AMA Citation Format: How to Cite Your Medical Papers

AMA Citation Format

In case you are pursuing a course or program that utilizes AMA, you’ll need to familiarize yourself with the style not just for classroom assignments, but for better understanding the research language of the field.

What is AMA Style?

The American Medical Association (AMA) Manual of Style is one of the most ordinarily utilized style guides by anybody associated with clinical and scientific publishing to accredit another author’s work that has been utilized to contribute or uphold any content within their work. This manual covers an expansive region of subjects for authors and editors in medication and science. It determines the styles for composing and references in the AMA publications. It is additionally utilized, either in entire or part, by numerous clinical and scientific journals, in course readings, and in scholarly papers.

AMA referencing framework gives styles that help the clinical authors and editors produce original copies that are efficient and effectively justifiable. The manual comprises of perfect and clear styles for language, utilization of accentuation, upper casing, clinical lists, non-English words, and many more. It gives styles to composing terminologies including contractions, Greek letters, classification, and so forth. The style direct additionally underlines styles with respect to the right and favored composing design for units of measurements, study plans and insights, typography, a glossary of publishing terms, assets, and so forth.

How Do You Cite In AMA?

In AMA style, superscript Arabic numerals (beginning with 1), are utilized as citations to reference a work or parts of a work inside the content of a composition. Bits of substance are referred to utilizing numbers in sequential numbers from the earliest starting point as far as possible. Only the superscript reference numbers show up inside the content itself through the full references by similar numbers are recorded in the References segment toward the end of the report.

To compose an AMA reference, embed the superscript number at the applicable area in the content. Reference numbers ought to show up after periods and commas and within colons and semicolons.

In the event that the reference is from a particular page, at that point utilize a colon; no space between the year, colon, and the page number.

Various kinds of reference sources require a diverse arrangement of data to assist the client in finding the first source. Consequently, AMA has indicated various formats and rules for composing diverse source sorts of references. For books, the AMA reference framework permits the incorporation of up to 6 writers in the reference; for in excess of 6 writers, the names of the initial 3 writers are composed followed by “et al”. Without any author, the title of the reference source is utilized. For periodicals, for example, diaries, sites, magazines, papers, and so on, utilize abbreviated titles. You can check for the correct condensed titles at the NLM (National Library of Medicine) site.

For books or sections from a book, the AMA style expects you to refer to the name of the author(s) of that part, the primary writer of the course reading from where the part has been sourced from, the page number range, the edition number, the name, place of the publisher and the time of publishing. Also, for journals, the author names(s), the journal-title, the time of publication, the volume, and the issue number, and the page number range are obligatory fields of passage. For sites, the HTTP connector, the copyright date, the refreshed date, and the accessed date are crucial information when composing a citation.

AMA Referencing Examples

In-Text Reference Examples

Somewhere in the range of 1977 and 2002, the admission of “caloric” refreshments multiplied in the United States.1,2

More than half3,4 of individuals in the United States actually inhale air sufficiently messy to affect their health

  • General Organization for All References

Article: Author BB, Author CC, Author DD. Title of the article. Abbreviated Title of Journal. Year of publication;volume(issue):page numbers.

Book: Author CC, Author DD, Author EE. Title of Book. Edition number (if beyond first). City, condition of publication: publisher name; year of publication.

Web Site: Author(s) (if no author names are given, exclude this field). Title of the particular thing cited. Name of the Web website. URL. Published [date]. Updated [date]. Accessed [date]. In the event that a published or updated date isn’t given, either express “published/updated date not given” or preclude this field.

  • Author names in all references

For materials with 1-6 authors or editors, list all author or editorial manager names.

For materials with in excess of 7 authors or editors, list the initial three; at that point condense with et al.

  • Titles of journals

Use PubMed diary shortenings. Search the NLM Catalog for journal titles to find the preferred abbreviation. If no shortening is found in the NLM Catalog, consult section 14.10 of the AMA Manual of Style for standard abbreviations.

