Table of Contents
A presentation on this chapter includes an overview of empirical justifications on HRD importance on the success of supply chain. It begins with the background study that embraces different empirical frameworks; the statement of problem follows; research questions, objectives, significance, scope, limitations, rationale and study organization.
The integration of supply chain into the processes of organizations was witnessed in 1990s (Shub and Stonebraker, 2009). On the other hand, the function of human resource development also emerged as an organizational dominant function with effects that are significant to the functions and performance of the organization ( Conley and Zheng, 2009).The competitive advantage is one of the importance recognized as a cause from human resource and supply chain management. Thus, the firms are able to craft strategies that are unique and increase its performance through the integrated HRD and Supply chain department.
Human resource is considered as the greatest asset in an organization as they help complete everyday activities such as public service management, communications and customer service/dealings (Haslinda, 2009). This proves that the employees with their possessed potentials are the key drivers to the success of the organization. In addition, a change in an organization impacts the organization’s exercises as well as employees’ learning and capabilities. Furthermore, Haslinda (2009) noted that, with a specific end goal to expand organizational adequacy and to guarantee the potentials of employees, there must be development and updating of the competencies and talents.
Jacobs (2002) indicated that, human asset advancement (HRD) is a consistent procedure which matches human acquaintance and aptitude with goals and objectives of the organization. According to Charles (2006), HRD is the coordinated utilization of training and efforts to develop career to enhance the effectiveness of individuals and the organization at large. HRD likewise creates key capabilities that empower people to perform current employments and that will permit them to adjust rapidly to new difficulties and openings (Anyim et al., 2011). The key estimation of HR stems from the way that assets utilized as a part of a course of creation is supplied with optional basic leadership of different assets (Nghia, 2016). As indicated by Werner and Desimone (2006), HRD practices, for instance, training and development, vocation improvement, organizational improvement and appraisal on performance are key to any institute. Moreover, Isaac (2013), attested HR criticality for blend of different assets in a correct blend and to detail proper techniques to accomplish the goals of an organization. Thus, the vital utilization of HRD is a standout amongst the most critical components for the performance of an entity.
The primary motivation behind HRD is to create the skills and capabilities of employees in accordance with the objectives of the organization and there should be a practical exchange of development projects in the working environment (Stephen, 2009). Swanson and Holton (2009) inspected HRD as the blend of preparing and advancement, hierarchical and vocation advancement endeavors that assist in enhancing the effectiveness of an organization. In this way, the convolution nature of the whole globalization progression, offered ascend to lead reliance on HR which is an element of innovativeness of new incentive to the general population.
According to Ashkezari and Aneen( 2012), the today’s competitive world has made the concept of HRD to be a vital in assisting organizations meet their targets both at the local and at the global spheres.Business environment has become highly dynamic since the world has transformed into a global village with integrated technological processes. Due to increased global competition, organizations are facing higher risks and uncertainties of greater degree. Market shares at national and international levels with the effects on organizational efficiency have decreased due to these risks and uncertainties. However, through continuous strategy developments, the organizations have managed to survive with these conditions. The competitive advantage embraced in the practices of supply chain includes evaluating quality suppliers, partnerships with suppliers, evaluating customer satisfactions and having teams embracing continuous improvement.
Nations must have a clear and defined HRD system that can easily support their enhancement strategies (Livingstone and Raykov, 2005). This is on the basis that the development of intricacy on the part of available workforce through dynamic effects of globalization on the national economy because the recent works of HRD. These HRD works has focused on the strategies development and open arrangements. The learning and development has proved to be a major component of development of worldwide economy and advancements (Livingstone and Raykov,2005).
As per Kebede and Sambasivam (2013), the knowledge of humans has progressively turned into a pivotal variable for focused achievement and understanding elements that contribute the knowledge to working environment condition are basic to each organization. Since, each association is comprised of individuals building up their aptitudes, propelling them to abnormal state of execution and guaranteeing that they keep on maintaining their dedication is basic to accomplishing the organizational objectives and goals (Abdullah, 2009). When representatives have been enrolled and chosen the following essential stride is to help them on changing over their capacities into abilities that add to the objectives of an entity (Kebede and Sambasivam, 2013).
To embrace this, the essential issues ought to be considered regardless of whether the need for supply chain is surveyed, a goal is set up, and the program is very much actualized, have close supervision and follow up in the best possible working of HRD (Getahun, 2007). Nevertheless, various issues may result from inadequate routine of HRD such as reduced aspiration of employees on learning and applying new aptitudes, reduced profitability on employees, low drive, higher representative turnover and low execution of organizations (Edgar and Geare, 2005). Issues in HRD frameworks show up when the building capacity practices are neglected to ensemble the organizational and employee’s needs. Consequently, enhancing the satisfaction of organizations and employees is through skills upgrade, learning and attitudinal performance of workers in the setting of organizations which is key (Edgar and Geare, 2005). Thus this study critically scrutinizes the importance of HRD on the supply chain practices in an organization, basing its case in Nigerian Electricity Regulatory Commission (NERC) Abuja, Nigeria.
Assessing the importance of Human Resource development towards the supply chain practices in an organization with the case of Nigerian Electricity Regulatory Commission (NERC) is the overall objective.
The study includes the following specific objectives:
The basis behind this review generates questions below:
The importance of undertaking a research regarding improvements of HRD concept in the aspect of supply chain challenges and practices in the supply chain has been immense. This aspect of value has manifested itself in various ways to the different recipients in varied dimensions of aspects.
This study attempted to evaluate the practices and challenges of HRD with the restrictions on NERC supply chain department. Since this organization assumes supporting part by carrying out training, direction and guiding concerning HR manual, issuing human asset administration manual, taking care of grievances, refreshing and regulating the other division departments in playing out the HRM capacities it was chosen as the area of study. Methodologically, this review utilized sectional survey as data and information were gathered from the sample respondents chosen from the supply chain department randomly.
