What Are the Barriers of The Introduction of Electric Vehicles Into The Singapore Transport Industry?

SECTION 1 – INTRODUCTION AND CONTEXT     

1.1 Introduction

Electric vehicle has been considered to be clean alternative of traditional vehicles. In today’s era, different transport industries are trying to adopt EV or Electric Vehicle in order to maintain environmental sustainability. Main purpose of using EV is to minimize the emission of carbon gas and other harmful chemical gas that has been emitted from traditional vehicles. Adoption of Electric Vehicle would provide benefits to the transportation industry in future. However, the transport industry in Singapore has been facing some issues and barriers to adopting Electric vehicles. In this chapter, the importance of using electric vehicle along with the issues that have been faced by transport industry in Singapore will be analyzed. Moreover, research objective, aim as well as the research question and research hypothesis will be made in this chapter.

1.2 Background of study

According to the study of XU et al. (2017), Electric Vehicle has been considered to be the most popular and demanding vehicle in the transport industry. Different transport industry has been trying to adopt Electric Vehicle in order to reduce emissions of CO2 and other harmful chemical gas from the environment. In this research, Singapore has been chosen for analyzing the barriers that have been faced by the transport industry during adoption of Electric Vehicle. Governments have been facing some challenges while they are trying to improve air quality by reducing air pollution. This can only be done by transforming conventional or traditional vehicle to Electric Vehicles (Lee et al. 2017). However, it has been analyzed that the country Singapore has been trying to adopt Electric Vehicle technology in transport industry so that they could able to reduce emission of CO2 gas in the future. Therefore, the present research will analyze the factors and barriers to introducing Electric vehicles in Singapore.

1.3 Research objective

Primary aim of the present research operations is to analyze the issues or barriers in adopting Electric Vehicle in Singapore. The objective of the present research is as mentioned below:

  • To analyze the primary issues or barriers in introducing EV in Singapore
  • To evaluate and identify environmental as well as economic impact of Electric Vehicle in Singapore
  • To determine different types of issues that have been faced by the transport industry in introducing EV in Singapore market

1.4 Research question

Research questions for present research activities are as follows:

  • What are the barriers to introducing Electric vehicles in Singapore?
  • What is the environmental and economic impact of Electric Vehicle in Singapore market?
  • How transport industry in Singapore can mitigate their issues to enhance sustainability through adoption of Electric Vehicle?

1.5 Research rationale

In Singapore’s transport industry, they failed to introduce renewable energy as well as electric vehicle and that can be considered to be the primary issues due to which they could not maintain proper sustainability in environment. Based on the ideas of Morton et al. (2017), improper technology and changing equipment in transport industry may enhance the chance of air pollution. As per the land Transport Authority Data, in Singapore, only 12 electric Vehicle cars have on the road in 2016. Lack of infrastructure is another issue in transport industry in Singapore due to which they could not able to enhance the rate of EV adoption. People in Singapore did not accept in adopting EV has better technology in Singapore had not been sufficiently developed.

However, the transport industry in Singapore has been trying hard to develop their infrastructures and was able to launch new EV with longer range and developed technology. Apart from this, from 2017 to 2018 the number of EV utilization in Singapore has increased from 314 to 560 respectively (channelnewsasia.com, 2019). On the other hand, in China EV sale has been increased by 72% in 2017 and they have the largest EV market as compared to US and Europe respectively.

The EV performance in China market is observable and they have able to provide and maintain proper environmental sustainability. Apart from this, EV market in Europe has increased by 40% between 2016 and 2017 and European market has been considered to be the 2nd largest EV market (channelnewsasia.com, 2019). In context to EV market in Singapore, they have planned to invest in implementing Electric Vehicle cars but they have failed to enhance the EV acceptance among the Singapore people. The country of Singapore has also tried to reduce the intensity of carbon emission by 36% within 2030. It has been analyzed that in Singapore, land transport has contributed about 20% of carbon emission and motorized traffic has contributed to 75% of the air pollutant respectively (sciencedirect.com, 2019).

Moreover, approximately 4.3% of cars in Singapore were mild hybrid and about 614,937 registered private cars have on Singapore Street. The rate of using petrol car in Singapore Street is 92.7% and about 0.06% of cars were a plug-in hybrid. Further, it has been found that only 0.08% of cars are made up of advanced electrical technology and rechargeable batteries (businesstimes.com.sg, 2019). Hence, a comparison with the transportation industry in other countries, the country Singapore would need to focus on utilization of EV and renewable energy so that they could develop their transportation industry in Future (Refer to appendix 1).

Figure 1.5.1: Car in Singapore road

1.6 Research hypothesis

Research hypothesis of the present research work is as follows:

H0: Introduction of Electric Vehicle will create a negative impact on the transportation industry in Singapore

H1: Introduction of Electric Vehicle will create a positive impact on the transportation industry in Singapore

1.7 Structure of Dissertation

Figure 1.7.1: Dissertation Structure

1.8 Summary

Based on the entire above discussion in this chapter, it can be stated that adoption of EV would be beneficial for the transportation industry in Singapore. However, it has been analyzed that, the country Singapore has failed to implement EV in transportation industry due to a lack of advanced and proper infrastructure. Apart from this, this chapter has also outlined a comparison of the utilization of EV between Singapore and other countries. Furthermore, research aim and objectives along with research question and hypothesis of the research have been created.

In rationale, percentage of petrol care, plug-in hybrid and pure electric car in Singapore road have been analyzed. In this chapter, it has been found that Singapore has tried to reduce the intensity of carbon emission by 36% within 2030 by introducing EV. Moreover, how the country has tried to reduce carbon emissions through EV implementation has also been made in this chapter.

