Drug and Alcoholic Impact on Crime in Ireland

 Abstract

The aim of the present research is to evaluate the negative impact of alcohol and drugs consumption on the personal life of a person. The current study specially focuses on the people of Ireland who had made several criminal offenses under the influence of alcohol consumption and drug addiction. The objective of the study is to assess the correlation between extreme alcohol consumption and criminal activities in Ireland. The research question highlights the strategic initiatives that could reduce the drug and alcohol consumption in Ireland in order to minimize the number of crime occurrences. In the second chapter the researcher has found the relevant methodology required to accomplish the objectives. The fourth and fifth chapter were dedicated to identify the results found in the survey from the 100 target people and discussing those results respectively. In the fifth chapter the inference has been drawn based on the result and discussion conducted in previous chapter. The objectives have also been linked with the findings of the questionnaire. Thus, it has been derived that there is the interrelationship between the drug and alcohol consumption with the criminal activity in the society of Ireland. However, the future scope and limitation of research has also been analyzed along with suitable recommendations.

 

Chapter 1

Introduction

1.0 Introduction:

Binge consumption and continued alcohol usage in large amounts are associated with many health problems. In the opinion of Emec and Glay (2008), unintentional injuries like car crash, burns, drowning, etc. can also be considered as long-term effects of alcohol. The different structures of drugs can affect the human body in different ways. The habit of drug consumption have a negative impact on a person’s life and the family life. Alcohol drinking in a regular basis could engage a person in a sort of crimes. Intentional injuries like weapon injuries, sexual attack, and the other domestic violence is also responsible for to have drug in a regular basis. According to the view of Harlaar (2013), this kind of issues can be considered as risk of using drug or alcohol. It has been observed that excessive use of drug or alcohol can be responsible to bring more crime as the person may not be mindful about the activity and thinking. A recent report indicates that Alcohol and drugs are related to nearly 80% of offenses in Ireland such as local violence, drink and driving offences, damage to public or private properties which leads to incarceration (Liang and Chikritzhs, 2010). As per a report of Ireland government, the number of prisoners is rising in a rapid manner due to the effect of alcohol or drug consumption. It has been observed that 50% prisoners are clinically addicted towards drug and alcohol. Adding to this, 80% of total offenders misuse alcohol or drugs (Subady et al., 2012). The definite impact of drug abuse and addiction can be far-reaching and affecting almost every organ, tissue of human body.

Furthermore, according to a report of National Council on Alcoholism & Drugs Dependence Inc., 2016, 60% of individuals who were arrested had the drug tests revealed positive (www.ncadd.org, 2016). As alcohol use is lawful and prevalent, thus, it plays a predominantly strong role in the relationship to crime and other social difficulties. Considering the opinion of Tindall et al. (2015), alcohol is a factor of almost 40% of all ferocious crimes in today’s market. According to the Department of Justice, 37% offenders currently in jail for making crime in drunk condition (www.doj.gov.in, 2016). In the country like Ireland, In addition, alcohol is more than any illegal drug which was found to be carefully allied with the violent crimes such as murder, rape, assault, child and spousal abuse (Subady et al., 2012). It has been reported that in Ireland, almost 3 million violent crimes happen in ever year in which the victims observe the criminals are in drunk condition. The statistics related to alcohol use reflects that approximately half of all murders, killings and sexual attacks are committed when the offender, victim, or both are in drunk condition (Emec and (Glay, 2008). Among all the other violent crimes, with the exception of robberies, the criminal is far more likely to have been drinking than under the influence of other drugs. Moreover, alcohol and drug are often the factors in violence where the attacker and the victim know each other. It has been identified that 500,000 incidents between associates involve criminals who are in drunk condition. Additionally, 118,000 incidents of family violence involve alcohol, as do 744,000 incidents among consociates (Liang and Chikritzhs, 2010). Hence, it can be inferred that the relationship between the drugs and crime is complex as drug leads people to make criminal activity.

1.1 Background of the research:

It has been identified that many illegitimate drug users commit no other kinds of crimes, and many consumers who commit crimes never use illegal drugs. On the other hand, Tindall et al. (2015) argued that the most intense levels of drug use, drugs and crime are directly and highly interrelated. A serious drug use can intensify and continue pre-existing criminal activity. There are several countries across the globe where use of alcohol is strictly a punishable activity, however, crime has commenced in those society because of consuming drug and alcohol. It has been reported by Institute of Alcohol Studies that currently around 19.3% of all violence in Ireland happen for consuming extreme alcohol (Harlaar, 2013). It has been observed that in the year 2012-13, approximately 17000 ferocious events had been documented in England and Wales. Adding to this, Liang and Chikritzhs (2010) stated that in Northern Ireland, around 12037 misconducts and criminal activities were reported in the year 2012-13, in which 19% crimes has been occurred due to the influence of drugs and alcohol. The report of Institute of Alcohol Studies indicates that alcohol consumption is one of the major manipulating factor in many of the violent crimes in Ireland compared to the use of any other illegal drugs. Considering the view of Subady et al. (2012), the confounding circumstance is that in Ireland 76% of total perpetrators of rape cases had been occurred in the drunk condition. Supporting the fact Hart and Moore (2014) added that four out of ten drinkers in Ireland drink to unsafe and risky levels on a regular basis. It is reported that alcohol has become the foremost reason of 97% of total public crimes in the country (www.ncadd.org, 2016). Approximately 318000 of the total population have stated that the personal life and the other family members’ life have been affected due to the negative impact of alcohol in the year 2014 (www.ncadd.org, 2016). It is identified that in the year 2015, the average Irish people aged 15+ sipped 10.93 litres of pure alcohol (www.alcoholireland.ie, 2016).

According to a study conducted by the National Council on Alcoholism and Drug Dependence, a higher level of drug practice has been revealed as a consequence of sort crime, even when the person has no momentous disposition towards the crime (www.ncadd.org, 2016). It has been identified that drug usage has exposed several kinds of criminal activities such as criminal actions related to custom and habit, illegal deeds related to economy, criminal activities associated to the system. In the view of Tindall et al. (2015), criminal actions related to custom and habit happens due to the involvement of separate personnel who consume drugs and commit criminal activities for the negative effect of drug related views and conduct. Adding to this, the crime related to economy can be found while use of drug can be a regular practice to the person. In this regards Glay (2008) cited that prostitution, theft and robbery are the most recorded activity which is directly associated with this type crime. Furthermore, the system related criminal offence indicates to maintain the structure and system of drug trade like manufacturing, logistics, sales and deals (www.ias.org.uk, 2016). Therefore, the current study has strained to put light on the different areas in which a consumer finds way to meet the requirements of drug practices. As a consequence, the people of Ireland got engaged in crimes such as robbery, theft, public harassment, rape, handling and sales of stolen products to find the earnings. As per the view of Harlaar (2013), around 75000 people in Ireland enter in jail every year as a result of the crimes which has been committed under the influence of consuming drug and alcohol. Hence, this is a serious issue in Ireland which needs to be addressed by the government and other administrators by adopting appropriate strategies for reducing the alcohol and drug related crimes.

1.2 Research rationale:

The most important issue is the risk factors and the proportional paths associated with the cognitive distortion of a person. Although the government intervention is higher, the crime scenario and the death ratio due to the drug addiction is significantly rising. This scenario has become more crucial now, as the population is not much concentrated and the economic structure is very much labour intensive. However, due to the drug addiction and crime, the industry and the overall economy are experiencing a large gap as a whole. Henceforth, reducing the risk factors for criminality along with the mitigation of drug addiction has become a crucial challenge for the Ireland.

On the other hand, the past researches and the approaches have failed to identify the core psychological factors that contribute to generate criminal behaviour.  Frustration, manipulation, impulsivity, etc. is increasing among the new generation of Ireland, which is generating the criminal behaviour. Thus, a clear gap can be observed between the past literature and the present situation. The past few incidents of Ireland clearly show a causal relationship between the drug taking and the criminal behaviours. In the conventional methods, the issues of crime and its employability consider the lesser priority. This is the prime argument which has been focused on the current study. The present rational is that targeting the central issue is necessary to deliver a successful outcome. Apart from the cognitive behavioural programs, the outlook of the criminals towards the drug consumption and the overall society is more important in the current context.

Therefore, the current study could offer randomised controlled approaches to produce an optimal result. The justified perspective of screening and assessing the drug addiction could provide a new path of reducing the drug abuse and crime ratios in Ireland. The current study produces a cognitive restructuring model, which can meet the challenges of the drug-crime life-cycle. In addition, future research can also be conducted based upon the conjunction with the therapeutic model, which can identify the root cause. Eventually, the crime mitigation approaches can meet the social balance and justice.