Human resource is an engine for every Nigerian organizations developments and specifically NERC. Few researches have been led in connection to this topic. This paper takes a gander at the HRD practices and its importance to the supply chain practitioners in NERC. The examination will likewise add on the current literature on the execution of HRD importance with a proposal on methods for upgrading execution in administration conveyance for NERC employees at supply chain department.
The research I arranged in five chapters. The first chapter reviews the background of study. In the second part, unique related literary works are exhibited to make profundity understanding towards the subject under review. Section three is concerned with the methodological piece of the review. The data analysis and findings are shown in the fourth part. And further, conclusions, recommendations and ramifications of the study are made in the fifth chapter. The final part includes references and attached section of appendices.
In order to create intense understanding of the research under study, a critical review of literature must be done as it bases in building a foundation for ideas that are important. This chapter presents ideas that are used in describing results of studies that are closely related and also helps in establishing the current study importance in relation to studies of previous. Therefore, so as to give comprehensive understanding of HRD, different concepts are presented in this chapter.
Human resource plays a vital role in any organization all together with other key aspects such as financials and raw material for the cases of manufacturing organizations. The final product of any organization cannot win customers by itself but rather is made known to the customers through sales and marketing team that constitutes vital section of human resource personnel’s. In the service industry for example whose major product is delivered through information, the use of human resource in achieving personal interaction with the customer is very vital, through this interaction human resource can achieve unlimited amount of income through better uptake of innovative ideas of doing things differently. The people who are motivated and energized have no limit to the extend they can achieve their potential. Such a potential cannot be achieved by any other factors of production but rather by only human resources (Agarwala, 2003).
The changing globalization of trade, business and industry situations have taken the note that change at workplace is unavoidable hence major companies in the world have found it necessary to adapt to changes in at their workplace. These changes have come with new management strategies such as team building, total quality management, shared vision and kaizen continuous improvement processes (Agarwala, 2003). Organization are mutating every day in their urge to cope with the changing processes in production, technology, and quality systems. Human aspects of the industrial capabilities have received much attention in the pursuit to ensure that they are enhancing in readiness to accomplish the holistic organization goals. The human resource development has invested heavily in reorganizing their training programs as they strive to remain flexible to changes. Business are therefore modeled on the aspects of cost reduction under the premise of continuous improvement processes, customer focus processes, internal customer alignment, team building and collaborative working, shared vision , quality management and time-bound delivery to the customers (Agarwala, 2003).
Through careful design of work, a concern for improved efficiency was witnessed by the early part of the century (Khandekar and Sharma, 2005). There was a shift emphasizing improved efficiency to demand focus by the managerial availability. In the past years, there is a recognition of HRD growing at a very fast pace. In 1969, Len Nadler introduced the idea of HRD in the society that oversees training and development in American Society (ASTDC). In 1980s, the idea spread to parastatals and public entities (Khandekar and Sharma, 2005). In an approach that is pragmatic and flexible, HRD focuses on the Human Resource (HR) developmental aspect. Thus, gaining competitive advantage through superior workforce is the intended purpose of HRD.
According to Khandekar and Sharma (2005), there are seven chronological sequences the concept of HRD has passed through. First, the concept of HRD is seen as a commodity where the human resources are to be traded with the decision of wages based on the forces of demand and supply. Secondly, the concept of factor of production; where, the treatment of labor is like any other production factors. Thirdly, the concept of good will; which states that in order for the enhancement of organizational performance and boost up for workers morale, there must be welfare measures such as safety, first aid and rest rooms. Fourthly, the paternalist concept; where there is assumption on the management for fatherly and protective attitudes towards the employers with the satisfaction to various employees’ needs. Fifth is the concept of humanity which deals on how to improve the worker’s level of productivity and their needs in terms of physics, social and psychology. Sixth is the concept of human resource; where employees are considered assets of an organization that are most valuable. Lastly, the HRD concept is the final notion that focuses on the acceptance of employees as partners in an organizational progress so as they have a sense of belonging.
As stated by Jacobs (2002), HRD is important for matching the skills of individuals with the needs of an organization so as to attain a total development that is all-rounded. Promotion of employment dignity in an organization and providing teamwork opportunities and need for personal and career developments is what HRD opts for. Components for HRD include buts not limited to developmental training, development in career, developmental organization and finally the performance appraisals.
Figure 2.1 Components of HRD
Source: (Jacobs, 2002)
Training and development
Employees’ provision with the needed knowledge and skills to a particular current job or task is training. Employees’ preparation for work responsibilities in future, capacity increment and current job performance describes development. Hence, through the skills and potentials of the people organizations possess, there is achievement of competitive success (Leimbach et al., 1998). The performance and productivity of the employees are improved by training as the organizational success is not only ensured by employing, choosing, orienting and employee placements in jobs. Training programs fill the gap between the knowledge and skills of employees and the demands from the assigned jobs or tasks (Abdullah, 2009).
There should be acceptance of HRD function to every employee in any organization as it offers bright career prospects for individual employees. There is an integration of HRD function with career planning and development. Career development also results from proper career planning. Regarding achieving best fit between individuals, needs for the organization, personal characteristics and career roles, there must be alignment of subjective career aspects of individuals with more career aspects of the organization that are objective (Upton and Egan, 2003).
According to Swanson and Holton(2001), the organizational development focuses on the organizational performance as a whole. It is also an effort that is long-term with the top managers input of assistance and supervisory services so as the organizational vision, learning and problem-solving processes can be improved (French and Bell, 1999). The variables in an organization such as structure and systems should be attended by the organizational development tasks. Also included are the variables for employees such as competence, skills, and attitudes (Padaki, 2007).
Appraisal of Performance
This is a part of HRD that is most important as it encompasses in-depth information regarding the stand of employees, the organizational expectations from its employees, their duties, their weaknesses and how they can be curbed (Alagaraja, 2013). Appraisal of performance is the process of reviewing and assessing the performance of the duties and responsibilities assigned to the employees.
In the changing environment today, additional capacity building is needed by employees at all levels, while the managers need the opportunity of developing their managerial thinking (Nghia, 2016). Therefore, continuously managing employees through development programs is what organizations need to do. Some of the processes of HRD identified by Harris et al covers assessment of needs, objectives identification and design,, HRD program implementation, process of evaluating and following- up.