SECTION 2 – LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1 Introduction

Discussion of suitable literature accounts for an extensive knowledge generation in relevance to the study of electric vehicles and their adaptation in recent times. This chapter will highlight the concept of electric vehicles in the modern transport industry. Moreover, the influential factors that induce the development of EV will be thoroughly discussed. Apart from that, the impact of developing and integrating the EV in the transport industry sector in the economic and environmental degree will also be mentioned. In addition to that, suitable models and theories in relation to customer behavior in the implementation of EV will be discussed.

2.2 Conceptual framework

Figure 2.2: Conceptual framework

2.3 Factors influencing EV in Singapore

Adoption of electric vehicles relates to the reduction of diesel and gasoline. As per the views of Azadfar et al. (2015), the concept of electric vehicles has paved way for a distinction of services in the same domain as Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEVs) and Battery Electric Vehicles (BEVs) have been influential. On the other hand, Rezvani et al. (2015), viewed that the EV concept is still at a developmental phase that requires an extensive amount of work to be applicable in a wider metric.

Similarly, the factors that influence the build-up and implementation of EV in the practical world can be segmented into two forms, one in the form of internal and the other external. The internal factors are the cost of battery, driving range, purchase price and charge time of batteries whereas the external factors lie in the form of price of fuel, behavior of consumer, diversity of vehicles, policies, distance of travel (Nian et al. 2019). Moreover, the mechanism of EV operations is more complex than it seems as it depends on extensive set of elements that hinder the overall process of EV integration.

2.3.1 Internal factors

Figure 2.3.1: Internal factors

(Source: Influenced by Xue and Gwee, 2017)

Battery cost and purchase price: EV makes use of battery components that are usually very expensive on their own. According to the views of Xue and Gwee (2017), EV comprises of battery units that cost almost half the price of the total unit thereby impacting the application of the same from an economic viewpoint. However, Ziemann et al. (2018) stated that the hybrid electric vehicle offers as an alternative to EV as it uses a dynamic ICE system to account for battery and fuel usage in a dyadic manner. Moreover, the use of modern technology and application of advancements across EV, HEV, PHEV and BEV indicate that adoption degree has increased in a global metric. While in Singapore, the purchase price of EV seems to be rather upwards as the transport industry is depended on importing technology and materials for battery to develop EV. Apart from that, battery maintenance over a longer period of time is a hectic process that derails the implementation of electric vehicles. 

Driving range and infrastructure: The inception of EV back in 2011 on a global scale, the prices of vehicles has dropped in a significant manner. According to the study by Hao et al. (2017), range of BEV has been poor that has influenced customers in a negative manner. In contrasting views, Cano et al. (2018) stated that PHEV offers a flexible medium of services that have become popular among the customers. On that note, it is observed that the poor driving range of EV acts as a detrimental factor in the adoption of EV. In relation, lack of proper technology and infrastructure in Singapore transport industry limits the development of EV and thereby hinders the testing of the same over a track. 

Time for charging: In comparison with the driving range, the charging time is less disadvantageous. Moreover, the charging time can vary depending upon the built-in configurations of the EV. Apart from that, charging time is interrelated with the cost of vehicles and batteries.

2.3.2 External factors

Figure 2.3.2: External factors

(Source: Influenced by Zubi et al. 2018)

Price of fuel: Fuel prices in a specific region usually affect the application of a new set of products and services. As per the study by Zubi et al. (2018), the surge in fuel prices accounts for the immediate implementation of electric vehicles. On the other hand, Ziemann et al. (2018) opined that the variations in fuel prices across the geographic regions make the credibility of modern electric vehicles less significant. Similarly, fuel prices in Singapore are cheap compared to other nations with the diesel price at S$1.86 that has hindered the development of EV to some extent.

Consumer behavior: Lifestyle, income and thinking induce the need for change among the customers to change from a traditional vehicle to a battery-powered EV. Likewise, it is observed that the environment-friendly nature of individuals and green approach relates to better adoption of EV. As per the data reports of Land Transport Authority (LTA) data, Singapore boasts of 614,937 registered private cars among which 92.7 % make use of petrol, 4.3% HEV and 0.06% PHEV along with 0.08% pure electric vehicles (Sregantan, 2018). In contrast, the adoption has been significant in other countries such as the USA as the internal factors aid the development of EV. (Refer to Appendix 2)

Charging stations: An essential element of implementing the services of electric vehicles is identified as the charging stations. The number of charging stations indicates the overall adoption of EV. On that note, lack of mass adoption of EV in Singapore has made the build-up of charging points rather stagnant thereby creating barriers in the induction of the services in Singapore transport industry

2.4 Impact of EV on Singapore transport industry

Electric vehicles make use of modern infrastructure and newer technological inputs. The core impact of the EV adoption lies in the economy and environment of the Country as they are shifted dramatically with the change of services in transport business (Dominković et al. 2018). Similarly, the EV will have an impact on the energy metrics as well.

Figure 2.4: Impact of EV

(Source: Influenced by Ziemann et al. 2018)

2.4.1 Economic impact

In Singapore, 92.7% of the entire transport chain makes use of petrol. Implementation of EV in an extensive manner would reduce the rising need for natural fuel thereby delaying the process of resource depletion. Moreover, the build-up process in channeling a seamless transition process from gasoline to electric vehicles would require an extensive amount of support from the Government. Likewise, the initial development cost would be high for the EV whereas the sequential adoption would reduce the cost to some extent (Jiao and Evans, 2016). However, the cost of fuel has been relatively low in Singapore thereby relating to the fact that EV adoption may not be economically beneficial for transport organizations and car manufacturers in Singapore. This has acted upon the lesser adoption of EV in Singapore and has curved a barrier for the manufacturing firms in Singapore thereby holding back the idea of EV adoption in a larger demographic. Apart from that, the tax mounted from gas stations and other associates would get affected by EV implementation across a large scale thereby putting the economic infrastructure of Singapore at risk.