1.3 Problem statement:

Although several past studies have revealed the way of reducing the drug addiction among the young generation, the lack of root cause analysis failed to derive the actual way of mentoring and guiding the drug addicted people. In the words of Felson and Staff (2015), the scale of the drug or crime problem is increasing in a significant way. In some areas, women were also arrested under the influence of drugs with men. As a matter of fact, more than 42% women are addicted to the drugs and equally participate in the social violence like men (Flint, 2012). Thus, it can be considered that the past studies are not sufficient to address the dynamism of drug abuse and its associated risk factors.

There is a vice versa relationship between the crime and drug abuse. However, it is very important to identify which factor comes first the drug or the crime. Unless it is known, the significant rise of crime and drug abuse cannot be mitigated. Thus, the current problem statement is to identify whether the drug use influences the crime or the criminal psychology influences the drug abuse behaviour. Hence, the outcome of the research will help the society to reduce both the drug addiction and the crime which is frequently occurring in Ireland.

1.4 Significance of the Study:

The current study helps to identify how the illegal drug use is associated with the different criminal behaviour.  A recent estimate on drug abuse reported that more than 65% is associated with significant crime (Johnson, 2015). Among different types of violence, the psychopharmacological violence has been found the most significant in Ireland. Although the past researches had been taken place to implement the remedial action, a lesser focus has been paid to the root cause analysis, due to which the remedial actions are still inactive in some cases. Therefore, the current study could signify how much drug dose stimulates criminal behaviour and which type of heterogeneity of effects is present among different users.

In addition, the past researches were placed on the basis of Goldstein Framework, which had focused more on the methodological diversity. On the other hand, a little has been learned from the study. Thus, identification of ‘three dimensional matrix’ and the associated vectors could have given more absolute result than the other approaches. Thus, the current study could help the society identifying the new dimension of drug abuse and the social violence along with other criminal activities. Henceforth, the present and future generation can be benefited from the outcome of the current study.

1.5 Aim of the study:

The primary aim of the study is to identify the ways in which the drug and alcohol abuse leads to the criminal activity, considering the region Ireland. Several past researches identified that drug and crime relationship can be explained by a set of common relationships. Therefore, the outcome of the current study can help in establishing a dynamics of the drug-crime relationship in Ireland.

In addition, the secondary aim of the study is to identify whether the economic-motivation model is interlinked with the crime generating factors or not. Mitchell and Caudy (2015) stated that drug users generally commit the crimes such as burglary, drug sales, robbery etc. Thus, different sub cultural contexts also lead to the abuse of drugs. However, the tertiary aim of the study is to analyse whether the drug use and the crime have a common causal link or not. The worldwide past incidents indicate that street behaviour and the lack of social capital also enhance the drug abuse among the new generations. Thus, the need of identifying immeasurable variables has become more significant now days. Hence, the combination of these aims could help the researcher to reach a justifiable outcome of the study.

1.6 Research Objectives:

Drug addiction and related crimes are most intractable social problems facing the Ireland. A significant link has been drawn by the scholars between the drug and alcohol abuse with the domestic or social violence. Considering the fact, the current research focuses on evaluating the impact of drug and alcohol consumption on the society of Ireland. The objectives of the current study are as follows:

  • To identify the negative impact of the drugs and alcohol on a person’s life and overall society.
  • To address the factors influencing the crime strength in Ireland.
  • To determine the relationship between alcohol and drug consumption with the crime occurring in Ireland.
  • To recommend appropriate strategies to reduce the drug and alcohol consumption within the population of Ireland.

1.7 Research questions:

The research questions are as follows:

  • How the drug and alcohol abuse can create negative impacts on the individual and overall society?
  • Which factors are influencing the crime ratio of Ireland?
  • How the crime related issues are creating most intractable social problems in Ireland?
  • How the alcohol and drug abuse is interrelated with the crime occurring in Ireland?
  • Which strategic initiatives could reduce the drug and alcohol consumption within the Ireland?

1.8 Hypothesis:

The current hypothesis of the study is as follows:

H0: The alcohol and drug abuse increases crime in Ireland

H1: The alcohol and drug abuse does not increase the crime in Ireland.

 

 

1.9 Dissertation structure:

The structure of the thesis is as follows:

Chapter 1: Introduction

Chapter 2: Method

Chapter 3: Results

Chapter 4: Discussion

Chapter 5: Conclusion and Recommendations

Chapter 3: Research Methodology

3.1 Preface:

The research method is simply known as the procedure approached by one researcher to accomplish all the objectives identified in the first chapter. It is none other than conceptual framework to achieve the learning outcomes of next chapter. The entire research is concentric to methodology portion as wrong or impudent research methodology can ruin the result of an entire project. MacKenzie et al. (2011) mentioned that different research can be proceed with different methodology. Love (2012) further mentioned that it is the objectives and types of research that signifies the approach. For example, the genre and subject of research is identified to maintain methodology to measure the requirement of one. In this chapter, the researcher is going to introduce the philosophy of this research that are essential to imbibe so that the objectives are fulfilled. Not only this, but also the researcher may identify the reason of choosing one particular philosophy and may analyses the reason that drive the researcher to bring down other philosophies. Thereafter, the researcher would find the relevance of choosing appropriate design of this research. In addition, the approach to analyze data will also be measured in this chapter. The researcher would further reclaim the ethics associated with this research and target people to sketch the time plan of this work.

3.2 Research Onion

Figure 1: Research onion

(Source: Saunders et al. 2009)

The ideal approach to reach the goal of research were never mentioned in any book or journal until the research onion process were presented by the Saunders in the year 2009. Thereafter, most of the dissertation are proceeded with this methodology only. The fact and method in this model is so accurate and time effective that it is not bound to one subject or stream only but it can be extrapolated to use in any work. Here the researcher will analyze various process associated with the objectives and proceed according to route identified by Saunders. The method of Saunders’ onion splits the entire process in five different section. They are, identifying the research philosophy, identifying the research approach, identifying the research design and strategy (Saunders et al. 2009). At the end identification of time planning is also indicated in this methodological model. The research onion also paves a clean path for identification of desired way to collect data and analysis process of this data. Therefore, the researcher found that Saunders’ model can be an identical choice in this case to get most relevant data analysis process.

3.3 Research Philosophy

There are three kinds of research philosophy that can be applied to a research. They are- positivism, realism and interpretivist. The positivist theory is occupied with identifying the logical explanation of real time data and considering the hypothetical conclusion as the identified guide map. Interpretivist philosophy is associated with scientific researches (Supino and Borer, 2012). The innovative thinking ability or identification new theories are promoted by this philosophy. Interpretivist philosophy is commonly known as the philosophy for the scientists while positivist philosophy is for the social science students. The positivism philosophy do not intends to promote any innovation but rather searchers for scope of improvement in previous presented models and methods (Muijs, 2013). It is a hypothetical approach to reach solution. The most different philosophy is realism. It is considered to be the most complex one to consider in research. The process signifies that most of the real life scenarios are mainly connected to both interpretivist philosophy and positivist philosophy. Therefore, the conclusion is variable in nature and related to both the philosophy mentioned above. The condition of data and environment of analysis defines the requirement. Therefore, it is most realistic in nature and favorable for a unique conclusion.

3.3.1 Justification of positivist research philosophy

The researcher here will consider positivism as the desired and most suitable for this research condition. The researcher do not intends to identify new theories and model but wants to identify the unexplored facts associated with previous researches. All the findings are completely theoretical and will not be presented in mathematical format. Therefore, positivist philosophy is identical in this case. Ryen and Gobo (2011) mentioned that interpretivist philosophy can make hypothetical projects confusing as that promotes more scientific approaches. In contrast to this, Supino and Borer (2012) argued that realism can be great choice in any case as it derives the condition of data to identify the requirement of philosophy. However, Mackey and Gass (2015) further mentioned that in many cases realism is found to be confounding as the process is dynamic and not fixed to any specific condition. Kumar (2013) stated that positivist philosophy is identical for easiest way to reach a valid result. In innovation project the philosophy contains ample amount of flaws but in theoretical analysis process it is very accurate and therefore, the researcher here has considered only positivist philosophy to be identical for his work. The complexity and approach of other research philosophy impeded their involvement in this research.

3.4 Research Approach

The researcher identified that Saunders’ design proposes two types of approaches. They are- deductive research and inductive research. Barratt et al.  (2011) stated that deductive research is analyzing some facts with more knowledge bases on theory and practical concepts. The conventional theoretical approach to analyze data is known as deductive approach. However, there are some other research process that promotes analyze of facts based on calculation. The data are not collected from people but collected from machines. The approach for these researches are known as inductive one. In a nutshell, Kilkenny et al. (2010) stated that hypothetical process of analysis is promoted by deductive approach while, the innovative process of research is promoted by inductive approaches. In general scientific projects with most scientific approach are the essential in case of identifying research approach suitable for interpretivist philosophy. Realism philosophy is also associated with inductive approach as well. Only positivist’s research philosophy and post positivist research philosophy promotes deductive approach. Denzin (2012) argued that post positivist philosophy can be applicable to inductive approach as well to analyze the facts found in machinery outputs. Not all data may reflect innovative process. Therefore, post positivist approach promotes both inductive and deductive process. However, the limitation of positivist philosophy is only bounded by deductive approach.