Assessment of needs
According to Noe(2010), identifying the needs of human resource development through needs assessment process should be the first task for any organization. Being an effort aligned to need-oriented, level determination and training & development type and duration, the process of needs assessment is of most important to HRD concept (Bhupendra, 2009). Thus, the assessment of needs focusing on the analysis of the organization, tasks and individuals is the framework dominant for identifying the HRD of organizations.
Objectives design and identification
Establishing objectives is the next step after clearly identifying the needs of HRD. An objective is defined as the outcome that is specific for employee achievement from the capacity building programs (Scarpello and Ledvinka, 1995).
HRD program implementation
Organizations are enabled to achieve its objectives through HRD programmes (Nghia, 2016). The design and details of the programs are determined by providing the skills to be taught, the sought of employee development, and the proposed short and long term objectives (Chatterjee, 1995).
Evaluating and following-up
This is the HRD program final phase which verifies the program’s success. Its interpretation is commonly known for program’s effectiveness and efficiency determination in relation to the goals and objectives desired. Investing in people for competency update is what describes HRD (Ahuja, 1988).
The process of managing supply chain activities proactively for customer value maximization and achieving competitive advantage that is sustainable through multiple entities cumulatively is what describes supply chain management (Meindl and Chopra, 2001). According to Joyner (2012), the growth per annum of the SCM industry is more than 9% which is a growth that is sustainably poised. The need for talented supply chain professionals who are in a position of having holistic views on supply chain processes have risen due to the globalization, market turbulence and the role of SCM that has been increasing the strategic planning of the firm. These views are in terms of the processes linked; the relationships that are critically managed; understanding the model of the business; engaging in analysis statistically withy the decision making process basing on facts; practicing advanced management of costs; and understanding business systems electronically (Trent, 2004). A serious talent shortage is being experienced by SCM industry with the prediction of worsening, even though the compensation for the professionals of supply chain is rising steadily (Cottrill, 2010)
According to McCarter et al., (2005), the SCM industry is experiencing shortage in professionals with the broad set of skills that are required in satisfying the on-going demand. This is due to the attributing factors such as many firms placing emphasis mostly on the cost reduction, and customer and suppliers relationships more than people being developed to achieve the objectives of SCM (shub and Stonnebraker, 2009). Integration and teamwork involving thinking beyond the boundaries established, the linkages between functions strengthened and pulling together the ways is the foundation of SCM (Sweeny, 2013). The behaviours of integration encompasses exchanging information, having communication that is proactive, risks and resource sharing, development of supply chain jointly, and having the supply chain participants coordinate planning and decision-making. The pre-requisite for customer value creation rises from corporative relationship development among the supply chain participants (Lawrence and Lorsch, 1967). The customer value is created as a result of supply chain aggregation since there is connection amongst sourcing and manufacturing operations with the requirements of the market for better marching of supply and demand due to sharing of knowledge (Esper et al., 2010).
Suggestions by further research shows that the external integration is enabled through internal integration for only firms communicating effectively, sharing information and collaborating across areas that are functional (Flynn et al., 2010). Lack of emphasis on supply chain talent development with the range of skills required is the major reason for lacking a teamwork that is integrated and collaborative in many firms (Zhao et al., 2011)
An imperative theme in the literature of strategic developmental aspect relating human resource includes the ability of leveraging resources relating to human skills and growth of competitive advantage (Garavan, 2007). Since its introduction, the term HRD has been variously defined with more than 15 definitions identified. However, HRD is considered by most scholars to be a study and practice field seeking an enhancement on learning and change facilitation individually, teamwork, organization at large and level of the society for performance improvement, effectiveness and capacity building (McLean and McLean, 2001).
It is not new to have this notion of strategically having the human resources exploited for the advantage of SCM. The performance of supply chain is significantly affected by the human resource development strategy as there is a large influence of SCM practices resulting from interactions of human (Sweeny, 2013). Hence, HRD is classified as one of the four pillars of supply chain excellence in the literature of SCM (Trent, 2004). Nevertheless, there is an overlook on the human and behavioural components of SCM by organizations even though this function bases on knowledge, skills and supply chain professional competency predictions (Tokar, 2010; Sweeny, 2013). Study shows that there are some underlined benefits resulting from HRD intervening in SCM even though there is under exploitation of literature on the contribution of HR systems that are potential and approaches to performance of supply chain (Smith-Doerflein et al., 2011).
The professionals of HRD in many organizations deals in the design, training implementation and initiatives of employee development to improve the performance of employees and organization at large; and also assist in change facilitation of individuals, group and organizational ranks (Katou, 2009). In order to make effective supply chain processes, intervention of the HRD professional expertise to the supply chain team addresses issues that are interpersonal and complex associated with making people to collaboratively work.
Some of the SCM activities and operational concepts that may cause implications in supply chains and human resource integrations include: zero inventory, outsourcing, riding freely, surplus of supply chain and the bullwhip effect. Therefore, suggestions from different authors lay the view that there should be an integration of HRD that is strategic, SCM and social responsibility so as to allow quick response of organizations to the conditions that are changing while there is attendance of human factors in SCM (Becker et al., 2010).
Business lies on the basis of two aspects, give and take. With the time passage, businesses are carried out in a structure that is formal and organized, compared to the previous time where it was carried out on individual basis (Torraco, 1999). In order for the organization achievement of economic objectives, it acts as an organic entity carrying out businesses. A critical position is held by the economic theory in the HRD concept evolution in an organization. The study of optimal utilization and allocation of scarce resources available describes economics. The efficiency concepts are partof economics that helps in framework design to ensure the well-being of the society at its maximum.
The assertion of this theory is that the employees’ behavior and mental process affects the performance system of any organization. Organizations must therefore strive to maintain a working environment that is cohesive, so as to be effective and well-organized in the edge that is competitive and global scenario. However, for this to work there is an integration of the conditions of the working environment with the human resource talents and skills. The psychological tools applied in solving the problems encountered by employees assist their integration with the climate and results of the organization (Fenwick, 2005). Hence, the psychological perspective is critical to the performance of the organization as it explains how individual’s perception, attitudes and behavior can affect the organizational goals, objectives and processes (Passmore, 1997).