2.4.2 Environmental impact

Figure 2.4.2: GHG emissions and transport industry contribution

(Source: nccs.gov.sg, 2019)

EV and environment are interlinked with each other as the former has an enormous amount of positive effect on the latter. Sequentially, the core basis of bringing about the concept of EV and thereby adoption of the same has been to channel an eco-friendly transport system thereby influencing a greener approach (Lee et al. 2017). Moreover, the emission of greenhouse gas (GHG) decreases significantly with the implementation of EV. As for Singapore, it contributes 0.1% of global emissions and the carbon intensity index registers the country at the 123rd position in terms of CO2 emission (nccs.gov.sg, 2019). The 14.5% contribution of expected CO2 emissions by the end of 2020 can be changed drastically with the EV implementation in a large metric across Singapore. Similarly, the lower pollution levels would benefit the health of individuals and create an eco-friendly environment.

2.6 Literature gap

An ample amount of observation has to lead to the idea generation that behavior of customers and response of the same accounts for the successful implementation of EV. The narrative research from a wide array of articles and journals indicate that there are numerous factors that influence the development of EV whereas the impact of EV upon the environment and economy has found to be rather significant. Despite that, the lack of evidence in regard to the development of EV and thereby applicability of the same has made the research work restricted to some degree. Furthermore, there were no significant gaps that paved the way for the successful development of research.

2.5   Theories and model

2.5.1 4P theory

4P model is used by the marketers for launching any new product in the market. Mostly this theory is used for targeting the market and the population. As mentioned by Fan et al. (2015), 4P of the marketing mix refers to the product, place, promotion, and price. In the case of Singapore transport market, the introduction of the EV will be changing the major parts of the transport industry. However, in the study, the dependable variable will be the satisfaction of the market requirements and the independent variable will be the features that will be impacting on customer satisfaction. The price of the product and the price of the product are proven to be the most important independent variable which is required to be taken care of. The brand image is also an important factor that is analyzed by the customers before taking the buying decision.

Figure 2.5.1: 4P’s of marketing

(Source: Fan et al. 2015)

As mentioned by French and Russell-Bennett (2015), the population of Singapore is mostly dependent on the diesel and petrol vehicles which have efficient performance compared to the EV. Apart from that, the most important role of a product is to showcase the affordable price with better features, in case of EV electrical vehicles are not that many features as per the price, the product will surely benefit the environment but the promotional strategies are required to be stronger for being effective on the customer perceptions.

It is also important to mention that the organization is required to target a separate age group and workgroup for their promotion. As mentioned by Išoraitė (2016), proper promotion requires a suitable place for getting a better response to the promoted product. The marketers are required work on their marketing skills for getting a better understanding of the demands of the market, and implement the qualities as per the requirement, with the help of this process the customer behavior manipulation will be getting effective and also the market entry of the electrical behavior will be

2.5.2 Theory of reasoned action

As mentioned by Farah (2017), in order to promote and launch a new product in the market, the consumer and the customer behavior analysis is the most significant variable. The decision making of the consumer is the most important aspect that is required to be controlled with a better feature and also the better improvements in the product. In the case of the Automobile industry, they are required to showcase features like mileage, comfort, and others. These features are proven to be effective in attracting the intention of the customers. The technological advancement is an important factor that is considered as the independent variable. The implication of EV will be impacting on the customer decision and also the industry requirements.

Figure 2.5.2: Reasoned action

(Source: Farah, 2017)

The effective promotion and marketing will be enhancing the Attitude of the customer towards the product and also the subjective norms are an important aspect which controls the intentional behavior of the customers. The intentional behavior will be an important element which will be working as a decision making capability for the customers. The big organizations like Tata, Tesla, and others have employed proper marketing strategies through product development and product designs. The automobile organizations are required rt5o give special importance on the design of the EV which will be ensuring the possibility of manipulating the customer behavior.

As per the view of Barnes and Mattsson (2017), with fulfilling the demand of the population, the market entry and stability can be ensured for the better results. The product launch success is fully dependent on the wide acceptance of the product in the market. The effective design and characteristics of the product are required for any product launch. Apart from that, as mentioned by Sovacool (2017), the R&D department of the EV will require extending their research on the EV and increase the efficiency of the vehicle, mostly the fuel efficiency is required to be enhanced for the better results in terms of market entry.

2.5.3 Consumer Behavior

The consumer behavior theory provides a brief discussion of the customer analysis and prediction power which they use for decision making. On the context of buying a new product from the market, the customer behavior is relatable with the 4P of marketing namely, price, product, place, and promotion. Apart from that as per the view of Ashley and Tauten (2015), the customers use the product price and features before involving any decision for buying the product.

Their analysis is also dependent on the better product feature and on the basis of that the pricing of the product. Through the analysis of the above factors, the weakness of customer behavior can easily be predicted, which is used by marketers to introduce the strategies. However As discussed by Anker et al. (2015), the change in customer behavior indicates the change requirements in customer behavior. The important role of the improvements is to attract consumer attitude towards the product. In that context, the customer demand for the product feature is required to maintain for better results.

Figure 2.5.3: Consumer Behavior

(Source: Ashley and Tuten 2015)

As per the theory of customer behavior, the EV in the Singapore market can only be introduced by increasing the key features that customers look for in the vehicles. Apart from that, it is also important to get familiar with the market turnover and the market trends. The brand image is also considered as an independent which drives customer satisfaction.  As per the statement of Zhang and Benyoucef (2016), the market trends are mostly dependent on consumer demands.

