Understanding and Leading Change in an Organisation

Understanding and Leading Change in an Organisation



A. Meaning or definition of Change

Change management is mainly a systematic process that helps in transformation of the goals, technologies and process. The main purpose of this strategy is to making proper strategic implementation for controlling change and helps in making the companies adaptive to change. The main purpose of this change management is to make new changes in the company that helped them to meet the competitive goals easily.

B. Identify and explain briefly the different types of changes in an organization


This can lead to change in the overall goals, purposes, and policies for any organization. The external environmental factors can create proper demand for the different products. According to such demands, strategies can be developed by the companies to achieve their destination. The implementation of such strategies can change the important characteristics of a business. This is a long-term plan that can lead people to achieve their objectives.


Such changes involve the changes in the hierarchy of management, a team of the organization, and the responsibility of several departments of any company can be identified in this context. These things are being identified for the betterment process.


New technologies, skills, operational processes can be considered in this context. The changes of methods that can be applied in the performance of firms can help them to gain more power and success.


This concept is related to the overall performance of employees, their skills, behaviors, attitude, and team spirit. All such things can make the performance of the company better. For this reason, changes among such things are also necessary.

C. Key difference between planned change and Emergent Change

Emergent change is mainly a strategy that helps in quicker development of the features that leads to improvement. On the other hand planned change is the specific planning strategy involving multi-year programs and helps in implementing long term strategies making the project feasible for longer time period.

D. Change can be perceived as positive

This considered the improvement of employees’ access to several resources to perform their job. The positivity can be identified according to the uses of different resources by the staff of any firm. This can reduce the stress among the performers. The investment of resources can be helped the institute to gain more changes. Such changes can help them to develop their performance and earn more profit from the market. Such positive effects can be necessary for the change management system.

E. Change can be perceived as negative

At the time changes can reduce the morale of any organization this can be considered as negative effects of such changes. The relationship among employees and the authority of the organization is also changed in this context. For this reason, such changes can create a negative impact on the change management system. Such things can decrease the overall performance of the company. So, the firms have to identify the causes of such changes and try to solve them.




P1 Comparison of the impact of change on each organization’s strategy and operations

  1. What do you understand by Drivers of Change?

There is a large set of drivers associated with the change as human resources, changes in the legislation, technological development, business growth, customer intervention, and competitors.

  1. List four external drivers and four internal drivers.
1  Market and customers  The mission of the company
2  Competition  Profit goals
3  Tax and regulation  People and employees
4  Technology  Production process


  1. Identify and explain FOUR changes which have taken place in Marks and Spencer due to these drivers
  • Marks and Spencer have been trailing the new edge of innovations as meant in Express Collection and Digital Check-in made nearly in twenty stores for making the collection of the orders much easier to the customers (com, 2021).
  • It has nearly made a decision against opening 100 cages to be opened with nearly 14 to be specified for only ‘dine-out across the dedicated outdoor based seating areas.
  • It has incentivized its operations in a digital shopping space where it has already seen a nearly 200% increase in the downloading of the applications and trying to boost up the millions of transactions through the Mobile Pay Go.
  • The company offers at 8pm cut-off available for free next day based picks up at around 800 stores through the click as well as collect.
  1. Identify and explain FOUR changes which have taken place in Tesco due to these drivers.
  • It has reminded the customers about the utmost importance of the safety measures to be in place and legal necessity over wearing the face covering. Keeping safety in mind more check-outs would be open for making the trip easier for the customers
  • Through the self-checkout process, it has made technological up-gradation and competition at bay for the peers making the customers no longer stay in the queue.
  • Across the stores, it has implemented a better system of self-service manifested by one-way aisles and a “One-in, one-out” system.
  • It has given free space to the NHS, emergency ahead of everything in the store to make their entry.
  1. Compare Marks and Spencer and Tesco where there has been an impact of change on their structure, strategy, and operations
CHANGE DRIVERS that caused this change MARKS and  SPENCER DRIVERS that caused this change TESCO




Here the drivers are people and the employees around the end-users of the new software

Employees of the company


Intended receivers are associated with the change or the change-based outcomes.


Here the driver is the competition The stores have got a unique system of operation over self-services.
CHANGE IN    STRATEGY The mission of the company around decision making People with the company have approved the change in exercise as well as for deciding factors where the modified scopes, as well as direction, would benefit the company



Here the driver is the profit goals The people staying long in the queue have been making the company towards evitable loss expected thus need changes manifested
CHANGE IN OPERATIONS Market and Competition People have been empowered to release the financial as well as human resources that are required as an effort for relevant changes. People and the employees engaged in the production Safety and hygiene have been quintessential to the long-run existence of the company with efficient hands of the employees and thus safety measures with modification in production plans have been needed.