As described by Swanson (2001), this theory is a field of interdisciplinary concentrating all the frameworks and clarification of how the interrelationships among sources of information, procedures, yields, and criticism influence inward subsystems with set objectives gotten from a mission of the general framework. There is an interaction linking the organization and its external environment, with the aim of maintaining a synergy occurring between the affairs of the organization that are internal and any externalities. The system is termed open since it bases its assumption of no development of an individual or organization in a vacuum. This makes most of the organizations expose themselves to the world of externalities for growth and development. Being a sub-system and a system of its own in an organization, HRD helps in transforming the input resources to outputs that are valuable due to the processes entailed (Fenwick, 2005).
HRD has a function that is immense in this competitive globalization so as the challenging requirements of human resources that are highly competent and skilled are met. Regarding this, human resource components transforming productivity in other resources can be beneficial to the country’s growth (Gupta, 2008). Thus, the capability of individuals is fostered through HRD via strengthening practices of the capability of the organization to achieving competitive advantage (Padaki, 2007). In a given organization, the nature and extent of HRD activities practiced are capacitated through the HRD purposes (Haslinda, 2009). The perspective of learning and performance giving benefits to the interests of stakeholders and individuals centres its purposes. The major focus of HRD is centred on organizational training, development and learning in order to develop individuals in achieving strategies and competence of the organization.
According to Yusuf and Kasim (2003), it is crucial for HRD to play a role in promotion and growth sustenance, with significant contributing factors to the development of economy in terms of the productivity of employees increased. Through more skilled human capability existence, there is making a more productive, innovative and competitive economy; which is also a role played dominantly with HRD (Yusuf and Kasim, 2003). There is an intricate connection of HRD to the fate of any existing organization as the human beings being the major asset in creating of organizations and can also lead to its soar and crumble (Swanson and Holton, 2001). Furthermore, through HRD processes, there is development and upgrading of human expertise with their application for mutual benefits that are of long term and short term. There is more commitment to job and assessment of the people based on their performance through appropriate programs of HRD (Fenwick, 2005).
HRD alignment to priorities that is strategic
Focusing more on strategy and perhaps avoiding addiction to training programs delivery is what HRD practitioners needs to making an impact and helping in driving the SCM success. The first thing they should do is to comprehend more the organizational need so as to be in a position of delivering a learning agenda enabling goals achievement (Noe, 2010). The goals and operations of the organization to developing human capital drive the strategic HRD; thus it is a way that purposefully matches the organizational human resource. Hence, expanding the capability of learning that helps in knowledge generation and enhancing capability that is both competitive and collaborative is the central focus of strategic HRD (Harrisson and Kessels, 2003).
Building a learning culture that is knowledge productive
The alertness and responsiveness of practitioners are the major contributing factors to effectiveness of HRD to culture change. A deep knowledge requirement on of the organizational culture, its roots historically and behaviours and performance impacts is needed in order to learn the culture of SCM processes in the organization (Harrisson and Kessel, 2003).
Managerial and leadership capability development
In meeting the goals that are desired, organizations experience a challenge in the managerial and leadership capability development. Thus, implementing and developing management strategies for building types of core competencies that are interactive such as strategic capability, flexibility and learning orientation should be the focus of HRD professionals (Harrisson and Kessel, 2003).
Positive working environment creation
In order to upgrade HRD, an essential requirement in every organization is creating a positive working environment (Habib, 2012). With this, there is a strong value and contribution to the workers since their commitments are encouraged, retention increment and versatility and mobilization facilitation. With a work environment that is positive, risk taking with caution is encouraged; flexibility of work schedules is allowed; and finally offering to employees different options.
Acceptance on changes and developments of modern technologies
The way people are doing things are changing due to advances in technology (Cankovic, 2013). To face up the challenges of modern work, the HRD programs must be built on flexibility, skills and professionalism as its requirements that are essential, thus a huge investment must be on career and development.
The inauguration of the Nigerian Electricity Regulatory Commission (NERC) was in November 2005 (NERC, 2017). It underlines its main responsibility with regulating and monitoring tariffs on quality services in the sector of Electric power. The authority focuses on imposing mandatory standards that are reliable on the sector of electric power. Penalties on companies manipulating the markets of electricity are also imposed. Other roles outlined in ESPR Act of 2005 giving NERC additional responsibilities are as below:
Figure 2.2 Conceptual Framework of the study
Source: Researcher (2017)
This chapter describes the strategy and design adopted by this study. The study populace sampled for the study, method use in sampling the respondents, collection of data, and the data analytical tools employed in the study are discussed as well. The chapter is organized in different sections for better presentation in putting forward the ideas in a legible manner. The sections incorporated are: 3.2 that describe the research design adopted, section 3.3 indicating the study populace sampling method, section 3.4 describing the data collection instrument, and finally section elaborating on the data analysis tools employed in undertaking the data analysis.
This research adopted a survey method in its research strategy. However, the design of the research was descriptive in nature. The descriptive design was well fitted for this project because it had a well-defined statement of the problem, well elaborated association between the study variables, and by making use of descriptive study approach the research could establish the extent of relationship as regards the variables in the study. The strategy had a better description of the data collection methods. In general, the study unanimously adopted causal descriptive analysis in unearthing the deep relationship between the research variables (Regin,2006). Further still, the causal descriptive research design that the study adopted was crucial assisting the study analyze the extent to which the human resource development has contributed in supply chain management at Nigeria Energy Regulation Commission. This was achieved through the implementation of key HR functions such as development with training, development in career, development in the organization, performance appraisals, HRD administration and mitigation of HRD challenges.
The target study populace comprised of the staff drawn from NERC of which 120 were sampled to participate in this research. Out of the 120 respondents sampled for the study, only 90 respondents replied to the questionnaire representing a response rate of 75%. The study made use of purposive sampling in choosing the staff of NERC to take place in the study. They were administered with structured questionnaires that were coding of the surveys because of uniformity. The study target population was of chosen by the research because of its high convenience to the researcher as it enabled better collection of data within the financial and project timeline. This ensured that the study is implemented and its completion achieved within projected scheduled time and cost.