In the context of EV capability of fulfilling the requirements of the market is the dependable variable which changes with the product features and also the brand image is an important factor to be considered in the context of EV. With considering the dependent variable the customer behavior can be manipulated and the decision-making power of the customer can be changed with the betterment of the product features. However, with the implementation of this theory, the management body of the EV organizations will be getting a better understanding of the required improvements to be done for introducing the EV in the Singapore market.

2.5.4 3 overlapping-circle models of sustainability

The sustainability for the vehicle is an important factor to be considered. The 3 overlapping sustainability models refer to the three important factors namely economic, society and the environment. As mentioned by Dushenko, Thærie Bjorbæ and Steger-Jensen (2019), the effective contribution of the three aspects decides the contribution of any product towards sustainability. In the case of the automobile industry, the maintenance of environmental sustainability is a very important aspect. Depending on the mindset, the organizations are required to prefer to make importance as per the Circles. In case of EV, it can be said that the organizations have given their most of the importance to the sustainability circle. In the study, sustainability has been considered as the independent variable. However, organizations like Tata and Tesla have given special attention to the price and branding of their product which drives the customer attention.

Figure 2.5.4:3 overlapping-circle model

(Source: Bjorbæ and Steger-Jensen, 2019)

As mentioned by Simonofski et al. (2019), the economic circle is the most important aspect that drives the positive consumer attitude towards the product. The automobile industry wills are surely beneficial if the EV considers both the economic circle and the Sustainability circle in their product. Customer behavior can also be influenced by economic behavior.

2.7 Summary

This particular section has put emphasis on the development of EV and thereby adoption of the same in the transport industry market in Singapore. Moreover, the section has outlined the factors that affect the development of EV in a critical manner. Likewise, the impact of electric vehicles on the Country economic as well as the environment has been critically discussed in this section. Apart from that, the 4P marketing mix concept, reasoned action theory and consumer theory have been discussed in relation to dependent and independent variables. Furthermore, a gap in the literature has been identified to accommodate an even better form of research in future.

SECTION 3 – RESEARCH, DESIGN & METHODOLOGY

3.1   Introduction     

Introduction of EV in the Singapore market will be impacted directly on customer behavior and also the industrial factors. It is evident that many debates have come across on this context. The proper research methodology will be showcasing the proper concept of the study broadly. A clear structured methodology has been used for this study. This chapter has been aimed to showcase the research strategies and the data collection methods that have been considered for the study.

3.2 Research philosophy

Figure 3.2: Research philosophy

(Source: Influenced by Fletcher, 2017)

Research philosophy is referred to as the researcher’s thought that mainly focus on collecting relevant, necessary and new information related to the research activities. As per the view of Fletcher (2017), research philosophy is the way in which researchers used to collect all the relevant data required for their research operations. Research philosophy can be categorized into different types and proper selection of the research philosophy would create significant impact on the overall research activities.

Positivism in research philosophy mainly focuses on the natural circumstances that include their relations and properties. On the other hand, realism research philosophy focuses on independence from human mind on reality (Madina et al. 2016). Interpretive research philosophy used to involve research during collection of relevant data in order to interpret those research-related data. Interpretive research philosophy mainly associated with a group of diverse approaches such as phenomenology, hermeneutics, and social constructivism.

In these present research activities, interpretive research philosophy would be used. The reason behind choosing interpretive research philosophy is that the present research activities will need to focus on the barriers and challenges in introducing EV in transport industry in Singapore. Apart from this, in case of qualitative data analysis, interpretive research philosophy would help to gather all the important and necessary data related to the research activities. In order to analyze the present state, as well as EV market growth in Singapore market, interpretive research philosophy would be beneficial as it focuses on integrating human interest (Meyer, and Morin, 2016). Therefore, research philosophy namely interpretive would be chosen in order to analyze and complete the present research operation successfully.

3.3. Research approach

Figure 3.3: Research approach types

(Source: Influenced by Fletcher, 2017)

According to the study of Ramlo (2017), the research approach mainly represents procedure or plan for each step and the details of data interpretation, analysis, and collection respectively. Data interpretation and data analysis have an important part in research activities; this research approach for this research operation would be selected based on the depth and broadness of the topic. Based on the study of Pelletier et al. (2016), research approaches can be split into abductive, deductive and inductive approaches. Deductive approach mainly focuses on the existing theories and assumption while inductive approach refers to the new assumption. On the other hand, abductive approach used to provide some interest and new facts which would help to analyze the research activity in an effective manner.

Hence, for the present research activities, abductive, as well as inductive approach of the research approach would be selected for completing the present research operation in a systematic and effective manner. Apart from this, it can be stated that inductive approach will enable the researcher by proving data, stats, and information about the present EV market situation in Singapore. Inductive approach will also help to analyze and identify customer’s perspective relate to price and their choices in a more significant way. Moreover, abductive research approach would be beneficial for this research activity as it would help to analyze the emerging technologies, techniques, and methods related to EV. This approach would help to analyze techniques that would be beneficial for Singapore during adopting EV in transportation industry.

3.4 Research design

As per the view of Ngulube (2015), the term research design can be defined as appropriate methods that help in analysis and collecting data through specific measurements of variables in specific research activities. Research design even helps to maintain a systematic flow in research work in an effective and efficient way by implementing an appropriate framework. Research design can be of descriptive explanatory and exploratory design. Explanatory research design has been chosen for developing a business plan in a strategic way (Mayer, 2015). Additionally, research design namely descriptive used to prove plans and systematic design in order to proceed with the research work smoothly. In order to make conclusive research work, explanatory research design can be used.

