the area and volume of cut and fills using the survey data.
But most commonly and most accurate and faster of them all is grid method. This method includes
drawing uniform grid in the plan of the project and take off different proposed and existing ground
levels on all of the nodes on the grid. But all of these values require an average depth of cut and
fill on each of the cell of grid which is to be calculated. Meanwhile volume of the each cell is
obtained by multiplying depth by the cell area. Which differs according to each project. By adding
the volume to each cell together the cut and fill volumes of the project will be estimated. Cut or
fill depth of each of the cell can be found by subtracting average existing levels of cell through the
average proposed level. If the result is positive then it will be fill cell but if the result is negative
then the cell is cut cell. In both cases you can find out by multiplying the area of the grid cell and
cut or fill depth. After calculating the volume of the cell in the grid you have to combine the cells
in order to get total cut volume and same is done for the fill volume (Leo, 2017).
Figure 6: Determination of cut and fill
Accuracy of the project is dependent upon the size of the grid cell. Surveyors have to make
compromise between the accuracy required and time required for production of estimates. Main
advantage of the grid method is that it can be summarized on the site drawing. They present a very
clear representation of the calculations.
Figure 7: Calculations of volume of cells
In order to determine the volumes of the cut or fill the surveyor have to consider depths of cut or
fill at different points of intersection of grid lines on survey grid and then determine the final area
covered by the station. Each station of the grid the total elevation level of the existing grade used
on the site survey is noted on the right quadrant of the grid. Difference of these grade will provide
the depth of the fill or cut at current location. If it is cut then the depth is noted on the bottom left
corner and if it is fill then note the depth on the bottom right quadrant.
4.3 Correction of coordinate points within control traverse work
Traverse is a term used in surveying for the method used to measure the straight lines and their
directions. Different points along the traverse path are known as station and each line represent
traverse leg. Closed loop is one of the most commonly used traverse type. Usually the traverse
starts from one point and then travel along the path line and visit certain station then returns to the
beginning of the station. Other types of the traverse are closed, open and connected. Traverse
methods starts with the beginning station and observes the next point or station which will be
occupied through foresight. After the foresighted point is taken and occupied operator will check
the last occupied pint for the back sight. This process will continue until the loop is completed and
it returns back to the beginning point. This method creates observation data through looking at the
forward or next point to be occupied and looking back to the last point which was occupied before.
A traverse can be adjusted with the help of 3 traditional methods. First method is widely used and
accepted and known as the compass rule adjustment. This method consider that both distance and
observed angles are in errors. Another method for the adjustment of traverse is known as Transit
rule adjustment which considers that distances of the traverse have huge amount of errors. Next
rule which is known as Crandall rule adjustment considered that distance measurements are full of
errors and those errors are distributed among the traverse. Finally the last method is known as least
square adjustment which is applied on the traverse data because traverse have a lot of observations
along the course. This method tries to find out the minimum amount of errors in all observed points
In order to correct the coordinates points within control traverse following procedure is used: This
method includes the use of total station. First of all fix the points at different convenient distances
around 3 to 5km using GPS pair point. Pair of the GPS should be fixed at reliable distance. These
points should be fixed on those positions where they are inter visible. Then make sure that the
calibration of the total station is right and prism constants are on positons in order to avoid the
errors. Than focus on using the total station and conduct the traverse between different GPS points.
This process will make sure that the survey was conducted through the known point and it was
closed on he known point of the project.
To correct the traverse first adjust the angles and direction, determine azimuth or bearings,
calculate and adjust the departure and latitude and calculate the rectangular coordinates. In order
to determine the azimuths or bearings use the direction of one line as the known point and assume
for other purposes it is sufficient. One of the line will serve as the reference for the determination
of other directions and for the survey boundaries use true directions (Cornel, et al., 2012).
4.4 Determination of setting out data for coordinated points
Setting out of the coordinated points is the process of establishing lines and marks in order to
determine the level and position of the elements for the construction projects so the work can
proceed in accordance with those points. Setting out starts with the initiation of certain project plan
and then ends with the final project on the described location. Main purpose of the setting out is to
have correct size, plan, level and position and once it is started it should finish smoothly without
any delay in order to minimize the cost of the project. Certain consideration are to be keep in mind
before starting the setting out of the project. Firstly for the purpose of easy accuracy record and
file the information, Check all of the instruments before the start of the project, in order to avoid
the cumulative all the design points should be set from control network.
Peg may be disturbed without any information to prior authority and should be controlled ad
clearly marked and protected, apply different independent checks in order to find out the errors
and once discovered try to resolve them before the start of the project. Finally lack of
communication on the working site between surveyor and personnel can cause huge damage to the project so it should be considered and resolved before hand.
Setting out of data for coordinated points can be done using a theodolite instrument of civil engineering. During the process of construction when two lines at right angles are carried up vertically on the structure, at that point accurate measures can be taken off those lines and structure will still remain vertical. If the site conditions are favorable then the base figures are placed into concrete which is clear for construction. In order to locate the base of the structure lines will be stretched within marks fixed from different pegs will allow to offset the measurements. As the building or structure is being lift up and risen toward the mark it can be transferred up onto the walls by theodolite. Remember to transfer is carried out on the both sides of the instrument. Vertical pipe can be replaced with the autoplumb or laser beams. In order to do that laser still have to be checked properly for the verticality of the lasers by theodolite.
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