M1 Assess the different drivers for change in each of the given examples and the types of organizational change they have affected.

Marks and Spencer


Green taxation and Climate change levy introduced by Government


The scheme has made Marks and Spencer save 5% of the energy is used.


The company has been hit by sudden and has requested supplied subsidies for improving the policies as it has been bankrupted by its budget.


A good relationship with the suppliers and reciprocal profit made.


The company has been able to value the suppliers to maintain the business as per the policy resolution.


The company has inevitably a good reputation with the suppliers managed but if the suppliers refuse to make supply there can be customer loyalty at stake with the unfailing supply of the materials.



The annual wage bill has been amounting GBP to around 4.5 billion. The Minimum wage rate has been increased by nearly 4.4% for the 25 years of age old and then onwards.


Diversification of the talents would be utilized over the employees better at the disposal of international market need.


The Tesco has to bear millions of pounds for the fulfilling labor costs in the UK.


Tesco naturally employs a cost-based as well as a differentiation-based mode of strategy that makes the company appealing to the different types of customers.


The retail would manage to remain attractive as it is to the price sensitivity of the customers.


The strategies several times would have been inefficient in the improvement of the corporate culture held by Tesco for its customers.

P2Evaluate how internal and external drivers of change affect leadership, team, and individual behaviors in organizations.


The drivers of the leadership have been identified as the actions as well as behaviors of the leaders under consideration. The better the actions they by conscience take with effective behaviorism the better would be leadership skills manifested by employees (NORTHOUSE, 2010, p.90).


There are the quality of leadership as well as organizational designing associated as drivers on a team to have zeal of the team members rationalized practically (STANFORD, 2013, p.96).


Cognitive understanding, stress management, quality education, safe neighborhoods are the drivers on the individuals under concern.


Some different factors and drivers naturally drive the operational manifestation of the companies as Marks and Spencer as well as Tesco or the individualistic consideration. The external and the internal factors have been considered here for both the companies.

P3 What measures would you recommend to minimize the negative impacts of change? Evaluate the advantages and disadvantages of each method/strategy you have recommended. Choose minimum FIVE strategies.

Here the two companies at this disposal have been represented as facing the negative impacts over the changes quite a bit. For addressing that negativity reduced the company has taken the strategies as,


The companies Marks and Spencer, as well as Tesco, have been two pivotal interveners of the market where the companies can allow the avenue to the employees essentially have healthy communication with each other so that the issues in the deliverance of the best practices of the services and the cooperation would be inevitably attained (LEWIS, 2011, p.45).

Demonstration of the genuine concern

A company like Marks and Spencer has made a genuine transition of its business to online by Mobile Pay-Go application and tries to save the valuable time of the customers (marksandspencer.com, 2021). Similarly the Tesco has given a solution to the long queue of waiting outside the stores of the customers with applications so that they can check-in and check out.

Engagement of the employees as early to the customers need

The companies have been making the plans and the strategies to manage their employees always available to its customers so that the needs would never go in vain unattended. There is 100 cages that have been made prescribed by Marks and Spencer with 14 usually available for the ‘dine-out purpose. On the other hand, Tesco has opined for ‘One in-one out’ system (marksandspencer.com, 2021).

Culture of learning the needs

The companies both have been inquisitive about the preference of the customers for ever and Marks and Spencer has tried to introduce 8pm cut off available for the customers. Similarly, Tesco has taken all the feedbacks under consideration and has tried to associate safety at its disposal.

Education for the employees

Companies in both attorneys have tried to give training to the employees to behave with the customers so apparently that the branding would not be devalued.


The companies have borne the strategies through which they can target to reduce the negative impacts in the market. Their individualistic advantages, as well as disadvantages, have been associated to reflect the outreach of the company manifestation its operation better way.

M2 Using theories and models below critically evaluate the response of Marks and Spencer and Tesco to change:

  1. How did Marks and Spencer respond to change?

The Burke-Litwin theory of organizational change-based framework has been a casual change-inducing model seeking to show where the change arises as well as how the change flows between various parts of the organizations under the consideration (Coleman, 2018, p.2).

The model over organizational performance as well as change has enumerated how the performances have been affected by the internal as well as external factors. The framework in the company has gauged the organizational as well as environmental factors used as the key for bringing the successful change. It has revealed the factors linked casually for achieving the change across the performance level (Coleman, 2018, p.2). The model has linked actually what could be in reality understood from the practice made in the company. This paper discusses not only the dimensions linking with each other as well as discusses about the external factors how effectively impact different dimensions of the organization Marks and Spencer.  The model tries to focus on the providence of a guide for the organizational diagnosis with a planned and effectively managed organizational change shown through the cause-and-effect relationship (LEWIS, 2011, p.45). It outlines the important elements attached with the organizational success over the strategy as well as the mission, organizational culture and the leadership forced by the changes made often that find the sources outside the company (NORTHOUSE, 2010, p.90). The model helps distinguish the transformational as well as transactional organizational dynamics.