The application of purposive sampling has the benefit associated with encouraging preciseness in the number of target population; has the advantage of making sure only high interest people are sampled for the study, it also ensure time is saved as the researcher is dealing with respondents who are aware of the research are and no further explanation is required by them because they already have relevant knowledge on the study are. However, there exists disadvantage based on the aspect that the process can encourage biasness in the sampling of the respondents as others staff will feel left out when only those in knowledge of the study area are sampled to participate in the research.
The employed the sole use of data collection method that was primary in nature through administering of questionnaires that were structured in nature to the study sampled populace comprising of 120 staffs of NERC in quest of their opinion as pertaining to the extent to which human resource development has contributed in the growth of supply chain management. The research questionnaire used in gathering the study data was modeled in uniform manner as indicated by respondents. This uniformity encourages a quicker data cleaning process, coding process and easier way of injecting the coded data to SPSS for analysis. The questionnaire was structured on the basis of Likert scale so as to maintain uniformity of the responses for faster coding. The use of Likert also assisted in better capturing of the respondents opinion on the research subject.
The research identified key variables notably development and training, development in career, development in organization, appraisal on performance, HRD administration and mitigation of HRD challenges. These were correlated with the extent of growth in supply in establishing the extent to which HRD has contributed in the growth of supply chain
The use of questionnaire has its benefits as a study data collection tool. Its benefits are: Better standardization of research responses, allows for sampling of large number of responses, and it is also compatible to most statistical tools. To a farther note, questionnaires can also help in capturing the behaviour of the respondents, beliefs, attributes and the views of the respondents. However, there are also drawbacks associated with the data collection usage in the form of questionnaire. The shortcomings are: They are susceptible to errors, have extra step involving data entry step before the real analysis. They too can prove to be very expensive when administered in the form of hard copy and the selection of the study sample space sometimes may be tedious in assisting draw the right conclusion based on the statistical analysis. They are also subject to misinterpretation as they depend on how the question can be designed. Finally, there is also the aspect of data scope as having high limitation because the behavior of the patterns that are omitted.
This section highlights the process of carrying out the data analysis. The data analysis process involved cleaning of the dataset which involved deletion of personal details and dataset that are outliers in nature. The cleaned data was thereafter ingested in SPSS V19 for analysis. The process of analysis was guided by the conceptual framework and research objectives altogether with the review on which the literature was based on. The frequency descriptive statistics was used in representing the finding of the socio-demographic data and the aspects of practices in HRD. The analytical model was used in analysing the inferential statistics in evaluating the extent of association between the study variables. The analysis comprised of the influence of the various HR functions into a successful management of implementation of supply chain processes.
The analysis of SPSS was the preferred choice for quantitative analysis based on its strong ability to better present descriptive and the inferential statistical analysis to help in better establishment of the extent of association of the research variables.
The chapter undertook the description of methodology adopted for the study. The research did adopt descriptive analysis in its design and a survey in its strategy. The identified methodology in carrying out the project was in line with the project design, the study populace based on the dataset generated by data collection instruments as well as the tool used in the analysis of data.
This chapter of this research gives presentation of findings with a description of findings relating to study objectives in introduction and methodology parts of the research. This chapter is arranged into different sections such as 4.2 involving the representation of response rate and results of socio-demographic findings. Sections 4.3 indicated the results as regard the study objectives, while in section 4.4 illustrated the findings of inferential statistics and last but not least section 4.5 indicates the summary activities carried out in the research.
This part represents the results of the study regarding the research response rate and socio-demographic
The study had a total of 120 staffs of NERC staff that were supplied with questionnaire which was structured inform. These questionnaires help them sought out the opinion of the respondents with regard to the extent to which HRD has promoted development in supply chain management. The staff who responded was 90% of them respondents indicating a response rate of 75%. This was a better representation of the views of the staff of regarding the influence of HRD in supply chain processes these findings were illustrated in table 4.1.
Table 4.1: Response rate
|Respondents Sampled||Respondents Responded||Response Rate|
The study sampled the socio-demographic data of the respondents on their gender composition, age composition, their marital status, level of education and numbers of years of their work experience. The findings were described in the below paragraphs and represented in tables 4.2, 4.3, 4.4. 4.5 And 4.6.
Regarding the gender composition of the respondents, the findings indicated that most of the respondents were male staff of NERC at 53.3% followed by female at 46.7% of the total sampled population. These results were represented in table 4.2.
Table 4.2: Respondents Gender
On the aspect of age-group distribution of the respondents, the findings in table 4.3 illustrates that most of the respondents were falling in the age bracket of 36-45 years as represented by 37.8%, followed by those in the age bracket of 46 to 55 years as represented by 17.8% of the respondents, then those in the 26-35 years age bracket represented by 15.6%, and finally those having the age brackets of 18-25 and above 56 years were equal in number and were represented by 14.4% of the respondents.
The findings illustrates that most of the personnel’s in the supply chain department were just past the youthful as most of them were in the age range of 36 to 45 years.
Table 4.3: Respondents Age bracket
|56 and above||13||14.4|
The table 4.4 illustrates the finding regarding the marital status of the respondents. The results illustrates that most of the respondents were married as represented by 54.4% of the respondents, followed by respondents who were still single who were represented by 26.7% of the respondents and finally those who were divorced were the least in number at 18.9%.
Table 4.4: Respondents marital status
Regarding the education level achieved by the respondents, the table 4.5 illustrates the study findings. The result shows that a larger number of the respondents had attained bachelor degree in their respective professional fields as represented by 48.9% of the respondents. This was followed by those who had attained diploma level of study at 17.8%, then finally those who had attained certificate and masters level of education were equal in number as each was represented by 16.7% of the respondents.