3.4.1 Justification of choosing deductive approach in methodology

In this research, the learner is taking consideration of deductive approach of research instead of considering the inductive one.  The process is useful mainly due to least complexity in the analytical format. In addition, the data analysis presentation in deductive approach promotes graphical presentation in most statistical format. So that any non-technical or non-professional person can get a complete glimpse of the entire data distribution process and thus it can be very effective in business and social science research area. This research will collect information from target people associated with drugs and alcohol consumptions (John et al. 2012). However, these responses are then transferred into a statistical format and then will be presented in graphical format. Therefore, the analysis process or the philosophy of this research is identified as positivist research philosophy. However, the positivist philosophy promotes deductive approach in research. Therefore, the researcher has only option left in this case. There is no possible indication of innovation in this research. Thus, the researcher has not confirmed inductive research approach.

3.5 Research design

There are three types of research design that can be applicable in a dissertation. They are- exploratory, explanatory and descriptive. A researcher can take in consider any of the research design. However, Barratt et al. (2011) argued that a dissertation can be implemented using one or many design facility. Exploratory research design is for secondary or primary data collection process. In this research design the researcher need to travel in various places to collect data from those resources. Not only this, but the exploration process can also be performed in online data searching process as well. Survey or interviewing a person is associated with exploratory research design. In addition, the analysis are required to present in proper manner. Explanatory research design is associated with explaining things beyond findings. However, this process can be very confounding and flaws associated with this research is higher than usual. Therefore, Kilkenny et al. (2010) mentioned that not all researcher in this days considers this design. However, this research design can be applicable to inductive research approach. The innovation process requires some consideration beyond findings. Descriptive research design is associated with deductive research approach. The positivist research philosophy promotes further. Positivist research philosophy also promotes exploratory research design as well.

3.5.1 Justification of choosing descriptive design

The researcher has considered descriptive design in this case. However, the researcher has also considered exploratory research design in this case. In this research, the researcher will identify the impact of alcohol and drugs in crime activity in Ireland. In addition, the researcher would identify some scopes of reducing crimes while identifying the relationship. This complete process will require a descriptive method or analytical method. Along with this, Kumar (2013) mentioned that the positivist philosophy and deductive approach paves a suitable way for descriptive analysis of data only. However, the researcher need to gather data from some relevant sources. This process shall be accomplished by exploration design of research only. The target people shall be received by travelling in different places. Therefore, both exploration and descriptive design has been imbibed by the researcher (Kumar, 2013). The explanation method is associated with explaining data found from machinery inputs. No such experiments are being enlisted in the objectives of this research. Therefore, the researcher has not considered this particular fact in this research area.

3.6 Research strategies

Saunders identified that research strategies are mainly categorized in six types and any research in this word can be placed fruitfully in any of these six categories. However, the most popular in among them are experiments, survey, case study and ground theory. Most of the research follows one of these structure only. However, Denzin (2012) mentioned that some special cases allows the participation of other research strategies. Micahel and Bellamy (2014) stated that experimental research is associated with finding new things and innovating theories. The process is mainly performed in the area of science. Case study is associated with proceeding research based on findings of others. Therefore, it can be denoted as the secondary data collection and analysis process (Panneerselvam, 2014). Along with the survey is mainly identified as the collection of data from some relevant target people. The data are collected in terms of some close ended and open ended questionnaire. The survey is associated with exploration design of research while the case study promotes explanation design of research. This strategies further clarifies whether a research is going to be like cross sectional or longitudinal in time horizon or not.

3.6.1 Justification of taking survey as research strategy

In this research, the researcher needs to collect information regarding the issues found in real life. Most of criminals in Ireland found to be affectionate to alcohols and drugs. Therefore, the researcher needs to collect responses from these criminals only to identify their psychology behind the theory. This process can only be accomplished if the researcher considers survey method of strategy. The exploration method would further clarify the reason. Love (2012) mentioned case study processes are often helpful in similar situation. However, the researcher has not considered case study strategy as it is based research of other authors. If the previous learner made any mistakes while considering these facts then the same flaw will be inherited to this research as well (Supino and Borer, 2012). This process can be very deleterious for the researcher. There were no scope of secondary data analysis process in this research. Therefore, the researcher has not considered ground theory strategy in this case.

3.7 Data collection method

The data are being collected from the survey process. The researcher would ask the criminals about some relevant topics to justify the claim. The researcher would construct some questions based on objectives of this work and then would implements some close ended responses regarding this. Muijs (2013) mentioned that close ended questionnaires often reduces time consumption of one research. Along with this, Mackey and Gass (2015) added that close ended format can be bewildering as it disallows one participant to express his/her complete felling over a question. The researcher would collect these from 100 criminals and people associated crime industry. The quantitative data is can be very advantageous for the researcher in this case as myriad amount of data can be collected in quick session of time. In addition, the data analysis process of these kind of data is easiest and quickest in compared to others. Not only this, but this particular data creams off sensitive portion in this research and critically analyses those.

3.8 Sampling and sample size

Sampling is the process that develops the group of target people for any research. This process is very important to develop an impartial conclusion at the end. The sampling process can be implemented using the age group or gender of these people. There are many way to create and identify the sample of one research. However, simple random probability method has been found to be very useful in this case. The researcher would consider none other than this theory to claim the sampling process in this research. The total target people has been found to be 100 and group people are measured by random probability theory only. Therefore, the number group members are variant in each group. The table below reflects sample size of each group.

Number of peoples in a group Age Bandwidth
25 16 years to 24 years
30 25 years to 34 years
25 35 years to 45 years
20 46 years and above

Table 1: Target people

(Source: Self developed)

3.9 Data analysis technique

Business analytical tools are being very popular in these world and not many companies are implementing these tools in these days. The conventional data interpretation tools like Microsoft graphs are no longer valid in these days as data representation method is very poor and clumsy in Microsoft system. Therefore, the business persons are considering about some very lucrative tools presented by some software giants. This processes are mainly a part of SaaS processing system. IBM is worldwide popular for providing SaaS system for companies in need. However, the educational system is also considering about this tools to make research analysis process. This research also paves a way for SPSS software which provided by the IBM system to validate the discussion part. The SPSS system is a software provided in online facility and it allows the developer to ask answer any question relevant to uploaded data. The graphs and charts in this analysis is very useful as they were implemented by the software itself as its artificial intelligence system identifies most valuable data.

3.10 Research ethics

The researcher here needs to be very cautious regarding the personal information of this people associated with the target. The research may contain personal information of these people. Therefore, any loss in these data can lead to personality loss of these people. Therefore, the data protection act of 1987 can be breached completely and it can be a disaster for the researcher. Therefore, the researcher would destroy all these facts after the result is achieved and no copy of these materials would be stored in any places. Along with this, the human right act 1998 can also be under threat as the researcher would question about difficult past life scenarios. Therefore, the researcher would be very sincere about implementing those questions so that they might not affect the criminals’ rehabilitation process.

3.11 Limitation of the research

Although the research were considered to be very innovative and lucrative in nature and it is hoping to create a better impact on the research. However, there are some possibilities in gaps associated with research. The researcher has only target criminals those have suffered the consequences of consuming alcohols or drugs. However, the researcher has not considered the people associated with medicine practicing industry to identify the relevance of them. Not only this, the researcher has only considered about the importance of this issue in Ireland only. However, the person has not considered about the facts of worldwide phenomenon. The research philosophy is positivist and that is not so accurate like interpretivist. Therefore, some flaws will be associated here as well. The researcher considered for quantitative data analysis process as it is faster. However, no qualitative data has been collected by the researcher. There used to be a great scope of flaw while considering about quantitative data only as it do not allow one participant to express his/her complete feeling.

3.12 Time plan for this research

Activities 1st week 2nd week 3rd week 4th week 5th week 6th week 7th week 8th week 9th week 10th week 11th week 12th week 13th week 14th week 15th week 16th week 17th week 18th week
Introduction to research
Aim and objectives identification
Implementing research questionnaire
Reviewing the literature
Identification of require methodology
Collecting data
Analyzing data
Conclusion and recommendation

Table 2: Gantt chart

(Source: Self developed)

3.12 Summary of the chapter:

In this chapter the researcher has identified a scope of implementing the research methodology associated with this work. The researcher has identified that Saunders model of dissertation to be identical in this case. Therefore, the researcher proceeded accordingly. The researcher identified a requirement of positivist philosophy in this case. In addition, the researcher has identified deductive approach in research. The strategy of the research is based on survey as quantitative data are required here. The researcher targeted 100 amount of people and simple random probability theory has been employed here to create the groups. The researcher also identified the required number of people in various groups. The researcher identified that SPSS method of analyzing to be identical in this case. Thus, the researcher has analyzed the time plan required in this research as well. In addition, the limitation of this research are also discussed here.