  1. How did TESCO respond to change?

The System theory has been the most essential interdisciplinary study over the systems for them to relate to each other within the larger and the complex system. The theory seeks for an explanation as well as the development of the hypotheses over the characteristics that arise within the complex systems naturally seemingly could not be arisen in any specific single system present in the whole areas under the consideration (Ruben, 2018, p.100). The theory helps the company Tesco to showcase the efforts it made to be much higher compared to the outcomes it has got with the customers in the market. The system is much complex and larger than it seems to have been reflected by this theory.

D1 Change impact analysis

Choose either Marks and Spencer or TESCO

  1. What do you understand by Impact Analysis?

The impact analysis has been a detailed study over the business activities, infrastructure and dependencies. It makes the revelation over how the critical services and the products have been delivered as well as the examination of the potential impacts from the disruptive events over the time horizon.

  1. Explain Bohner and Arnold Model and insert the diagram

The Bohner and Arnold model has been targeting the analysis of identification of the potential consequences over the change as well as estimating the needs actually to be modified for accomplishing the change relevant for the time being. It entails the right edge study of the business activities, infrastructure and operational quality fallen upon the company.

Figure 1: Impact Analysis

(Source: Behnamghader et al. 2017, p.260)

  1. How would this impact analysis Model help the Organization [Marks and Spencer OR Tesco] to plan effectively for change?

The model of impact analysis has tried to give impetus over the software change and maintenance process needed for the company Tesco to develop technical support and innovation at the disposal of company deliverance over the services to the customers (tesco.com, 2021). The operation of self-services through technological support has been made possible for it.

Write a paragraph on your conclusion whether this Model helps organizations to plan effectively for change.

The model has largely helped the organization like Tesco to stay competitive and record the need of the customers with time. So that the software development would help the customers get better results.

Write your recommendations for Marks and Spencer or Tesco

The recommendations for Tesco,

  • The money owed to the suppliers here must be paid to have the lining with the payment terms.
  • Tesco inevitably seeks to concentrate on the unusual random deductions that have been made unilateral.
  • There are errors with data inputs that seek to be resolved by the company promptly.
  • Tesco seeks to show more transparency as well as clarity in the dealings with its suppliers.
  • Modification in the services beyond the stereotypical approach Tesco needs to change.

Activity 2

Identification of four individual barriers and four organizational barriers

Nokia is a leading business organization in the networking and communicational world. Through the changes of time, this company faces several changes in the marketing aspects. In the era of android phones, this company faces different challenges to launch a new model of smartphones. In this case, to solve the problem of proper leadership this company appoints a consultant. In this present situation, consultants also feel different limitations to perform their tasks (NORTHOUSE, 2010). The first one is the landing of new consumers that can create problems to understand the needs of changes properly. Maintain the time for launching new products is also necessary for this present situation of market competition.  Along with this monitoring, the overall performance of the company can take a huge amount of time. Financial management is also necessary to control by a consultant otherwise, it creates problems at the time of performance. This is necessary to control the overall performance of this firm. Without this, they cannot find out their success.

On the other side, Nokia can face many barriers that can be included tough competition in the market. At the time of modernization, several companies are working in this field. For this reason, they have to keep changing in their management. The second one is a poor marketing plan that can lead them to lose their position in the market (Yrjölä et al. 2019). The poor quality of smartphones can make them lost the trust of their customers. Along with this, the management of this company cannot be focusing on their key marketplaces. The loss of the marketplace creates several problems in their development.

Determine how these barriers influenced leadership decision-making in Nokia?

Considering those barriers are the most important thing for the leaders that can help them to identify their present position in the market and according to these, they can make some proper decision for improvement. Many other organizations are successfully launching different new models of smartphones. According to this aspect, the leaders can invent new ideas that can help them identify different new products. On the other hand, for earning their customers thrust they have to maintain their quality of products. Through this, they can develop their performance again. Poor marketing plans can be involved in their reduction of market position. With the help of proper leadership and teamwork, they can create new plans to execute their development. This is necessary to identify such barriers that can push the organization to perform a better job.

Using Force-field Analysis for driving and resisting forces to show the influence decision-making in Nokia

The force-field analysis can help the organization to identify the forces that can influence them to innovated new products and which one goes against the innovation. In this context, the launching of new products several forces can help them to perform the job perfectly. These can be considered the requirements of the customers who want new products of smartphones (Fragouli and Tourlaki, 2020). On the other side, improve the speed of production can push them to perform such type of job. This is also important to raise the output of their products. In any case, Nokia release some of the products in the market then this creates a bad impact on the customers. For this reason, they have to maintain the output of products at a good rate. Increase the level of profit also can motivate them to identify the necessity.