Figure 3.4: Research design

(Source: Influenced by Fletcher, 2017)

Hence, for this research work, descriptive design for research would be chosen. This research design would help by providing an overview of the overall area of the research quickly. In case of introducing EV in the Singapore market, the above-chosen design would be beneficial as it would help to understand perspective related to the customers, people, market statistics (Johnston, 2017). This design approach would also help to analyze the factors that influence EV adoption in Singapore. Moreover, explanatory design would not be selected for this research work as a compliment in the research activities is not focus as depth concept in analysis of research variables. Further, descriptive design for research would also help to proceed with the topic in an effective and appropriate manner. In case of EV explanations, descriptive design would help to analyze the growth rate, market size, and perspective of the people related to EV based on which exact and accurate research analyses can be made. Furthermore, this research design would also provide exact data, stats, related to acceptance of EV among Singapore’s people in a more accurate and appropriate way.

3.5   Method of data collection

The secondary research method has been used for conducting the research along with the primary method. As mentioned by Braun, et al. (2019), the primary research method refers to the interviewing and surveying process. On the context of Primary research methodology the survey to 51 employees who work in the transport organization. Their statement was very important to understand the main barriers to introducing EV. Apart from that 3 managers were also interviewed as per the requirement of the primary research method. 

On the other hand, the secondary research method was also considered for the study where the journals of the authors and the articles were mentioned. The effectiveness of the research has been increased with the help of the websites of the automobile organization. The authors have discussed many aspects of their journals and articles. Apart from that employees were thoroughly surveyed the questions were asked to have the capability to showcase all the important aspects that are required to be considered to discuss the factor of the barriers. The employee interview showcased the improvements that are being constantly made on EV. As per the discussion of Pelletier et al. (2016), the effective way of attracting the customer is to fulfill the demands through the improvements.

3.6   Data analysis          

As mentioned by Fletcher (2017), the data analysis provides effective collection through the data that have been extracted during the period of data collection. The data are mostly related to the factors that have come across through the research work.  There are some major process and events that have been considered in the study for a better understanding of the factors. However, SPSS tool has been used in analyzing the data and facts that have been gathered from the Interview. As discussed by Medina et al. (2016), effective data analysis is helpful in understanding the main challenges and opportunities of the study. The excel sheets and the other microsoft6 tools have also been used in analyzing the gathered data.

3.7 Research limitation            

All the aspects of the automobile industry have been included in the study. As per the view of Meyer and Morin (2016), there are mostly two research methodologies that are used in collecting the data. In this study, both methods have been considered for the research. However, the paid journals were not accessed at the time was limited and also the presence of primary research limitation did not require the extra expenses on the paid journals. However, for the short budget set, the employees were not properly surveyed and most of the employees rejected the survey. However the interview of the managers was taken, but the question had few limitations which were required to be maintained.

The managers were asked questions in the limit, and the designs of EV were not asked which had been given a better understanding of the topic. These were the main limits of the research which were not assessed for the short budget and the short period of time. As per the view of Mayer (2015), the qualitative research method is the most effective in showcasing the facts and also it contributes to better research performance.

3.8   Ethical consideration

The data collection laws were considered while the research was being conducted. The maintenance of the terms and conditions were included during the research. As discussed by Kerber (2016), during the data gathering period, no discrimination of gender, sex or religion should be included. Perhaps the importance will be given to all the employees who have been surveyed. As opined by Boban (2016), The Data Protection Act 2012 has been maintained during the research, which advanced the protection and maintained the private data of the organization. No personal information of the interviewees was disclosed and all the samples were destroyed after the research was complete. However, no potential harm was made to the participants of the research and the surveyed candidates were not involved in the research work.

3.9   Timeline 

Figure 3.5: Research timeline

(Source: MS project)

3.10 Summary      

From the above chapter, the used research method was discussed in brief. The effective role of the research was the surveying and the interviews which cleared pout the concept of the topic. Apart from that, the primary-secondary both methods were taken fo4r consideration as the topic requirement was to understand the brief.

SECTION 4 – RESULTS, ANALYSIS AND EVALUATION OF FINDINGS

4.1   Introduction

The incorporation of both the primary and secondaryforms of data is significant for the research work to generate a valid outcome. The implication of the quantitative method has been helpful to evaluate the primary data obtained by conducting interviews of three Human Resource Department (HRD) managers and employees of automobile industries in the region of Singapore. The secondary data has beengathered through the qualitative method from surveys from mass media, journals and online sources based on the market entry strategies of the EV (Electric Vehicles) in the market of Singapore. The thematic analysis based on online journals helps in the validation of the information obtained from the interviews.

4.2   Primary data collection

4.2.1   Primary quantitative

Statistics
  Q1. Do electronic vehicles satisfy the market requirement of the transport industries? Q1. Do you agree that electric vehicles can deliver a similar output as the vehicles that run on fuel for the transport industry of Singapore? Q2. Do you think that the implementation of the electric vehicle will create a positive impact on the financial condition of the transport industries? Q3. Could the sustainability of the transport industries evolve through the incorporation of electric vehicles in the market of Singapore? Q4. Do you think that the brand image of the transport industries will improve through the utilization of electric vehicles? Q5. Does the incorporation of electric vehicles in the transport industries would cause technological advancement in Singapore? Q6. Do you think that the introduction of EV aid in cost reduction and economic growth? Q7. Do you agree that the consumer purchase decision for buying vehicles are affected by the launch of EV?
N Valid 51 51 51 51 51 51 51 51
Missing 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
Mean 1.65 2.02 2.76 1.75 2.63 1.65 2.22 1.51
Median 2.00 2.00 3.00 2.00 3.00 2.00 2.00 2.00
Mode 1 1 4 0 4 0 4 0
Std. Deviation 1.230 1.349 1.394 1.468 1.455 1.412 1.460 1.332
Minimum 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Maximum 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4
Table 4.2.1.1: Statistics of the Dependent and Independent Variables

(Source: SPSS)

The mean of the first question based on the dependent variable (DV) of the research has been evaluated to be about 1.65. This justifies that the maximum number of employees agrees to the fact that the production of EVs (electronic vehicles) will satisfy the market requirement of the transport industries.