Chapter 4: Result

What is your age?

Frequencies

 

Age
Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent
Valid 1.00 10 10.0 10.0 10.0
2.00 26 26.0 26.0 36.0
3.00 12 12.0 12.0 48.0
4.00 22 22.0 22.0 70.0
5.00 30 30.0 30.0 100.0
Total 100 100.0 100.0

 

 

 

 

Descriptives

 

 

 

Descriptive Statistics
N Minimum Maximum Mean Std. Deviation
Age 100 1.00 5.00 3.3600 1.40360
Valid N (listwise) 100

 

 

What is your nationality?

Frequencies

 

 

 

Nationality
Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent
Valid 1.00 20 20.0 20.0 20.0
2.00 30 30.0 30.0 50.0
3.00 5 5.0 5.0 55.0
4.00 12 12.0 12.0 67.0
5.00 33 33.0 33.0 100.0
Total 100 100.0 100.0

 

 

 

 

Descriptives

 

 

 

Descriptive Statistics
N Minimum Maximum Mean Std. Deviation
Nationality 100 1.00 5.00 3.0800 1.59975
Valid N (listwise) 100

 

 

 

  1. How long have you been staying in the country?

Frequencies

 

 

 

ResidenceTenure
Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent
Valid 1.00 18 18.0 18.0 18.0
2.00 25 25.0 25.0 43.0
3.00 24 24.0 24.0 67.0
4.00 11 11.0 11.0 78.0
5.00 22 22.0 22.0 100.0
Total 100 100.0 100.0

 

 

 

 

Descriptives

 

 

 

Descriptive Statistics
N Minimum Maximum Mean Std. Deviation
ResidenceTenure 100 1.00 5.00 2.9400 1.40576
Valid N (listwise) 100

 

 

  1. Do you take alcohol?

Frequencies

 

 

 

Alcohol
Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent
Valid 1.00 5 5.0 5.0 5.0
2.00 15 15.0 15.0 20.0
3.00 30 30.0 30.0 50.0
4.00 20 20.0 20.0 70.0
5.00 30 30.0 30.0 100.0
Total 100 100.0 100.0

 

 

 

 

Descriptives

 

 

 

Descriptive Statistics
N Minimum Maximum Mean Std. Deviation
Alcohol 100 1.00 5.00 3.5500 1.20918
Valid N (listwise) 100

 

 

 

  1. How much do you drink, and do you consider yourself to be addicted to alcohol?

Frequencies

 

 

 

LevelofAddiction
Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent
Valid 1.00 22 22.0 22.0 22.0
2.00 18 18.0 18.0 40.0
3.00 15 15.0 15.0 55.0
4.00 20 20.0 20.0 75.0
5.00 25 25.0 25.0 100.0
Total 100 100.0 100.0

 

 

 

 

Descriptives

 

 

 

Descriptive Statistics
N Minimum Maximum Mean Std. Deviation
LevelofAddiction 100 1.00 5.00 3.0800 1.50876
Valid N (listwise) 100

 

 

  1. At what age did you start drinking?

Frequencies

 

 

 

AgeofDrink
Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent
Valid 1.00 18 18.0 18.0 18.0
2.00 25 25.0 25.0 43.0
3.00 24 24.0 24.0 67.0
4.00 11 11.0 11.0 78.0
5.00 22 22.0 22.0 100.0
Total 100 100.0 100.0

 

 

 

 

Descriptives

 

 

 

Descriptive Statistics
N Minimum Maximum Mean Std. Deviation
AgeofDrink 100 1.00 5.00 2.9400 1.40576
Valid N (listwise) 100

 

 

  1. Do you take drugs?

Frequencies

 

 

TakeDrug
Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent
Valid 1.00 15 15.0 15.0 15.0
2.00 16 16.0 16.0 31.0
3.00 14 14.0 14.0 45.0
4.00 16 16.0 16.0 61.0
5.00 39 39.0 39.0 100.0
Total 100 100.0 100.0

 

 

 

 

Descriptives

 

 

 

Descriptive Statistics
N Minimum Maximum Mean Std. Deviation
TakeDrug 100 1.00 5.00 3.4800 1.50742
Valid N (listwise) 100

 

 

  1. Are you addicted to drugs?

Frequencies

 

 

 

DrugAddiction
Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent
Valid 1.00 6 6.0 6.0 6.0
2.00 15 15.0 15.0 21.0
3.00 6 6.0 6.0 27.0
4.00 45 45.0 45.0 72.0
5.00 28 28.0 28.0 100.0
Total 100 100.0 100.0

 

 

 

 

Descriptives

 

 

 

Descriptive Statistics
N Minimum Maximum Mean Std. Deviation
DrugAddiction 100 1.00 5.00 3.7400 1.19443
Valid N (listwise) 100

 

 

  1. At what age you become addicted to drugs?

Frequencies

 

 

 

AgeofDrugAddict
Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent
Valid 1.00 10 10.0 10.0 10.0
2.00 26 26.0 26.0 36.0
3.00 12 12.0 12.0 48.0
4.00 22 22.0 22.0 70.0
5.00 30 30.0 30.0 100.0
Total 100 100.0 100.0

 

 

 

 

Descriptives

 

 

 

Descriptive Statistics
N Minimum Maximum Mean Std. Deviation
AgeofDrugAddict 100 1.00 5.00 3.3600 1.40360
Valid N (listwise) 100

 

  1. How much do you spend on alcohol?

Frequencies

 

 

 

SpendonAlcohol
Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent
Valid 1.00 10 10.0 11.2 11.2
2.00 26 26.0 29.2 40.4
3.00 12 12.0 13.5 53.9
4.00 22 22.0 24.7 78.7
5.00 19 19.0 21.3 100.0
Total 89 89.0 100.0
Missing System 11 11.0
Total 100 100.0

 

 

 

 

Descriptives

 

 

 

Descriptive Statistics
N Minimum Maximum Mean Std. Deviation
SpendonAlcohol 89 1.00 5.00 3.1573 1.35595
Valid N (listwise) 89

 

 

  1. How much do you spend on drugs?

Frequencies

 

 

 

SpendonDrug
Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent
Valid 1.00 25 25.0 25.0 25.0
2.00 18 18.0 18.0 43.0
3.00 14 14.0 14.0 57.0
4.00 20 20.0 20.0 77.0
5.00 23 23.0 23.0 100.0
Total 100 100.0 100.0

 

 

 

 

Descriptives

 

 

 

Descriptive Statistics
N Minimum Maximum Mean Std. Deviation
SpendonDrug 100 1.00 5.00 2.9800 1.52408
Valid N (listwise) 100

 

 

  1. Have you ever been arrested due to the overuse of alcohol or drugs?

Frequencies

 

 

 

ArrestforDrunk
Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent
Valid 1.00 10 10.0 10.0 10.0
2.00 26 26.0 26.0 36.0
3.00 12 12.0 12.0 48.0
4.00 22 22.0 22.0 70.0
5.00 30 30.0 30.0 100.0
Total 100 100.0 100.0

 

 

 

 

Descriptives

 

 

 

Descriptive Statistics
N Minimum Maximum Mean Std. Deviation
ArrestforDrunk 100 1.00 5.00 3.3600 1.40360
Valid N (listwise) 100

 

 

  1. Have you ever committed any crime such as rape, murder, burglary or such?

 

Frequencies

 

 

 

CrimeCimitment
Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent
Valid 1.00 20 20.0 20.0 20.0
2.00 30 30.0 30.0 50.0
3.00 10 10.0 10.0 60.0
4.00 20 20.0 20.0 80.0
5.00 20 20.0 20.0 100.0
Total 100 100.0 100.0

 

 

 

 

Descriptives

 

Descriptive Statistics
N Minimum Maximum Mean Std. Deviation
CrimeCimitment 100 1.00 5.00 2.9000 1.45297
Valid N (listwise) 100

 

  1. Have you ever been arrested due to extensive drink/drug use and drive?

 

Frequencies

 

 

ArrestforDrug
Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent
Valid 1.00 56 56.0 56.0 56.0
2.00 5 5.0 5.0 61.0
3.00 15 15.0 15.0 76.0
4.00 23 23.0 23.0 99.0
5.00 1 1.0 1.0 100.0
Total 100 100.0 100.0

 

 

 

 

Descriptives

 

Descriptive Statistics
N Minimum Maximum Mean Std. Deviation
ArrestforDrug 100 1.00 5.00 2.0800 1.31564
Valid N (listwise) 100

 

 

  1. Have you ever gone to prison due to domestic violence?

 