In-Text References: Basics

In the paper you are composing, materials are cited to utilizing superscript numerals. The primary reference utilized in a composed record is recorded as 1 in the reference list, and a 1 is embedded into the document promptly close to the reality, idea, or citation being referred to. If a similar reference is utilized on different occasions in a single record, utilize a similar number to allude to it all through the document.

Toward the finish of the report, incorporate a reference list with full references to everything. You should order citations as they show up in your paper.

You may likewise utilize writer names in your composition, as long as these mentions are joined by numbered references. For materials with a couple of authors, incorporate the two names. For materials with at least 3 authors, incorporate the principal author’s name and afterward et al.

Where do I put the numbers?

Inside the content in AMA Citation Style, references are numbered and the numbers have appeared in superscript.

Reference numbers ought to appear:

After the fact, quotation, or idea being cited

Outside periods and commas

Inside colons and semi-colons

If citing more than one reference at the same point, separate the numbers with commas and no spaces between.


This medication is utilized to treat diabetes. 1

Putting away latex at high warmth may cause debasement, 2,3 however it is hard to keep materials cool in a desert climate.

A few doctors decide to store prescription pads in bolted cupboards 4; others keep them in their jackets consistently. 5

General Rules of AMA Formatting

AMA doesn’t have a particular style for formatting papers, so check with your educator or task rules with regards to margins, line spacing, fonts, indents, title papers, and so forth. If your task doesn’t determine any formatting, follow these overall AMA rules:

Margins: One-inch margins are needed around the content. Leave the right margin unjustified (ragged). No columns!

Line Spacing: Double-space the principle text (single space just inside the theoretical, notes, titles and headings, block statements, tables and figures, and references—everything except for the fundamental content)

Font: Use Times New Roman, 12-point textual style

Indents: Half-inch indents are standard (utilize the “tab” button) for new sections

Page Numbers: Place page numbers in the upper right-hand corner all through (beginning with the cover sheet)

Page Headers: Put the title of your document in the upper left-hand corner of the page

Title Page: If your task requires a title page, on the main clear page of your document place the following:

Title of report

Your name

Your Instructor’s name

Course title

Due date

No Title Page: If your task doesn’t need a cover sheet, in the right-hand corner of your first page, include:

Your name

Your teacher’s name

Course title

Due date

Basic Rules for AMA Citation

The superscript numbers will make it conceivable to find the total reference on your AMA “Reference List” page.

Every citation should match the reference number.

Apply Arabic superscript numerals.

The total references should start with their corresponding numbers.

The manner in which a reference is composed relies upon the sort of source an understudy needs to refer to; knowing how to refer to a site doesn’t mean an understudy naturally realizes how to refer to a book.

A bibliographical entry should have the writer’s last name and the first & middle initial without punctuation.

Apply a comma to add more than one essayist. Model: 3. Lawrence T, Barman PJ. Heart denervation in diabetes. BMJ. 1973;4:584-586.

Apply sentence case for titles—without any exemptions (underwrite the main expression of the title—no compelling reason to do it with the remainder of the words. Model: GONE with the breeze).

Contract and italicize titles of documents depending on the National Library of Medicine information base.

Separate each reference with periods into bibliographic classes.

Invert the names of the scholars. Use initials for the first and middle names without putting periods between initials. It should be this way: AuthorLastname, FirstInitialMiddleInitial.

Add issue numbers in brackets after volume numbers (for journals)

Reasons to Master the AMA Citation Format

Utilizing AMA design is quite often a necessity for clinical examination papers. It is difficult to procure full credits without organizing your work. Without citing sources, a student risks having problems with plagiarism, and it often results in a failure. AMA style has numerous variations for various educational institutions and publications.

Key AMA Features

The AMA Manual of Style isn’t specific on formats to utilize, including an arrangement for the Title Page. Be certain and check with your teacher or the publisher to whom you are presenting a paper for more explicit formatting rules.