The fourth question regarding the independent variable (IV)has been evaluated with a mean value of 2.02. This implies that the maximum number of employees among the total respondent of fifty-one were not sure about the fact that the EVs can deliver similar output levels as the fuel consuming automobiles, as various developments in the energy source of the batteries can help to improve the performance of the EVs.

The median value of the initial question based on the DVof the research has been evaluated to be around 2.00. This confirms that the maximum number of employees is not sure about the fact that the production of EVs will satisfy the market requirement of the transport industries as the recent incrimination of the fuel prices can pose to be a viable opportunity to the market of EVs in the Singapore region. The median value of the second question regarding the IVhas been evaluated with a mean value of about 3.00.

This implies that the maximum number of employees disagrees to the fact that implementation of the EVs will create a positive impact on the financial condition of the transport industries.  The standard deviation of the primary question based on the DVof the research has been evaluated to be around1.230. This determines the variation of the mean value among the employees is substantially divergent based on the market satisfaction level regarding the production of the EVs.

Case Processing Summary
  N %
Cases Valid 51 98.1
Excludeda 1 1.9
Total 52 100.0
a. Listwise deletion based on all variables in the procedure. Table 4.2.1.2: Case Processing Summary (Source: SPSS) The production of the EVs will improve the economic condition of the Singapore region as the validity of the case has been mentioned to be about 98.1%. The information from about fifty-two respondents had been included initially but among them, fifty-one respondents have helped to deliver the viable answers based on the market entry of the EVs.
Reliability Statistics
Cronbach’s Alpha N of Items
.989 8
 Table 4.2.1.3: Reliability Statistics

(Source: SPSS)

The Cronbach Alpha has been obtained to be 0.989. This refers that the internal consistency is strong.  This implicates that the items possess a high internal consistency.

Model Summaryb
Model R R Square Adjusted R Square Std. Error of the Estimate
1 .967a .935 .925 .337
a. Predictors: (Constant), Q7. Do you agree that the consumer purchase decision for buying vehicles are affected by the launch of EV?, Q2. Do you think that the implementation of the electric vehicle will create a positive impact on the financial condition of the transport industries?, Q1. Do you agree that electric vehicles can deliver a similar output as the vehicles that run on fuel for the transport industry of Singapore?, Q5. Does the incorporation of electric vehicles in the transport industries would cause technological advancement in Singapore?, Q6. Do you think that the introduction of EV aid in cost reduction and economic growth?, Q4. Do you think that the brand image of the transport industries will improve through the utilization of electric vehicles?, Q3. Could the sustainability of the transport industries evolve through the incorporation of electric vehicles in the market of Singapore?
b. Dependent Variable: Q1. Do electronic vehicles satisfy the market requirement of the transport industries?
Table 4.2.1.4: Model Summary

(Source: SPSS)

The R Square factor determines the relationship between the independent and the dependent variables of the research. The R Square factor has been evaluated to be about 0.935 in this case. The DV can be reinstated to be the market requirement of the transport industry and the IV of this research are the impacts on customer behavior and the benefits of the transport industries in the Singapore region. Hence, it can be reinstated that the IV can clearly explain the variations among the DV.

                ANOVAa
Model Sum of Squares df Mean Square F Sig.
1 Regression 70.764 7 10.109 89.026 .000b
Residual 4.883 43 .114    
Total 75.647 50      
a. Dependent Variable: Q1. Do electronic vehicles satisfy the market requirement of the transport industries?
b. Predictors: (Constant), Q7. Do you agree that the consumer purchase decision for buying vehicles are affected by the launch of EV?, Q2. Do you think that the implementation of the electric vehicle will create a positive impact on the financial condition of the transport industries?, Q1. Do you agree that electric vehicles can deliver a similar output as the vehicles that run on fuel for the transport industry of Singapore?, Q5. Does the incorporation of electric vehicles in the transport industries would cause technological advancement in Singapore?, Q6. Do you think that the introduction of EV aid in cost reduction and economic growth?, Q4. Do you think that the brand image of the transport industries will improve through the utilization of electric vehicles?, Q3. Could the sustainability of the transport industries evolve through the incorporation of electric vehicles in the market of Singapore? Table 4.2.1.5: ANOVA (Source: SPSS) The DV can be reinstated to be the market requirement of the transport industry and the IV of this research are the impacts on customer behavior and the benefits of the transport industries in the Singapore region. The regression factor displayed a significant rate of about 0.000. Hence it can be reinstated that the IV is affecting the DV considered in this research.                “““““““““““Coefficientsa Model Unstandardized Coefficients Standardized Coefficients t Sig. Collinearity Statistics B Std. Error Beta Tolerance VIF 1 (Constant) .181 .126   1.438 .158     Q1. Do you agree that electric vehicles can deliver a similar output as the vehicles that run on fuel for the transport industry of Singapore? .314 .144 .344 2.177 .035 .060 16.671 Q2. Do you think that the implementation of the electric vehicle will create a positive impact on the financial condition of the transport industries? -.057 .163 -.065 -.350 .728 .044 22.697 Q3. Could the sustainability of the transport industries evolve through the incorporation of electric vehicles in the market of Singapore? -.325 .189 -.388 -1.719 .093 .030 33.863 Q4. Do you think that the brand image of the transport industries will improve through the utilization of electric vehicles? -.147 .167 -.173 -.877 .385 .038 26.019 Q5. Does the incorporation of electric vehicles in the transport industries would cause technological advancement in Singapore? .488 .182 .560 2.674 .011 .034 29.177 Q6. Do you think that the introduction of EV aid in cost reduction and economic growth? .306 .147 .364 2.084 .043 .049 20.295 Q7. Do you agree that the consumer purchase decisions for buying vehicles are affected by the launch of EV? .304 .138 .330 2.197 .033 .067 14.982 a. Dependent Variable: Q1. Do electronic vehicles satisfy the market requirement of the transport industries? Table 4.2.1.6: Coefficients of the independent and the dependent variable (Source: SPSS)