Frequencies

 

PrisonforDomesticViolence
Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent
Valid 1.00 20 20.0 20.0 20.0
2.00 40 40.0 40.0 60.0
3.00 10 10.0 10.0 70.0
4.00 20 20.0 20.0 90.0
5.00 10 10.0 10.0 100.0
Total 100 100.0 100.0

 

 

 

 

Descriptives

 

Descriptive Statistics
N Minimum Maximum Mean Std. Deviation
PrisonforDomesticViolence 100 1.00 5.00 2.6000 1.28708
Valid N (listwise) 100

 

 

  1. Are you able to control yourself under the influence of alcohol/drug?

 

Frequencies

 

Controllevelfromalcohol
Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent
Valid 1.00 5 5.0 5.0 5.0
2.00 15 15.0 15.0 20.0
3.00 30 30.0 30.0 50.0
4.00 20 20.0 20.0 70.0
5.00 30 30.0 30.0 100.0
Total 100 100.0 100.0

 

 

 

 

Descriptives

 

Descriptive Statistics
N Minimum Maximum Mean Std. Deviation
Controllevelfromalcohol 100 1.00 5.00 3.5500 1.20918
Valid N (listwise) 100

 

 

 

  1. Have you committed any crimes under the use of alcohol/drugs?

 

Frequencies

 

CrimeduetoAlcohol
Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent
Valid 1.00 24 24.0 24.0 24.0
2.00 16 16.0 16.0 40.0
3.00 16 16.0 16.0 56.0
4.00 20 20.0 20.0 76.0
5.00 24 24.0 24.0 100.0
Total 100 100.0 100.0

 

 

Descriptive

 

Descriptive Statistics
N Minimum Maximum Mean Std. Deviation
CrimeduetoAlcohol 100 1.00 5.00 3.0400 1.51704
Valid N (listwise) 100

 

 

  1. How do you fund your alcohol habits?

 

Frequencies

 

FundofAlcoholhabit
Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent
Valid 1.00 18 18.0 18.0 18.0
2.00 25 25.0 25.0 43.0
3.00 24 24.0 24.0 67.0
4.00 11 11.0 11.0 78.0
5.00 22 22.0 22.0 100.0
Total 100 100.0 100.0

 

 

 

 

Descriptive

 

Descriptive Statistics
N Minimum Maximum Mean Std. Deviation
FundofAlcoholhabit 100 1.00 5.00 2.9400 1.40576
Valid N (listwise) 100

 

 

 

  1. How do you fund your drug habits?

 

Frequencies

 

FundofDrughabit
Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent
Valid 1.00 26 26.0 26.0 26.0
2.00 13 13.0 13.0 39.0
3.00 15 15.0 15.0 54.0
4.00 26 26.0 26.0 80.0
5.00 20 20.0 20.0 100.0
Total 100 100.0 100.0

 

 

Descriptive

 

Descriptive Statistics
N Minimum Maximum Mean Std. Deviation
FundofDrughabit 100 1.00 5.00 3.0100 1.50081
Valid N (listwise) 100

 

  1. Have you committed any theft, burglary or illegal trades to fund your alcohol habits?

 

Frequencies

 

TheftforAlcohol
Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent
Valid 1.00 15 15.0 15.0 15.0
2.00 25 25.0 25.0 40.0
3.00 15 15.0 15.0 55.0
4.00 20 20.0 20.0 75.0
5.00 25 25.0 25.0 100.0
Total 100 100.0 100.0

 

 

Descriptive

 

Descriptive Statistics
N Minimum Maximum Mean Std. Deviation
TheftforAlcohol 100 1.00 5.00 3.1500 1.43108
Valid N (listwise) 100

 

 

  1. Have you committed any theft, burglary or illegal trade to fund your drug habits?

 

Frequencies

 

 

Theftfordrug
Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent
Valid 1.00 12 12.0 12.0 12.0
2.00 12 12.0 12.0 24.0
3.00 22 22.0 22.0 46.0
4.00 42 42.0 42.0 88.0
5.00 12 12.0 12.0 100.0
Total 100 100.0 100.0

 

Descriptive

 

 

Descriptive Statistics
N Minimum Maximum Mean Std. Deviation
Theftfordrug 100 1.00 5.00 3.3000 1.19342
Valid N (listwise) 100

 

 

  1. Do you think taking up prostitution as a profession can help earn quick money to fund your drug habits?

 

Frequencies

 

ProstitutionforAddict
Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent
Valid 1.00 5 5.0 5.0 5.0
2.00 15 15.0 15.0 20.0
3.00 30 30.0 30.0 50.0
4.00 20 20.0 20.0 70.0
5.00 30 30.0 30.0 100.0
Total 100 100.0 100.0

 

 

 

Descriptive

 

Descriptive Statistics
N Minimum Maximum Mean Std. Deviation
ProstitutionforAddict 100 1.00 5.00 3.5500 1.20918
Valid N (listwise) 100

 

 

  1. Did you realize that you are committing a crime under the influence of alcohol?

 

Frequencies

 

 

 

Realisationofcrime
Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent
Valid 1.00 21 21.0 21.0 21.0
2.00 19 19.0 19.0 40.0
3.00 15 15.0 15.0 55.0
4.00 18 18.0 18.0 73.0
5.00 27 27.0 27.0 100.0
Total 100 100.0 100.0

 

 

 

 

Descriptives

 

Descriptive Statistics
N Minimum Maximum Mean Std. Deviation
Realisationofcrime 100 1.00 5.00 3.1100 1.51687
Valid N (listwise) 100

 

 

  1. Did you realize that you are committing a crime under the influence of drugs?

 

Frequencies

 

RealisationunderDrug
Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent
Valid 1.00 10 10.0 10.0 10.0
2.00 26 26.0 26.0 36.0
3.00 12 12.0 12.0 48.0
4.00 22 22.0 22.0 70.0
5.00 30 30.0 30.0 100.0
Total 100 100.0 100.0

 

 

 

Descriptives

 

Descriptive Statistics
N Minimum Maximum Mean Std. Deviation
RealisationunderDrug 100 1.00 5.00 3.3600 1.40360
Valid N (listwise) 100

 

 

  1. Would you repeat the same crimes again under the influence of alcohol?

 

Frequencies

 

 

RepeatcrimeunderAlcohol
Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent
Valid 1.00 20 20.0 20.0 20.0
2.00 30 30.0 30.0 50.0
3.00 45 45.0 45.0 95.0
4.00 1 1.0 1.0 96.0
5.00 4 4.0 4.0 100.0
Total 100 100.0 100.0

 

 

Descriptive

 

 

Descriptive Statistics
N Minimum Maximum Mean Std. Deviation
RepeatcrimeunderAlcohol 100 1.00 5.00 2.3900 .95235
Valid N (listwise) 100

 

  1. Would you repeat the same crimes again if under the influence of drug?

 

Frequencies

 

RepeatcrimeunderDrug
Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent
Valid 1.00 15 15.0 15.0 15.0
2.00 25 25.0 25.0 40.0
3.00 14 14.0 14.0 54.0
4.00 36 36.0 36.0 90.0
5.00 10 10.0 10.0 100.0
Total 100 100.0 100.0

 

 

Descriptive

 

Descriptive Statistics
N Minimum Maximum Mean Std. Deviation
RepeatcrimeunderDrug 100 1.00 5.00 3.0100 1.27521
Valid N (listwise) 100

 

 

  1. Do you wish to abstain from the use of alcohol?

 

Frequencies

 

WishtoAbstain
Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent
Valid 1.00 10 10.0 10.0 10.0
2.00 20 20.0 20.0 30.0
3.00 50 50.0 50.0 80.0
4.00 10 10.0 10.0 90.0
5.00 10 10.0 10.0 100.0
Total 100 100.0 100.0

 

 

Descriptives

 

 

Descriptive Statistics
N Minimum Maximum Mean Std. Deviation
WishtoAbstain 100 1.00 5.00 2.9000 1.04929
Valid N (listwise) 100

 

 

  1. Do you wish to abstain from the use of drugs?

 

Frequencies

 

 

abstainfromdrug
Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent
Valid 1.00 6 6.0 6.0 6.0
2.00 14 14.0 14.0 20.0
3.00 30 30.0 30.0 50.0
4.00 20 20.0 20.0 70.0
5.00 30 30.0 30.0 100.0
Total 100 100.0 100.0

 

 

Descriptives

 

Descriptive Statistics
N Minimum Maximum Mean Std. Deviation
abstainfromdrug 100 1.00 5.00 3.5400 1.22615
Valid N (listwise) 100

 

 

  1. What type of support do you expect from the government or other authorities to help you abstain from the use?

 

Frequencies

 

 

Supportfromgovt
Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent
Valid 1.00 23 23.0 23.0 23.0
2.00 17 17.0 17.0 40.0
3.00 14 14.0 14.0 54.0
4.00 21 21.0 21.0 75.0
5.00 25 25.0 25.0 100.0
Total 100 100.0 100.0

 

 

Descriptive

 

 

Descriptive Statistics
N Minimum Maximum Mean Std. Deviation
Supportfromgovt 100 1.00 5.00 3.0800 1.52209
Valid N (listwise) 100

 

 

  1. What do you think should be the strategy of the government or other authorities to control such alcohol/drug related crime?