Table 4.5: Respondents Level of education
The findings regarding work experience was illustrated in table 4.6. The results indicated that most of the respondents had a working experience ranging between 2 to 6 years as was represented by 47.8% of the respondents. Following were those respondents with a working experience of less than a year as represented by 20% of the respondents. Those with a working experience of 7 to 10 years were represented by 17.8% and finally the least number of respondents were those with working experience of over 11 years as represented by 14.4% of the respondents. These findings were illustrated in the following table 4.6.
Table 4.6: Respondents work experience
|1 and below year||18||20.0|
|11 and above years||13||14.4|
In the descriptive statistics summary, the study considered the components making up the socio-demographic and the components making up the human resource development implementation in a supply chain management. The summary considered the followingvalues: The valid listed case N, the maximum, minimum, mean and standard deviation for all the variables listed in the study questionnaire. These variables were considered for every variable making up the socio-demographic data and those aspects of human resource development that are beneficial supply chain management.
Socio-demographic descriptive statistics
The variables making up the demographic statistics were: Gender, marital status, education level, work experience, and age bracket. Results of the descriptive statistics for these variables were as follows: The age indicated a mean of 1.47 and a standard deviation of 0.502 indicating that there were more males than female.
For the marital status, the finding indicated a mean of 1.92 and a standard deviation of 0.674 indicating that most of the respondents were married, while the education level indicated a mean of 2.66 and a standard deviation of 0.950 depicting that most of the respondents had attained bachelor degree level of education as represented by the mean value.
Regarding the work experience, the finding indicated a mean value of 2.27 and a standard deviation of 0.946 also indicating that most of the respondents have a work experience of 2 to 6 years. While at the same time, the variable representing the age bracket of the respondents had a mean of 3.02 and a standard deviation of 1.227, the value of the mean also confirms the initial findings that most of the respondents’ falls in the age bracket of 36 to 45 years.
The findings of the descriptive statistics for the socio-demographic variables were represented in the table 4.7.
Table 4.7: Socio-demographic descriptive
|What is the name of your marital status?||90||1||3||1.92||.674|
|What is your education level?||90||1||4||2.66||.950|
|Your age bracket||90||1||5||3.02||1.227|
|Valid N (listwise)||90|
Descriptive Statistics of HRD components
The category of human resource development practices making up the supply chain management considered in this study were: awareness to the HRD processes, alignment of supply chain processes, training and development, career development, organization development, performance appraisal, HRD administration, and HRD challenges. The findings indicated that the awareness of HRD had a mean of 3.81 and standard deviation of 1.26; the alignment to supply chain process indicated a mean of 3.58 and a standard deviation of 1.179; the training and development aspect indicated a mean of 3.92 and a standard deviation of 1.327; the aspect of career development had a mean of 4.03 and a standard deviation of 1.297, further still the organization development aspect of the HRD had a mean of 3.88 and a standard deviation of 1.305, while performance appraisal has a mean of 2.37 and a standard deviation of 1.305. The HRD administration component had a mean of 3.83 and a standard deviation of 1.317 and finally, the challenges faced in HRD implementation had a mean of 3.75 and a standard deviation of 1.32. These results of descriptive statistics were illustrated in the table 4.8
Table 4.8: Descriptive Statistics of HRD components
The general objective of this research was indicated as an assessment of the importance of Human Resource development towards the supply chain practices in an organizationwith the case of Nigerian Electricity Regulatory Commission (NERC). In evaluating this broad objective, specific research objectives were also considered. These specific objectives were: To illustrate the current link between HRD concept and Supply Chain practices in NERC; To evaluate the current supply chain practices resulting from the concept of HRD in Nigerian Electricity Regulatory Commission (NERC); To examine how the concept of HRD has enhanced in supply chain practices in NERC. Finally, to identify the HRD challenges encountered by NERC as it practices its supply chain. The composite mean value of these variables indicates the Likert scales of the extent to the opinion of the respondents agree regarding the accomplishment of various sun-tasks under each category. The scales of the Likert scale were as follows.1=strongly disagree 2=disagree 3=neutral 4=agree 5=strongly agree.
Regarding the link between HRD practices and the supply chain management, the respondents were tasked to gauge the extent of their agreement in the scale of 1 to 5, in which 1 represent strongly disagreedand 5 represents strongly agreed. The value of mean from the descriptive statistics analysis represented the average Likert scale of the extent of respondent agreement. In the table 4.9, the findings are illustrated for the components making up HRD implementation in supply chain. These components are the major links between HRD and supply chain becauseit’s through them that HRD can interact and operate in the supply chain framework.
As indicated in the table 4.9 shows that awareness of HRD had a mean of 3.81 indicating that the respondent were in agreement to being aware of the existence of HRD practices at their organization. The alignment of supply chain processes had a mean of 3.58 also illustrating that the respondents were in agreement that these process have been aligned for optimal management of supply chain. Regarding the aspect of training and development, a mean value of 3.92 also indicated that there existed a well-structured training programming in enhancing the supply management. There exited a framework for career development, as indicated by the mean value of 4.03. The respondents were in agreement that they have a program for career progression.
Regarding the organizational development, descriptive statistics also indicated a mean of 3.88 meaning that the respondent were also in agreement that the organization has enhanced its development and structures in promoting supply chain practices. However, regarding the performance appraisal the respondents were in disagreement as indicated by the mean of 2.77 that there has been good practices in performance management in enhancing. Regarding the HRD administration aspect, it indicated a mean of 3.83 representing that the respondents were also in agreement that administration have been up to task to meet the objectives of facilitating efficiency in implementing supply chain processes. Last but not least, the HRD challenges was represented by a mean of 3.75 also illustrating that there was agreement on the part of the respondents regarding the existence of bottlenecks in implementing the HRD processes in the supply chain environment.
Table 4.9: HRD concept in supply chain management
In evaluating the supply chain practices currently supported by HRD at NERC, the study considered the following aspects: knowledge of laws and regulations, logistics functions and supply chain knowledge, workflow optimization, transportation knowledge, administration and management contract, regulatory and negotiation knowledge, and vendor relation or management.