Formatting a paper implies utilizing legitimate references inside the content and list of sources, yet in addition, utilizing the elaborate issues spread out in the AMA Manual of Style to format the content. This incorporates such factors as utilizing headings and capitalizing them suitably, line dispersing, margins, text style issues, (for example, utilizing “one” or “1”, utilizing AM or a.m. or then again A.M.), placement of page numbers, preferred font and spacing for graphs, preferred size and shape for tables, and so forth.

  • Acronyms, abbreviations, initialism

Acronyms, abbreviations, and initialism are deterred from use, with the exception of notable and acknowledged units of estimation and some well-recognized terms.

Whenever utilized, spell out at the first use, regardless of whether the abbreviation or initialism is notable. Try not to put periods between the letters of an abbreviation, truncation, or initialism.

State names ought to consistently show up as complete names in the content of an original copy. Whenever remembered for references, utilize the two-letter shortened form.

  • Numbers

Numerals (1, 2, 3, and so on) should be utilized in all composition, aside from when:

The number starts the sentence or title

Common fractions

Ordinals: first through ninth

Number spelled out in citations or titles of works cited.

One number might be spelled out if the sentence requires various numbers to be set close to one another. e.g., “If 12 16-year-olds had this reaction…” should be changed to “If twelve 16-year-olds…”

  • Time

To show a period of the day, use AM or PM in small capitals. (18.5.3)

Traditional 12-hour clock time is liked. Notwithstanding, a 24 hour or military time shows can likewise be utilized to pass on the exact timing when required, for example, when portraying drug measurement regimens.

  • Dates

At the point when dates are given in the content, use numerals for day and year, and work out the month, e.g., April 2, 2010.

If you are utilizing dates in a table, you may utilize numerals for the month (e.g., 4/2/2010).

  • Estimations

Use SI norms for composing estimations. Numbers are constantly written in plain content; there is a space after the number and before the unit, and never a period after the unit (except if it closes a sentence).

Try not to remember commas for longer numbers (e.g., 1600 km, not 1,600 km).

Tips for Citations

Capitalization of titles in references:

For all titles in references, retain the first spelling, contractions, and capitalization as initially published.

In the event that no unique capitalization is accessible, adhere to these standards:

Book titles: capitalize every significant word. Try not to capitalize the, an, a, in, for, or at the same time, except if this word starts the title. Abbreviations (NIH, HIV, and so on) should have appeared on all covers.

Section titles inside books: capitalize just the primary word. Abbreviations (NIH, HIV, and so on) should have appeared on all covers.

Journal titles: capitalize every significant word. Try not to underwrite the, an, a, in, for, or in any case, except if this word starts the title. Abbreviations (NIH, HIV, and so forth) should have appeared in all covers.

Journal article titles: Capitalize just the principal word. Abbreviations (NIH, HIV, and so forth) should have appeared on all covers.

  • Personal Communications

AMA Style expresses that individual communications, such as calls, messages, discussions, and so on are excluded from the reference list. In any case, you should refer to these materials parenthetically inside the content. Give the name and most elevated scholarly level of the creator, sort of correspondence, and date sent. In the event that this would bargain persistent secrecy, replace the name with a title, and eliminate the day of correspondence.


People on this new trial medication ought not to take anti-inflammatory medicine. (Sara P. Norris, M.D., email correspondence, October 3, 2014.)

For every one of the five patients I have seen with this uncommon issue, I have recommended Interferon. (Doctor at LAC + USC Healthcare Network, phone call, December 2015).

Anonymous works:

Follow the reference style for book, diary, site, and so forth, and preclude the writer’s name.

Non-academic materials showing up in diaries (articles, letters to the proofreader, remarks, interviews, and so forth):

Incorporate the article type in [brackets] after the title.


Boden WE, Roberts WC. Williams Edward Boden, MD: a discussion with the editorial manager [Interview]. Am J Cardiol. 2012;110(1):145-159.