The forces that can push them to stop such changes can consider problems related to the staff overtime, technological changes in the world of smartphones, the overall manufacturing cost also increases through time. Environmental impact on the changes in different techniques can help them to identify several factors that are mandatory in this case. Such things can create problems within this organization to perform the creation of new products.

Effect of Force field Analysis influences leadership decision-making to meet organizational objectives of Nokia

Through this force field analysis, the factors are being identified that can create problems in the creation of new products and those support such changes. In this present context, those factors can create obstacles that can need to be considered. By following these things the company tries to figure out the solution to their problems (MEE-YAN And HOLBECHE, 2015). For this scenario, this company tries to follow their issues related to the staff performance and overtiming concept. According to this, the leaders can make some agreement with the staff members to find out the solution. On the other hand, the manufacturing cost of products is increasing over time. This is the most important thing for this firm. In this perspective to meet their organizational objectives, the leaders can try to identify such factors and create decisions according to such factors. Strategic innovations of several techniques can help Nokia for mapping their stakeholder’s performance. This organization has a huge number of leaders. For this reason, it creates some complexity to find out a proper decision in a short time. Through the help of force-field analysis, such organization can identify their organizational objectives by creating new strategies.

Explain and Apply Kurt Lewin’s Change Model to Nokia

This model is developed to find out the steps of innovation like unfreezing, changing, and refreezing. In this present context, for the development of several aspects and launching of new products this model can help the company to achieve their success. In the first stage of unfreezing the leaders are trying to find out the needs for such development of a new product. Along with this, it is also mandatory to identify the supportive members of this organization. Manage and understand the doubts and concerns are also point out in this stage by the authority of this firm and consultant (LEWIS, 2011). Changing is the point the company specifies the innovation of new products like models of smartphones, smart devices, and so on. Different technologies are also included in this sector otherwise, the performance of such products can not maintain its level. In the last step of refreezing, the changes in the cultural aspect and development of products are being performed. Necessary training programs are also be performed for the staff members in this context.

Explain Kotter’s 8-step change model

This can be necessary for any organization to identify the changes for the development of their business. It considered eight steps like creating a sense of urgency to change, proper guidance for such changes, develop a strategy, communicating with such policies, removing the challenges to improve the power of employees, create some short-term policies, identification of strengths and weaknesses, and the last one to perform such changes (Matser, 2017). In this present context, the Nokia Company wants to perform each stage that can help them to regain their position in the market. Identification of proper strategies with the necessity of such changes leads them towards development. Based on such concepts the authority of this organization can understand their strength and weaknesses that can play an important role in this perspective. Before performing the innovation of new models the leaders of this firm have to communicate with their staff members and also understand the requirements of their clients (Mackey et al. 2018). Only through this, they can perform their best job that can lead them to achieve their success. All these aspects can be explained through this model.

Effectiveness of Kurt Lewin and Kotter’s change model in the change management system of Nokia

Due to the loss of market share for the poor performance of their launched smartphones this organization can face several problems. In this situation, they are trying to regain their position in the market. That’s why with the suggestion of consultants they are following different models that can help them to make proper decisions (Ibeawuchi et al. 2021) . Both of this model focuses on the changes of organizational perspective through creation of new products, technologies, and so on. Such context is also necessary for this institution to perform several changes that can lead them towards success. The authority can try to identify such changes according to follow different stages as mentioned in those models. This firm makes a late entrance into the Windows platform that can create a great impact on their performance. From this perspective, those models can help the leaders to identify the importance of technological aspects in this present condition. The change management system considers such aspects to achieve the development of this company.

Evaluate the effectiveness of leadership approaches and models of change management

Performing any kind of changes among the institution a proper leadership is necessary that can help them to identify the exact achievement. Improvement of processes can be considered in this perspective. An accurate structure related to the system can help the developers to achieve their success. Without a good mentor, this is going to be impossible to perform such time of job. Through such models, the leaders can understand their role in the change management system (Zubairu et al. 2018). For this reason, the study and applications of different models can help leaders to improve their performance. In this present situation, the Nokia company needs some leaders who can properly guide their staff to perform such changes to achieve success. Based on different models such changes can be occurred by this company.


Here the whole study has tried to revolve around the Marks and Spencer as well as Nokia to account for the drivers in external or internal outreach can be identified. There have been shown the impact of the organizational strategy operations from all the three companies at the same line. The drivers responsible for the change in the organization, leadership, team as well as individualistic behaviours have been reflected. The strategies have been shown the companies have taken to minimize the negative impacts. The System theory, Burke-Litwen model application, Force Field analysis, Kurt-Lewin change model, Kotter’s Eight step model have been used here for shedding light on three companies at the same disposal.