As indicated in table 4.10, the finding indicated that knowledge of laws and regulations had a mean of 3.93, implying that the respondents were in agreement that HRD has enhanced their knowledge on laws and regulations governing supply chain management. However, in regard to the knowledge on logistics functions and the supply chain the findings indicated a mean of 3.28, indicating that the respondents were neutral on the impacts of HRD on these crucial practices and functions in supply chain management.
On the optimization of workflow, the descriptive statistics indicated a mean of 3.57; this means that the respondents were in in agreement that HRD process has enhanced optimization of workflow that is also a key practice in supply chain. The respondents also were in agreement that knowledge of transported has been effective as well, this was indicated by the descriptive mean score of 3.61.
Regarding the contract administration and management as a practice in supply chain, the respondents were in agreement that it has effectively been improved as indicated by the mean of 3.70. But, with regard to the regulatory knowledge and negotiation skills, the respondents were in disagreement on the extent to which HRD has created opportunities and enhancement regarding this supply chain practice.
Finally, the findings regarding vendor relations and management, the results indicated a descriptive mean score of 3.51; this indicated that the staffs of NERC were in agreement that HRD has sharpened their skills in respect to the activities relating to vendor relations and management. These findings generally, illustrate that that the HRD has enhance effectiveness and efficiencies in supply chain management through creating enabling environment for the execution of the supply chain practices.
Table 4.10: Supply Chain Practices in HRD
In examining how the concept of HRD has enhanced supply chain practices, the study considered the following key aspects of human resource development: training and development, career development, organization development, performance appraisal and HRD administration.
The findings showed that training and development had a mean score of 3.92 based on the descriptive analysis. This indicated that the respondents were in agreement regarding the influence training and development as an aspect in HRD as had in executing supply chain practices. The findings also indicated that career development as having a mean of 4.03 which is also indicated that the staffs of NERC were also in agreement to the facts that HRD practices have also enhanced supply chain management.
On the aspect of organizational development, the descriptive analysis indicated a mean score of 3.88 implying that the sampled study populaces were in agreement on the extent to which organizational development has promoted supply chain management, but concerning the performance appraisal influence on supply chain practices, the responded were in complete dis agreement. This was represented by the descriptive mean of 2.37 as depicted in the table 4.11. However, to the level of administration of human resource development, the respondents were in agreement that it has been effective enough in enhancing capabilities of supply chain processes as indicated by the descriptive mean score of 3.83.
Table 4.11: HRD practices supporting supply chain management
The implementation of HRD in supply chain management has not been without bottlenecks as represented in table 4.12. The study identified key challenges arising in the application of human resource development practices in supplies management. These obstacles were related to the following aspects: alignment of HRD to strategic priorities, utilization of HR assessment technology in the planning of HRD, inadequate allocation of funds, lack of enforcement and accountability, and acceptance of change as influenced by technological changes.
The descriptive analysis of these findings indicated the different values for the mean scores for each individual variable. For example, the alignment of HRD to strategic priorities indicated a descriptive mean score of 3.89, implying that most of the respondents agreed that this has been a problem in implementing HRD practices in the supply chain management. The findings also found that the mean score for utilization of technology in HRD assessment had a mean score of 4.04 which also indicated that the staffs of NERC were in agreement to the fact that technology has not been effectively utilized in the assessment of HRD effectiveness. Further still, the mean score relating to the allocation of inadequate fund had a value of 3.91 also indicating that the respondents were in agreement that there has been constraints relating to finances. Financing is a key in the implementation of HRD functions and processes.
In regard to the lack of enforcement and accountability, the descriptive mean score of 3.52 was indicated, implying that the respondents were also in agreement to the fact that there has been lack of enforcement and accountability; this has adversely affected the implementation of HRD practices in the supplies management. Finally, in respect to challenges in accepting advancement in technological changes, the results indicated a descriptive mean score of 3.40, that meant that the staffs of NERC were in disagreement to that fact, and were of contrary opinion that HRD has embraced the advancement in technology always keeping a brace with all the latest development. These study finding were illustrated in the table
Table 4.12: Challenges in Implementing HRD in Supply Chain Management
The table 4.13 represents the findings in testing various aspects of the HRD constructs. The results indicated that all the category of variables had their Cronbach’s’ Alpha coefficients greater than 0.7. This indicated that the variables in this model can be used in predicting the influence of HRD practices in the supply chain management. The findings further indicated that career development had the highest value of Cronbach’s Alpha coefficient at 0.798 while the lowest recording was on performance analysis at 0.702. The other components had a intermediate values between the two highlighted.
Table 4.13: Reliability Test
|Construct||Number of Items||Cronbach’s Alpha|
|Awareness towards the concepts of HRD||4||0.747|
|Training and Development||7||0.729|
|Challenges in HRD||5||0.772|
In this chapter, the study focused on the representation and analysis of study findings. The chapter represented the demographic data and the findings as stipulated by the research objectives. The next chapter will focus on the discussion, conclusion and recommendation of these study findings
The study in this section focuses on the summary, discussions, conclusion, limitation and the recommendation of the study findings. The chapter organizes these descriptions into different sections such as: Section 5.2 discusses the research summary; 5.3 discusses the findings of study based on both demography and as guided by the objectives research; section 5.4 draws conclusion based on the findings of study, and lastly there is elaboration of study limitation with the proposal on the enhancement the future studies should consider adopting in section 5.5.
The main objective of the study was to assess the importance of HRD in enhancing supply chain practitioners in Nigeria Electricity Regulatory Commission. In helping to finding out this objective, the research was guided by the following specific research objectives: To illustratethecurrentlink between HRD concept and Supply Chain practices in NERC;to evaluate the current supply chain practices resulting from the concept ofHRDinNigerian Electricity Regulatory Commission(NERC);to examine how the concept of HRD has enhanced supply chain practices in NERC and to identify the HRDchallenges encountered by NERC as it practices its supply chain.