 

Frequencies

 

 

Govtstrategy
Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent
Valid 1.00 18 18.0 18.0 18.0
2.00 25 25.0 25.0 43.0
3.00 24 24.0 24.0 67.0
4.00 11 11.0 11.0 78.0
5.00 22 22.0 22.0 100.0
Total 100 100.0 100.0

 

 

Descriptive

 

 

Descriptive Statistics
N Minimum Maximum Mean Std. Deviation
Govtstrategy 100 1.00 5.00 2.9400 1.40576
Valid N (listwise) 100

 

Chapter 5: Discussion

1. Age of the respondents

In the study, the researcher has seen that the age of the people of the sample survey is an important factor of analysing the addition of drug and alcohol. As per the survey, it has been seen that the people above 60 years of age are addicted to drag at a higher level as compared with the people of different ages. After that the researcher has seen that the people who are in the range of 18 years and 30 years are addicted to drag and alcohol. 30% of the total people in the survey has disclosed that they belong to the age group of above sixty years. On the other hand, 26% of the people are from the age range of eighteen to 30 years.

2.  Nationality of respondents

In case of the response of the second question, which was about the nationality of the people, it has been seen that the US citizens are addicted to drag and alcoholic products at a higher degree. In this context, it is also to state that the 30% of the people are involved in drug and alcohol addiction. The non-American and non-English people are seen as mostly addicted to such drags and alcohols. 33% of the non-American, non-English, non-Australian people are seen as addicted to drag and alcohol.in this context, it is also to mention that the 5% of the people in the sample size are addicted to drugs. Therefore, it can be said that the Australian citizen are not as much affected as the people of the US and the UK. In this context, it is also to mention that the people of the UK are addicted to drugs and alcohol and therefore the result shows a 20% contribution of addicted people in the study. The Canadian people has also been seen as less addicted to drug as the result shows only 12% of the addicted people are from Canada.

3. Time of staying in the country

In response of the question on the citizenship in the country in which the people stay, the researcher has found that the most of the people in the country for 10 years to 15 years. In this context, it can be said that the immigrants could create a serious problem for the countries and the people of that country’s. A large percentage of people are living in the country for 15 years to 20 years as the survey shows 24% of the people live in the country for 20 years to 25 years.

 

4. Alcoholic

On the question on the acceptance of taking alcohol, the researcher has seen that the 30% of the people do not take alcohol. On the other hand, it has also been seen that 30% of the sample size did not disclosed about the fact of taking alcohol. In the contrast, 5% of the people involved in the primary data collection have strongly agreed about the fact of taking alcohol and drugs. Like the same manner, 15% of the total people agreed about the fact of taking alcohol.

5. Drinking frequency

In this study, the researcher has seen that among the addicted people in the survey, a large quantity of people are occasional drinker. 22% of the people has disclosed that they take alcohol occasionally. On the other hand, 18% of the addicted people are addicted of alcohol and the people take alcohol on regular basis. In this context, it is also to mention that a large number of people did not responded on the question on the how much the people drink. Furthermore, it is also to mention that 20% of the total respondents are non-addicted to alcohol or drugs. Therefore, it can be concluded with the note that among the addicted people, the largest number of people take alcohol occasionally.

6. Age of starting drinking

In this study, it has also been seen that a large number of people take alcohol for more than 18 years. In the present study, the researcher has identified that 25% of the people has disclosed that the addiction is continued by them for 18 years to 30 years. On the other hand, it has also been seen that 24% of the people take drugs and alcohol for more than 30 years. In this context, it is required to state that the research has shown that the consumption of drugs and alcohol rises with the age of the respondents.

7. Taking of drugs

In this question, the respondents were asked about the time of starting the addiction of drinking alcohol. In response, 25% of the people replied that the people are addicted from the age of 25. On the other hand, it has been seen that 20% of the people have started taking alcohol and drugs at a age of above 50 years. In this context, it can be said that the pressure of work place could be the reason of taking such things.

8. Addiction of drugs

In response of the question about the time when the people get addicted to the drug and alcohol, the people discloses the fact in a very interesting manner. 60% of the people have disclosed that they have started having alcohol and drugs at the age of 18 years to 30 years. Therefore, it can be said that the people get addicted in the teenage, in this context, it can be said that the teenage people are getting addicted to drugs and alcohols in the developed nations like the US, the UK and Canada. Nevertheless, it could also to be mentioned that 15% people opined that they get addicted in between 30 to 50 years of age.

9. Age of becoming drug addicted

In the question, in which the respondents were asked about whether the respondents are addicted to drugs, 26% of the respondents have replied and agreed that they are addicted to drugs and alcohol. Moreover, 30% of the respondents have discloses that they are not addicted to drugs. Therefore, the researcher could mention that the majority of the people are not addicted to drag or alcohol. In this context, it is also to disclose that occasional drinkers are high in the study.

10. Spending for alcohol

In the next part, the researcher has seen that 25% of the people spends less than $5 for buying drugs and alcohols.

11. Payment for buying drugs

Like the same manner, 20% respondents pay for drugs more than $100 per month for drugs. In this context, it is to mention that the drugs are to be bought by paying a higher amount and therefore, the respondents are to buy drugs by paying a higher amount.

12. Arrest over the issue of alcohol and drugs

In this question, the researcher has seen that 30% of the respondents have agreed that they have seen arrests for the issue of alcohols and drugs. In this context Gossop (2013), opined that government now takes actions to prevent the bad effect of alcohol and drugs. On the other hand, it has also been seen that 20% of the total respondents have not agreed the fact that they have seen arrest due to the issue of addiction of alcohol.

13. Commitment of crime

In this topic, 56% of the total population disclosed that they have committed crime after getting drunk. In this context, it is also to mention that commitment of crime after having drug is an regular issue in all the countries as this kind of addiction hampers the brain of the human being.

14. Arrest over the issue of getting drunk

In the reply of the question, 40% respondents have disclosed that they have been arrested due to the issue of getting drink.

15. Presentment due to alcohol and drug

In this case, 30% of the respondents strongly disagreed with the fact of getting imprisoned.

  1. Controlling the activities of ourself

24% of the respondents have opined that they have no control over oneself after getting drug or getting alcohol. On the other hand, 30% of the population were opined neutrally. In this context, Gossop (2013) stated that alcohol and drug causes lack of control over oneself as these directly hampers the nervous system of a person.

  1. Commitment of crime

In this context, it is to mention that as majority of the population agreed the fact of committing crime after getting alcohol of drugs, the researcher could say that alcohol and drugs have a strong impact on the criminal incidents.

  1. Funding of alcohols

25% of the population agreed that the funds are managed from the parents. On the other hand, 20% of the people opined that the funds are collected from friends and relatives. Therefore, it can be said that the addicted people manage funds from the internal sources.

  1. Funding of drugs

Like the above discussion, the researcher has found that majority of foundings are collected from the friends and relatives.

  1. Commitment of crime for funding of drugs and alcohols

This question resulted a mixed reply from the respondents. 20% of respondents have spoken that they have not committed any kind of crimes for getting the fund for alcohol and drug. On the other hand, 15% of the people strongly disagreed the fact. Therefore, it can be said that the people commits crimes for funding the drugs and alcohol.

 

 

  1. Have you committed any theft, burglary or illegal trade to fund your drug habits?

The above graph shows that 48% of the total respondents have not committed any illegal trade to fund the drugs. However, 30% of the respondents committed theft, burglary or illegal trade to manage the funding of the drugs. The rest of the people are neutral. Similar fact stated by Felson and Staff (2015) that the easy availability of drug has enabled the user to avoid any theft or illegal trade within the region. Thus, it can be stated that the majority of the people have sufficient fund to consume drugs frequently, due to which resisting the drug abuse and crime has become a crucial in Ireland.

  1. Do you think taking up prostitution as a profession can help earn quick money to fund your drug habits?

50% of the respondents stated that prostitution is not required to earn quick money for funding the drug habits. 20% of the respondents agreed the same and rest of the persons are neutral in nature. Mitchell and Caudy (2015) also stated that unlike other countries, the majority of the drug users do not consume prostitution to manage the drug consumption. Therefore, prostitution is not the way to earn quick money to fund the drug habits.

