The motivation behind MHRA referring is to empower researchers and students to discover the data that you have utilized in your task. It is crucial to refer to and reference all the information that you have utilized in the fundamental content of your task. It is imperative to recognize the work crafted by others if you have alluded to it in your tasks; failure to do so, you will be accused of plagiarism.
What is MHRA Referencing?
The MHRA way of referencing is utilized in the branches of English, History, and Philosophy. MHRA stands for ‘Modern Research Humanities Association’, and the departments above utilize the footnote and bibliography version of MHRA as opposed to the MHRA Author-Date style.
The MHRA style is regularly utilized in arts and humanities. It utilizes footnotes that completely reference a citation. The footnoting is MHRA’s significant favorable position: a reader doesn’t have to counsel the bibliography to discover a reference, as the footnote gives all the detail.
Referencing in the MHRA Footnotes style entails three parts:
Footnote number: this is a mathematical reference in the content written in superscript, alluding to a reference at the lower part of the page. A footnote is utilized to show the wellspring of material in the content, permitting the reader to find the original source of the data. A footnote would be utilized after a citation, paraphrased material, an idea taken from another author, or another work alluded to in your content.
Footnote: this is given at the lower part of the page in which the footnote number shows up, it comprises the bibliographic details of the source of the material. A footnote can likewise be utilized to give a limited quantity of text for explanation of explicit points, despite the fact that this should be utilized with caution. It is simply important to reference the full bibliographic details of the source the first time a source is referred to. After the main reference, an abbreviated form of the reference can be utilized for resulting references to similar work.
Bibliography: this should be affixed toward the end of the work, posting all the writings consulted in the research process and those referred to inside the body of the work. This should be set out in sequential request by author’s family name, utilizing similar standard as the footnotes, yet without page number references.
MHRA General Principals
Here are the style’s general principals.
Sequential superscript numbers should be utilized in the content of the paper to show a footnote.1
A corresponding superscript number should be utilized toward the start of the footnote.
When citing a source for the first time always reference it in full.
Subsequent footnotes of a similar source ought to incorporate the author’s last name (where conceivable), volume number (if pertinent), and page number/s.
Additionally, subsequent footnotes with no author ought to incorporate an abbreviated form of the source title, volume number (if applicable), and page number/s.
While referring to more than one source by a similar author or various authors with a similar last name, ensuing references ought to incorporate the author’s last name, an abbreviated adaptation of the source title, volume number (if important), and page number/s. (Possibly utilize the short title of a source while referring to more than one work by a similar author or referring to numerous authors with a similar last name).
All footnotes should end with a full stop except if the sentence closes in a square bracket.
A note reference number should be put toward the finish of the sentence following most punctuation, except for a dash in which it should proceed.
Italics should be utilized for the titles of independently published works, assortments, and sites; as should the names of parties in lawful cases.
Titles of book parts, presentations, site pages, a work inside an assortment, and so forth should be written in plain type with quotes.
Titles of original copy assortments should be written in plain kind without quotes.
Writer names are not inverted and are written in full.
Publication details should be encased in brackets.
Utilize the abbreviation p. prior to listing a single page number.
Utilize the shortened form pp. prior to posting a scope of pages.
There should be separate entries for sources that are contained in the same collection or volume.
Formatting the Bibliography:
In the event that there is more than one source by a similar author arrange by author’s last name then in sequential request of the title, ignoring words, for example, an, a, the.
Try not to utilize a full stop toward the finish of each reference.
The name of the first author or a source is inverted so the last name shows up first. At the point when a source has numerous authors just the name of the first authors is inverted.
Arrange sources with no author alphabetically by title.
MHRA Primary and Secondary Sources
MHRA necessitates that Primary sources and Secondary sources are recorded independently in the bibliography.
Primary sources are original materials. These can incorporate paper articles, letters, journals, collections of memoirs, discourses, journals, pictures, government records, and so on
NOTE: Primary sources need to be alphabetically listed separately from secondary sources in your bibliography.
Fulbert of Chartres, The Letters, and Poems of Fulbert of Chartres, ed. by Frederick Behrends (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1976), pp. 100-03 (p.102).