In undertaking this study, the researcher organized it into chapters, from chapter one, two, three and all the way to five. Chapter one focused on describing the study background of the study area, problem statement and significance of the study all under the whole under the concept of introduction. Then chapter two focused on the review of relevant literature materials relating to the application of HRD in supply chain management. Chapter three discusses the methodology adopted for this study- in this instance; a descriptive quantitative research design was adopted coupled together with a survey strategy in evaluating the importance of HRD in supply chain management. Thereafter, chapter four presented the data finding of the data analysis capturing the finding on the demographics and those based on the research objectives. Finally, chapter five presents the summary, discussion, conclusion and recommendation of the study.
The aspect demographics findings indicated that most of the respondents comprised of more male than female. However, more of the staff of NERC sampled for this study comprised of youthful age of between 36 to 45 years. The marital status of respondents shown that most of the respondents were married, followed closely by those who were single and finally the least number were those who were divorced. The education level attained by the respondents indicated that most of them were holders of bachelor degree, followed by those holding diploma, then those who had attained PhD and certificate were the least and were equal in number. Finally, regarding the demographic findings, the work experience of the staff indicated that most of them were possessing 2 to 6 years of experience, followed by those who were just 1 year and below in the company, the those who were having 7-10 years in the company and least number of respondents had worked for over 11 years in the firm.
The HRD practices that have been embraced by NERC in support of the supply chain such as awareness of HRD, alignment to supply processes, training and development, career development, development of the organization, performance appraisal, HRD administration and the handling of HRD challenges, the results depicted that all these aspects have been enhanced to support the management of supply chain processes with only the exception of performance appraisal that need further enhancement through creation of capabilities. The staffs of NERC were of the opinion that HRM processes on performance appraisals need to be enhanced so as to enable it support the day to day running of supply chain through encouragement of employee to supersede their targets in delivering value regarding supply chain activities and process to their fellow staff and third party vendors.
In evaluating the supply chain practices currently supported by HRD at NERC, the study considered the following aspects: knowledge of laws and regulations, knowledge of logistics functions and supply chain, optimization of workflow, knowledge of transportation, contract administration and management, regulatory knowledge and negotiation, and vendor relation or management. The findings indicated that all these aspects have been enhanced in creating capacity so as to support the supply chain management, with exception of only knowledge of transportation and regulatory knowledge and negotiation skill that need further alignment so as to fit it in the HRD process, the rest of the supply chain practices are fully enhance and are easily supported by the prevailing HRD processes.
In examining how the concept of HRD has enhanced supply chain practices, the study considered the following key aspects of human resource development: training and development, career development, organization development, performance appraisal and HRD administration. All these aspects of HRD have been enhanced with exception of Performance appraisal that the respondents were of the feeling that it need further realignment to the supply chain practices so as to enable it make a positive contribution as far as its input is concerned.
The implementation of HRD in supply chain management has not been without bottlenecks. The study identified key challenges arising in the application of human resource development practices in supplies management. These obstacles were related to the following aspects: alignment of HRD to strategic priorities, utilization of HR assessment technology in the planning of HRD, inadequate allocation of funds, lack of enforcement and accountability, and acceptance of change as influenced by technological changes. Their findings indicated that there have been hurdles in implementing the HRD process to fully support the supply chain management. The challenges have been dominant and the organization is working to avert them. In regard to the extent of their impacts, the results indicated that of all of them, challenges relating to acceptance of technological change have had the least impacts in comparison to other obstacles.
In general, based on the study discussions this research can authoritatively conclude that the various aspects of HRD have been enhanced to promote conducive operation and execution of supply chain process at the NERC as it strive to encourage, empower and grow its supply chain practitioners. The issues relating to challenges and employee appraisal need to be addressed as matter of urgency.
The study was limited by time, which implied only a single research method was the only one employed in this study. Single method may be tricky to give an exhaustive result.
Future studies on a similar study area can explore the use of mixed methods of research strategy in undertaking the process, such an arrangement will enhance capabilities on both sides- supply chain and HRD practices. They two process should not compete but must work in unison to support the organizations mission statement.
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SECTION A: DEMOGRAPHIC DATA/PERSONAL CHARACTERISTICS
18-25 [ ] 26 – 35 [ ]
36 – 45 [ ] 46 – 55 [ ]
Single [ ] Married [ ] Divorced [ ]
[ ] Certificate
1 and below [ ] 2-6[ ] 7-10 [ ] 11 and above [ ]
SECTION B: Please state your level of opinion for each given statement using the following likert scale 1=strongly disagree 2=disagree 3=neutral 4=agree 5=strongly agree
|Awareness towards the concepts of HRD||Agreement Scales|
|1.||I am aware of training and development from HRD point of view|
|I know career planning and development as crucial part of HRD|
|I acquainted with organizational development from HRD standpoint|
|4||I familiar with performance appraisal from HRD point of view|
|Training and Development||Agreement Scales|
|1.||Institution has good training and development programs
|HR assesses employee training needs|
|Setting performance goals and objectives
|4||HR plans developmental strategies accordingly|
|5.||Assessing the available aids for internal and external training and development|
|6.||Developing strategies for training, Programs and modules
|7.||Evaluating training efforts
|Career Development||Agreement Scales|
|1.||Well in working to improve career development
|Working for upgrade employees potential|
|The institution has good career planning and development
|4||The organization integrates HRD with organizational objectives
|5.||Good counseling center that benefits all employees
|Organizational development||Agreement Scales|
|1.||Good management with required profession
|Good culture of openness
|Following cost minimization system|
|4.||Sound recruitment systems
|5.||Better compensation and job security
|Performance Appraisals||Agreement Scales|
|1.||Good performance appraisal systems
|Evaluation what expected from each employee|
|3||Acknowledgement for good performances|
|4.||Short and long term evaluation
|5.||Short and long term evaluation
|Rate your institutioin how HRD is administered?||Agreement Scales|
|1.||Good personal analysis
|Appropriate job analysis|
|Considerate organizational analysis|
|4.||Institution designs and identifies sound HRD objectives
|5.||Evaluation and follow ups
|Challenges in HRD||Agreement Scales|
|Aligning HRD to strategic priorities
|Utilizing HR assessment technology to plan HRD
|3||Allocating sufficient financial resources
|4.||Lack enforcement and accountability
|5.||Accepting the challenges of modern technological changes|
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