  1. Did you realize that you are committing a crime under the influence of alcohol?

40% of the respondents agreed that they are committing a crime under the influence of alcohol. On the other hand, 45% respondents disagreed with the fact and rest of the people is neutral in nature. In this context, Felson and Staff (2015) stated that the alcohol usage is the root cause behind the social violence and crime in Ireland. Thus, it can be concluded that alcohol usage is increasing the criminal activity among the people of Ireland.

  1. Did you realize that you are committing a crime under the influence of drugs?

The majority of the respondents 52% denied and stated that they are not committing crime under the influence of drugs. However, 36% respondents agreed the fact and stated that they had done criminal activity under the influence of drugs as compared to the alcohol. Considering the fact, Tindall et al. (2015) stated that the psychoactive drug increases the violence within the person, which results severe crime within the country. Thus, it can be stated that a large group of people is committing a crime under the influence of drugs.

  1. Would you repeat the same crimes again if under the influence of alcohol?

50% of the respondents stated that crime is repetitive activity and it increases the crime ratio. However, 45% respondents have been found neutral in this scenario. Only 5% respondents are disagreeing with the same. It has been identified that the usage of alcohol increases the instability of the nervous system, which can lead a person doing unwanted activities (Mitchell and Caudy, 2015). Similarly, the alcohol addicted people of Ireland are also doing domestic violence and social crime. This scenario has become a crucial problem, mitigation of which has become a mandatory parameter.

  1. Would you repeat the same crimes again if under the influence of drug?

Findings and Analysis:

The graphical representation indicates that 46% sample voters commit that this type of crime under the influence of drug would not happen anymore.  On the other hand, 25% agreed that the people would repeat the same crime and 14% prefers to be neutral with this similar fact. As per the above calculation majority of responses are opposed to repeat the drug related crime. In this current scenario, Baker and Hall (2007) cited that preventing drug consumption and promising approach towards the addicted person could help the people for do not repeating the similar crime.

  1. Do you wish to abstain from the use of alcohol?

It has been identified that 50% of the sample respondents like to be neutral regarding the wish to abstain from the use of alcohol. However, 30% of the sample respondents agreed to abstain from the use of alcohol, whereas, 20% of the sample voters did not agree with the similar fact. According to the responses majority of the sample voters prefer to be neutral to abstain from the use of alcohol. In this current scenario, Gossop (2013) stated that people do not get proper support from the family and the society to abstain from the use of alcohol. As a consequence, it has been identified that majority of the respondents are not confident towards the responses.

  1. Do you wish to abstain from the use of drugs?

It has been identified that 30% of the samples prefer to be neutral regarding the wish to abstain from the use of drugs. However, 50% of the sample respondents disagreed to abstain from the use of drugs. Only 20% respondents agreed to abstain from the use of drugs. In this current scenario, Jung and Jung (2009) identified that the Ireland government adopted a national drug strategy that help the consumers to control and minimise the drug intake for the betterment of the society. Thus, it can be inferred that the Irish people could restrict the drug consumption.

  1. What type of support do you expect from the government or other authorities to help you abstain from the use?

23% of the sample voters keep expectation from the government or other authorities that would help the consumers to abstain from the use of alcohol and drug. Whereas, 25% of the respondents do not have any expectation from the government or other authorities. On the other hand, 14% people prefer to be neutral with this similar fact. It has been observed by Ngidi (2016) that Department of Health in Ireland and social entrepreneurship have adopted several strategies to change the behaviours of the people towards alcohol and drug consumption. Therefore, it can be stated that people expect government support to control the drug and alcohol consumption.

  1. What do you think should be the strategy of the government or other authorities to control such alcohol/drug related crime?

The graphical representation indicates that 43% of the total respondents are strongly agreed with the adopted strategies taken by the government that could control alcohol and drug related crime. On the other hand, 33% of the sample voters are strongly disagreed with the adopted strategies of Ireland government for controlling the alcohol and drug related crimes. Only 24% of the respondents prefer to be unbiased with this similar fact.  As per the report of National Council on Alcoholism & Drugs Dependence the government strategies is helpful to reduce the alcohol and drug related crime in Ireland (www.ncadd.org, 2016). Hence, an inference can be drawn that strategies of the government or other administrative authorities could control alcohol and drug related crimes.

Chapter 5

Conclusion and recommendations

5.0 Introduction:

After conducting a thorough analysis on the influence of drug and alcohol consumption on the society of Ireland through the SPSS software, the inference can be drawn in the current chapter for the same. This type of inference might be helpful for reaching to a fruitful conclusion that there is significant relation between the drug and alcohol consumption with the criminal activity in the society of Ireland. Thus, it has been well established the dynamics regarding drug crime relationship in Ireland.

Linking with objectives:

Objective 1: To identify the negative impact of the drugs and alcohol on a person’s life and overall society

 From the outcomes of the questions 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 and 8, it can be inferred that this first objective has been satisfied. It has been identified the age group on which the negative impact of drug and alcohol is getting noticed. The non American and non English people are seen as mostly addicted to such drags and alcohols. The Australian citizens are not as much affected as the people of the US and the UK. Although the large number of population in Ireland is occasional drinker, still it has been noted that the addicted people must commit several criminal activities. On the other hand, Baker and hall (2007) mentioned that it has also been seen that many people take drugs and alcohol for more than 30 years. In this context, it can be mentioned that the consumption of drugs and alcohol rises with the age of the respondents. The pressure of immense work at the workplace has been found to be the reason for taking alcohol and drugs. However, it has been noticed that the teenage people are getting addicted to drugs and alcohols in the developed nations like the US, the UK and Canada. Because of such immense addiction, those people are also committing violent behavior. The criminal activities because of drug and alcohol abuse can range from the activities like driving under the immense influence of drug and alcohol, robberies, domestic violence, assaults, rape and prostitution. These negative activities are also creating massive impact on the society. The negative impact of the alcohol related crime is easily visible on the person’s life which is taking place at home specially those which are linked with the domestic abuse.  Considering the opinion of Mitchell and candy (2015), the growing trend of the home drinking also accompanied with the rise in the alcohol-related intimidation, violence and assault near and in home. There are also instances of alcohol consumption like damage to the property, noise and also the intimidating behavior. Many other criminal offences are also getting committed by young people like rape. However, the majority of the alcohol-related assaults are not reported.

 

Objective 2: To address the factors influencing the crime strength in Ireland

From the findings of the question 9, 10, 11, 12, 13,14,15,16 it can be derived that this objective has been satisfied. The findings of the analysis from these questions denote that due to overuse of alcohol and drugs, the strength of crime has reached to the level like arresting of people. Few people have also committed crime such as murder, rape, burglary or such types. On the other hand, few people have arrested because of the extensive drink/drug use and driving. The findings have also shed light on how those individuals fund for the habits and also how those people have also been turned to be violent against the family members during under special influence of drug and alcohol. There is overwhelming evidence for violence and crime committed due to alcohol consumption. There are sociological factors which are crucial for understanding why people turns to alcohol or drugs and become engaged into criminal behaviours. Few of these factors include the family, living conditions, marital status, employment and the mental health. Personality disorders, poverty, cultural and social factors and association with other users are also act as the influencing factor for the crime in Ireland. According to the view of Jung and Jung (2009), the illicit drug use and the violent crimes are also inconclusive within the population of Ireland. On the other hand, the alcohol has considered being biological factor which influences individuals in the universal way on the social behavior in those segments evidences points to the various aspects in which they react from different cross cultural studies. An approach has also been developed for social disinhibition that can define reasons of behaviour in normative prescribed manner in some cases. Alcohol can disinhibit violence is based on background factors particularly as per the situation, involvement of factors and specific relationship to one to another, and the influence of spectators. Alcohol related homicides are a resultant of diminished rationality under specific social conditions. The studies on psychopharmacology, and approaches on psychological and social perspectives of culture also act as the factor for crime through the drug abuse and alcohol consumption. The link between crime and drug exists in Ireland because of prevailing legislation which denotes as criminal offences as importation, trade in possession and majority as psychoactive substances as cited by (Lecathelinais and Miller, 2015). The psycho-pharmacological model has established the level of crime which can be committed by the drug abused people as the result of intoxicating effect.