Fulbert of Chartres, The Letters, and Poems of Fulbert of Chartres, ed. by Frederick Behrends (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1976)
Bear in mind secondary sources cite, comment on, or build upon primary sources.
NOTE: Secondary sources need to be alphabetically listed separately from primary sources in your bibliography.
Bonnie Wheeler, Listening to Heloise: The Voice of a Twelfth-Century Woman (New York: St. Martin’s Press, 2000), p. 64.
Wheeler, Bonnie, Listening to Heloise: The Voice of a Twelfth-Century Woman (New York: St. Martin’s Press, 2000)
MHRA Reference Style Guide 2021
There are two adaptations of the MHRA Reference Style. In the event that you have been encouraged to utilize MHRA check with your school to affirm which form you should utilize. The most usually utilized variation is Footnotes and Bibliography.
References and Bibliography OR
Footnote and Bibliography
With this version of MHRA, at whatever point you need to refer to a work you do so utilizing superscripted numbers inside the content which connect to a numbered footnote at the lower part of the page, where the details of the source are given. All things cited are likewise recorded in the Bibliography toward the finish of your report, you can likewise incorporate works read yet not cited in your Bibliography.
Footnote – First citation
The first occasion when you refer to a work, your footnote ought to contain the full details of the source, all footnote ends with a full stop:
Footnote number, Author First Name Surname, Title (Place: Publisher, Year), p. xx.
e.g. 1. John W. Carroll and Ned Markosian, An introduction to metaphysics (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2010), p.83.
Footnote – Subsequent citations:
If you have just cited something, the subsequent citations should utilize abbreviated form, Author, and page number(s). If you are utilizing different works written by a similar author, utilize an abbreviated title just as the author to recognize which work you are alluding to:
Footnote number, Author Surname, p. xx.
e.g. 3. Carroll and Markosian, p.112.
The use of ‘Ibid’:
The word ‘Ibid’ comes from the Latin ibidem – means ‘in the same place’. You can use ibid if two or more consecutive citations come from the same source, to shorten your footnotes.
e.g. 1. John W. Carroll and Ned Markosian, An introduction to metaphysics (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2010) p.83.
- Ibid., p. 112.
- Ibid., p. 141.
Comes toward the end of your work
Incorporates the full reference
The first author is First Name Surname; collaborating authors, editors, and interpreters are given First Name Surname.
Explicit page numbers are not given, yet on the off chance that you are alluding to a section inside a book or an article in a diary, and so forth a page range is incorporated.
You can likewise incorporate works read however not cited to in your reference index.
The Bibliography is arranged alphabetically by author surname.
Bibliography entry: First Name Surname, Title (Place: Publisher, Year)
How to Cite a Book in MHRA Referencing
MHRA referencing is a citation style set out by the Modern Humanities Research Association. It is utilized in humanities subjects, such as English language and literature.
MHRA utilizes footnote citations, demonstrated through superscript numbers in the primary content. You will typically give these numbers toward the end of a sentence:
We put footnotes after final punctuation, like this.1
You will at that point need to give full publication data to the source in a footnote at the lower part of the page. For a book, in MHRA referring to, this implies utilizing the following format.
- Author Name(s), Title (Place of Publication: Publisher, Year), page number(s).
The part toward the end here is the specific page or pages you are referring to. Practically speaking, at that point, a footnote citation for a book would resemble this:
- Simone Weil, Waiting on God (Glasgow: Fount Paperbacks, 1951), p. 65.
Your reader will then be able to find the relevant passage.
Repeat Citations in MHRA Referencing
There’s no compelling reason to rehash the full source data in footnotes if you refer to a similar source more than once. In these cases, basically give the creator’s last name and a page number:
- Simone Weil, Waiting on God (Glasgow: Fount Paperbacks, 1951), p. 65.
- Weil, p. 100.
If you refer to more than one book by a similar writer, give an abbreviated form of the title too:
Simone Weil, Intimations of Christianity Among the Ancient Greeks(London: Routledge, 1957), p. 84.
- Simone Weil, Waiting on God (Glasgow: Fount Paperbacks, 1951), pp. 59–60.