Based on the analysis of the coefficients of the IVregarding the incorporation of electric vehicles in the transport industries have unstandardized coefficients value of 0.488. This implicates that it will cause technological advancement in Singapore. The unstandardized coefficients value based on the introduction of EV aiding in the cost reduction and economic growth of the region has been factorized to be about 0.306. Hence, it can be mentioned that the introduction of EV will aid in the cost reduction and economic growth of the region. The unstandardized coefficients value based on the consumer purchase decisions for buying vehicles being affected by the launch of EV has been mentioned to be about 0.304. Therefore, it can be reinstated that the consumer purchase decisions for buying vehicles will be affected by the launch of EV.

Correlations
  Q1. Do electronic vehicles satisfy the market requirement of the transport industries? Q1. Do you agree that electric vehicles can deliver a similar output as the vehicles that run on fuel for the transport industry of Singapore? Q2. Do you think that the implementation of the electric vehicle will create a positive impact on the financial condition of the transport industries? Q3. Could the sustainability of the transport industries evolve through the incorporation of electric vehicles in the market of Singapore? Q4. Do you think that the brand image of the transport industries will improve through the utilization of electric vehicles? Q5. Does the incorporation of electric vehicles in the transport industries would cause technological advancement in Singapore? Q6. Do you think that the introduction of EV aid in cost reduction and economic growth? Q7. Do you agree that the consumer purchase decision for buying vehicles are affected by the launch of EV?
Q1. Do electronic vehicles satisfy the market requirement of the transport industries? Pearson Correlation 1 .932** .837** .935** .852** .952** .923** .942**
Sig. (2-tailed)   .000 .000 .000 .000 .000 .000 .000
N 51 51 51 51 51 51 51 51
Q1. Do you agree that electric vehicles can deliver a similar output as the vehicles that run on fuel for the transport industry of Singapore? Pearson Correlation .932** 1 .885** .952** .921** .938** .942** .929**
Sig. (2-tailed) .000   .000 .000 .000 .000 .000 .000
N 51 51 51 51 51 51 51 51
Q2. Do you think that the implementation of the electric vehicle will create a positive impact on the financial condition of the transport industries? Pearson Correlation .837** .885** 1 .869** .971** .851** .939** .863**
Sig. (2-tailed) .000 .000   .000 .000 .000 .000 .000
N 51 51 51 51 51 51 51 51
Q3. Could the sustainability of the transport industries evolve through the incorporation of electric vehicles in the market of Singapore? Pearson Correlation .935** .952** .869** 1 .891** .979** .941** .958**
Sig. (2-tailed) .000 .000 .000   .000 .000 .000 .000
N 51 51 51 51 51 51 51 51
Q4. Do you think that the brand image of the transport industries will improve through the utilization of electric vehicles? Pearson Correlation .852** .921** .971** .891** 1 .869** .942** .873**
Sig. (2-tailed) .000 .000 .000 .000   .000 .000 .000
N 51 51 51 51 51 51 51 51
Q5. Does the incorporation of electric vehicles in the transport industries would cause technological advancement in Singapore? Pearson Correlation .952** .938** .851** .979** .869** 1 .930** .959**
Sig. (2-tailed) .000 .000 .000 .000 .000   .000 .000
N 51 51 51 51 51 51 51 51
Q6. Do you think that the introduction of EV aid in cost reduction and economic growth? Pearson Correlation .923** .942** .939** .941** .942** .930** 1 .919**
Sig. (2-tailed) .000 .000 .000 .000 .000 .000   .000
N 51 51 51 51 51 51 51 51
Q7. Do you agree that the consumer purchase decision for buying vehicles are affected by the launch of EV? Pearson Correlation .942** .929** .863** .958** .873** .959** .919** 1
Sig. (2-tailed) .000 .000 .000 .000 .000 .000 .000  
N 51 51 51 51 51 51 51 51
**. Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed). Table 4.2.1.7: Correlation of the independent and the dependent variable (Source: SPSS)

The correlation coefficient determines the level of strength between two variables. As defined by Walker (2017), the correlation coefficient lies within the range +1 to -1. From the above table, it can be observed that for all the variables taken into consideration here, the coefficient is lying within the specified range. This indicates that there is a strong correlation between IV and DV. Moreover, the significance level being at 0.00 implies that the factors are strongly correlated.

4.2.2 Primary qualitative data analysis

Q1.What is the core reason behind the lack of EV adoption in Singapore?

Manager 1: As stated by one of the transport company managers, the comprehensive approach of changing from a traditional vehicle to an advanced EV depends upon the region it is implemented on. As for Singapore, the transport business lack of technological inputs and infrastructure has hindered the process of EV adoption.

Manager 2: As per the second managers’ view, the concept of EV has not well with the Singapore transport industry as the industry lacks a fundamental approach to developing the essential components of an EV. Likewise, the import costs of battery and charging units are burdensome thereby creating lag backs in EV implementation.

Manager 3: The environmental nature of Singapore, as well as the fuel prices, does not seek a quick transition to electric vehicles. The manager viewed that, uncertainty over the economic impact has made the EV introduction to the Singapore transport chain static.

Q2.What measures can be taken to channel better EV adoption in Singapore?