Objective 3: To determine the relationship between alcohol and drug consumption with the crime occurring in Ireland

From the outcomes of the question 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, it can be derived that objective 3 has been satisfied. These findings have established that there is the relationship between drug and alcohol consumption with the crime occurring in Ireland. The majority of the burglary, theft or illegal trade has been found to be committed as the consequence of drug addiction. Felson and Staff (2015) addressed that the easy availability of drug has enabled the user to avoid any theft or illegal trade within the region. Thus, it can be derived that the majority of the people have consumed drugs frequently. This had caused the criminal activity because of drug abusing and alcohol consumption in Ireland. However, here, the majority of the women consumers of drug do not consume prostitution as the criminal method for earning quick money.  The model of Goldstein’s tripartite has pointed that there is the direct relation between violence and drugs in the economic compulsive, psychopharmacological and systemically way. Stimulants, barbiturates and alcohol all are primarily blamed through this model of tripartite.  The framework of Goldstein is accepted at a universal level and it defines the relationship between utilization of drug and crime. The framework is able to distinguish the utilization of drug, without involvement of individualist characteristics which could end up being the cause of a crime.  Following such framework women have as to fund their drug habits by involving themselves in prostitution. The model defines the relationships between usage and behavioral changes. In the case when a man commits a robbery for funding his drug habits, that would be considered as the main cause of crime. In another case, if a man wants to commit robbery, but uses drug to give him the courage to do so, then that would be considered as the main outcome. On the other hand, Felson and Staff (2015) identified that the alcohol usage is the root cause behind the social violence and crime in Ireland. Thus, it can be derived that alcohol usage is increasing the criminal activity among the people of Ireland. Thus crime can be related to the intoxication factor because of the change in psychopharmacological manner in context to inhibition, personality and violence which is associated with this.

Objective 4: To recommend appropriate strategies to reduce the drug and alcohol consumption within the population of Ireland

From the analysis of the question 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29 and 30, it can be derived that the findings of such analysis would satisfy objective 4. People has realised that they have done criminal activity much under the influence of drugs and alcohol in comparison to the normal state. Tindallet al. (2015) mentioned that the psychoactive drug enhances the violence in any person which results severe crime in the country. It has also been noticed that preventing the consumption of drug is the promising approach for the addicted person. But this could be helpful enough for that people for not repeating the same crime again. It is also same for the alcohol consumption. If the usage of alcohol is minimised then there would be much stability in the nervous system which would refrain the person from doing any unwanted activities. According to the responses if the people get proper support from the family and also from society, then it would be easier to be abstained from the use of both drug and alcohol. Hence, the proper support of family members, friends, and community could be vital strategic initiative to mitigate such criminal activity through the drug and alcohol abused people. According to the opinion of Jung and Jung (2009), Ireland government had already adopted the national drug strategy for helping the consumers for controlling and minimising the intake of drug for the betterment of entire society. This could be acted as effective strategy to restrict the drug consumption and minimise the criminal actions. The government and other authorities could also hold the people for changing the behaviours towards drug and alcohol. Hence, it can be derived that the government support can act as the suitable strategic initiative for controlling the alcohol and drug consumption. Considering the the report of National Council on Alcoholism & Drugs Dependence the government strategies is helpful to reduce the alcohol and drug related crime in Ireland (www.ncadd.org, 2016).  Therefore, it can be deduced that strategies of the government or other administrative authorities could control alcohol and drug related crimes.

 

5.2 Recommendations:

Awareness program against alcohol and drug use

The individual strategies can be applied to enable people for acquiring information and developing personal skills which would help them for creating positive decision in regards to the health. This kind of individual change also requires the supportive environment to make the healthier choice to be the easier choice. In generating the larger level of understanding and awareness regarding the drug and alcohol use and also misuse among Irish population, it has been identified three messages. These are guidelines for sensible drinking, avoidance of the drug and alcohol among the pregnant women and also detection of the early signs regarding alcohol dependency. In this regard, becoming sensible denotes avoiding drinking and consuming drugs to excess level on any occasion. The women who are pregnant should also be refrained from the consumption of alcohol. The occasional drink might not harm but if there is cutting out of drink totally then it eliminates any probable risk. On the other hand, it has been recognised that there is no such dividing line between alcohol dependence and alcohol misuse.  In this way if the alcohol consumption can be controlled, there is also the chance to control the alcohol related crimes like domestic violence with injury, non domestic violence with injury, violence without injury, most serious sexual crime, criminal damage.

Better prevention initiatives would ensure that public is informed better regarding danger of the excessive consumption of drugs and alcohol. Furthermore, there is also the crucial need regarding larger awareness among public regarding the symptoms about dependence on alcohol. Encouraging young people through the awareness programmes for postponing the decision of consuming alcohol and drug untill those people are mature enough for consuming both of these elements responsibly is highly recommended. Health promotion interventions also need larger level of involvement of individuals and putting focus on particular on the development of social and personal aptitude. This would empower and also enable individual for making changes in the life appropriately. Moreover, this matching of particular needs within different contexts needs careful planning.

Health education

The implementation of basic programmes regarding health, personal and social education in the schools can be helpful to promote the health awareness from the consumption of drug and alcohol. There is already National council for Curriculum and Assessment (NCCA) which develops personal, health and social education programmes for both post-primary and primary schools. The continuing and sustained efforts from education and health departments can enhance the availability for health education events in the schools. On the other hand, few schools might not implement such health education programmes as these may not be the core requirement of those schools. In regards to drugs-crime link, the majority of drug users have been found to be aged between 14 to 30, single, urban, male, still residing in parental home, having left school and from broken large families. In this regard, better education could be provided to such people regarding the drug-related health issues. Recently a prevention programme has been introduced which addressed drug use, alcohol and smoking. In non-formal sector, health education regarding alcohol and drug consumption generated through voluntary youth organisations where peoples are highly involved in fostering personal development and facilitating social education.

The family unit, siblings, parents offer the natural and valuable settings where alcohol and drug issues can be discussed honestly and openly. The parents require recognising the basic responsibility as the role models for children. By adopting sensible drinking styles as part of lifestyle are able to reinforce the positive attitudes for the teenagers and youth towards alcohol. The community actions can also be taken as the major potential to influence both environmental and social directed interventions. There are extensive and broad-based health education training within few health boards for the volunteers, semi-professionals and professionals who work massively with and in community groups. In Ireland, the employee assistance programme has been introduced for dealing with different employee related problems including alcohol use, drug abuse, stress and addiction other social welfare matters. This acts as the private sector bodies for dealing against consumption of drug and alcohol within the population of Ireland. This kind of health education would not only be helpful for minimising the consumption of both drug and alcohol but also reduce the criminal impact on the society.

Legislative changes in respect to supply of illicit drugs and alcohol:

The depart of equality, justice and law of the country like Ireland is needed to introduce various pieces strong legislation which contain crucial elements in regards to drug trafficking.  An effective co-ordinating framework is needed to be established for managing drugs policy. Although there has been 56% enhancement in the strengths of the drug units across divisional, national and district drug units. Adding to this, there are processes which are in place for supporting daily connection between local and national drug units. The availability of drugs to all aged people has become the key challenging issue for the population like Ireland. On the other hand, the density of premises for alcohol outlets had also been the major cause for violent crime such as rape, homicide, robbery and assault. Hence, regulations should also be needed to incorporate to reduce the density of the outlets licensed for selling alcoholic items. This could be helpful to minimise the alcohol-related crime including the social disorder.  On the other hand, introducing the cumulative impact policies has been intended to be helpful for minimising the crime level and social disorder which are occurring at the night time economy. The CIP can prevent the total proliferation of the licensed premises which are concentrating in the designated area through refusal of application for setting up licensed businesses for selling alcohols. It is also suggested for the development of aesthetic environment of several drinking establishments for minimising prevalence of alcohol-related violence.

The mandated warning levels on the containers of alcohols could stress more with aim for informing and reminding the drinkers that the alcohol consumption largely could result in impaired ability for driving car, birth defects and major health problems. The awareness through the label content on the drugs might also be fruitful to generate few behavioural changes against the alcohol and drug consumption. There is also a link between overall crime and alcohol pricing where the increase in prices or tax are associated with the overall reduction in crime. On the other hand, the decrease in price or tax is also linked with the increase in entire crime. Moreover, during considering the individual crime in compared to overall crime, there is the evidence which connects the violence with the alcohol price. Hence, proper regulations should be incorporate for increasing the alcohol price which would be helpful to decrease the level of entire violence.

The regulations regarding teenage access to alcohol has not yet been made at Ireland. Introduction of such scheme might be effective to discourage the drinking habit among the younger population of the society at Ireland. Moreover a national alcohol policy can be set which would implement initiatives regarding alcohol awareness. It would also be responsible for training the teachers including health professionals for displaying sensible drinking guidelines and to be refrained from drug consumption. Therefore, the government and other officials should take proper strategies which would actually bring down the drug and alcohol related crimes.

5.3 Future scope and limitations:

The present research has focussed on assessing the influence of drug and alcohol consumption over the society of Ireland in terms of crime. The consumption of alcohol and drug  have seemed to be associated with committing several crimes like assault, robberies and other domestic violence. Thus, the overall study has been conducted considering the consumption of drug and alcohol only in the society of Ireland. Therefore the outcome of the present research might not be implemented in other countries. However, the current research could be conducted on various types of countries. Adding to this, the comparative analysis could also be conducted on different categories of addiction apart from drug and alcohol. Finally such study would help the society to identify the factors which are causing the consumption of drug and alcohol, its influence towards criminal activity on the society and strategies to overcome these issues for contemporary countries.

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