- Weil, Intimations of Christianity, p. 112.
This will guarantee that your reader realizes which book you’re citing each time.
Books in an MHRA Bibliography
Just as giving source data in footnotes, you should list sources in a bibliography toward the end of your document. With MHRA referencing, this incorporates each book you utilized during your exploration, regardless of whether you didn’t refer to them in the completed exposition. The configuration for a book here is:
Family name, First Name, Title (Place of Publication: Publisher, Year)
For instance, we would list the book waiting on God by Simone Weil as continues in an MHRA catalog:
Weil, Simone, Waiting on God (Glasgow: Fount Paperbacks, 1951)
Note that, dissimilar to in references, you needn’t bother with page numbers or end punctuation here. Furthermore, remember that you can have your work edited in the event that you need to be certain you’re referencing to is right.
Footnote Citations in MHRA Referencing
On the first occasion when you cite a source in MHRA referencing, you should give full publication data in a footnote. You show this with a superscript number in the content:
This number will match the number of the footnote at the lower part of the page.
The data in the footnote itself ought to unmistakably recognize the content cited, including page numbers. For example, we would refer to a book as follows:
This reference incorporates the creator’s name, the title, publication details, and the page cited. We would then abbreviate this to the author’s last name and a page number for repeat references (in addition to a shortened title if we were referring to more than one source by a similar author).
Most colleges will request you to give a bibliography at the end of your document just as well as citing sources in footnotes. And in MHRA referencing, this means:
Listing every source you cite with full publication information
Sorting sources alphabetically by author surname
Italicizing titles of longer works (e.g. books)
Putting titles of shorter works (for example diary articles) inside inverted commas
Utilizing a hanging indent for each line after the first in every entry
Entries in an MHRA book reference are like the primary reference for each source. However, you should modify the primary recorded author’s names (for example show them last name first). Also, bibliography entries needn’t bother with a page number or end punctuation.
How do I cite in MHRA style?
These are the essential standards of MHRA references
Add a superscript number connected to a footnote each time you quote or paraphrase someone else’s work
While citing a source for the first time, give the full details in your footnote. From that point onward, references can be given in an abbreviated form (author’s last name and the first few words of the title, in addition to a page number in the event that you are citing a particular piece of the content).
Footnotes and endnotes end with a full stop. Make a point to check whether footnotes or endnotes are needed in your paper.
In the footnote, author names should be the first name followed by the last name, for instance, Philip Roth
In the bibliography, writer names should be the last name followed by the first name, for example, Roth, Philip
For up to three authors of a source, give their names in your bibliography, in the order, they have appeared in the source. For at least four authors, give the name of the primary creator, trailed by ‘and others’
How to create a bibliography in MHRA
Toward the finish of your paper, you should furnish a full list of sources with all the material you have straightforwardly referred to and perused. List your sources in alphabetical order by the last name of the main author
Is MHRA equivalent to Chicago?
The Chicago system is essentially equivalent to the MHRA framework and utilizes superscripts (numerals raised over the text line) to acknowledge sources, with endnotes and references.
How do you reference a website MHRA style?
MHRA cites sources in footnotes. With a website, the first footnote should include the following:
- Author Name, Page Title (Year Published/Last Updated) <URL> [Accessed Date].
In practice, then, the first footnote for a webpage would look like this:
- Ken Ward, the Normans (2006) <http://www.oldcity.org.uk/norwich/history/history04.php> [Accessed 2 October 2017].
For repeat references, you can utilize an abbreviated format to forestall repetition. For a site, this will generally be the author’s last name in addition to the title of the site page.
The bibliography design for a website in MHRA is similar to the first footnote. The primary contrasts are the order in which the author’s names are given and the absence of a full stop, as demonstrated as follows:
Family name, First Name, Page Title (Year Published/Last Updated) <URL> [Accessed Date]
Give the first author’s name as last name, first name; however, subsequent authors as first name, last name.
Sources without an author are recorded by title in the sequential list
References in the list of sources don’t end with a full stop
Indent the second and resulting lines of each reference in the bibliography (however not in footnotes).