Manager 1: First and foremost, strong support from the governing body is necessary to account for a solid infrastructural basis for the development of EV. Apart from that, the battery cells need to be manufactured locally rather than importing them to save production cost and thereby increasing the need for electric vehicles.

Manager 2: In a similar view, the manager stated that developing an extensive chain of charging points is necessary to accommodate the practical usage of EV in the transport industry of Singapore. Furthermore, marketing needs to be considered to influence a wider segment of customers in the purchase of electric vehicles.

Manager 3: In contrasting viewpoint from the other set of managers, manager outlined that bringing about EV requires the adoption of other range of vehicles such as HEV and PHEV. This would help the transition process to BEV rather seamless than forced.

Q3.How can EV be applied to deliver a positive economic impact?

Manager 1: Low fuel costs as compared to other developing countries have influenced the questionable economic impact of electric vehicles. More or less, in order to accommodate better EV services and enhance its validity, a specific customer base in the form of upmarket customers needs to be addressed.

Manager 2: Dictating the ways by which EV impacts an environment induces the idea of generating a positive economic impact. Likewise, the policies in the transport sector need to be evaluated to accommodate positive impact in the transport business with EV.

Manager 3: Electric vehicles benefit the energy sector in an indirect manner thereby suggesting that it has measures to be a positive influence on the development of Country economy. Along with that, cost-effective measures and integrated infrastructural protocol should assist in delivering a sound economic impact.

4.3   Secondary data collection

4.3.2 Thematic analysis

Theme 1: Hybrid battery or supercapacitor energy storage system for the electric vehicles

The incorporation of EV (electric vehicles) does not deliver the optimum performance that is required by the transport industry of Singapore. According to Kouchachvili et al. (2018), the incorporation of supercapacitor storage (SCS) system can help to improve the output of the EVs and benefit the transport industries. The incorporation of the SCS in an EV can be successfully achieved through the utilization of a Hybrid Energy Storage System (HESS). The HESS can escalate the output capacity of the EV through a general modification of the energy intake of the battery. The connection of the first switch (S1) with the first diode (D1) requires to be in the proximity of the SCS. The connection of the second switch (S2) and the second diode (D2) requires to be in direct contact with the battery of the EV. This will create an exemplary circuit to supply sufficient energy for the EV to deliver the optimum performance required by the transport industry of Singapore.

Figure 4.3.2.1: HESS-fully active configuration

(Source: Kouchachvili et al. 2018)

The author has gathered secondary data through the qualitative method from three journals based on sustainable transportation for authentic information. The recent changes in the behavior pattern of the customers have viably inflicted a necessity of the transport industries to implicate changes in their vehicles. As mentioned by Enang and Bannister, (2017), various technologically advanced pieces of equipment have been incorporated in the EVsto render maximum potential outcome. However, the implementation of a HESS system in the batteries of the EVs will be sufficient to deliver the required performance levels of the transport industries in Singapore.

Theme 2: Cost projection of state of the art lithium-ion batteries for electric vehicles up to 2030

It is evident that the fossil fuel related vehicles mostly impacts on the environmental aspects which can be tackled with the implementation of the electrical vehicles. The carbon emission is the first target which is required to be mitigated. However, the extra cost of traction batteries is the main aspect which has been discussed in the journal. The main objective of the paper has been to predict the cost of the most important chemical component (Lithium-ion) battery pack in the year 2030. The researchers have claimed that the cost of the Nickel Manganese cobalt battery might get a huge availability in the market which will ease the usage of EV. The author of the journal has considered the secondary research method for conducting the research.

From the journal, it has been evident that the NMC works as an ion which involves in the chemical reaction and that chemical reaction develops the electricity. However, the unavailability of Cobalt in the market is the biggest issue for which EV is still in an introduction phase. The material pack projects as the major cost of the battery, however, the study concludes that 30% of the cost can be reduced per KWh by implementing the silicon batteries. In the case of the silicon batteries, the limit will be reached in the year 2025 and the solution of the NMC battery will be coming out within the year 2030.

Theme 3: A comprehensive study of key electric vehicle (EV) components, technologies, challenges, impacts, and future direction of development

In the case of the transportation industry, the usage of the electric vehicle and the fuel cell EV is getting common. The journal has been aimed to showcase the key developments that are being improved. The EV engine does not have use of the ICE or internal combustion engine. The proper contribution of technology can make EV a successful inclusion of the smart grid projects. The author has used the secondary research method for the journal where he has mentioned that the EVs can replace the conventional vehicles on the road and increase environmental sustainability. The effect of chemical reactions in the batteries does not impact on the environment and they can be reused in the Engines.

Environmental sustainability maintaining is the main motto of the current generation. The current optimization techniques have contributed to mitigating all the limitations of the EV and the future have been showcased as the possibility of growing technology where EV will be getting more common on the roads.

4.4   Summary

Based on the entire above discussion in this chapter, it can be stated that the core infrastructure of the transport industries of the Singapore region requires to be developed in order to introduce the EVs. Apart from this, the incorporation of technologically advanced pieces of equipment in the industries is viably necessary for the EVs to be produced and manufactured. However, the development of the battery units is also majorly significant to improve the performance of the EVs. In this section, it has been found that the implementation of the EVs in the market of Singapore will develop form a positive impact on the economy of the region and deliver a viable technological development in the country.

SECTION 5 – CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS

5.1 Conclusion

From the research perspective, it can be viewed that the build-up of a sound infrastructural basis for the production and manufacturing of electric vehicles helps it getting introduced to newer market places. In contrast, the demand for EV among the customers as well as the economic condition of the country also influences the EV adoption from a market and country perspective. Hence, effective assessment of the infrastructural basis of the transport industry chain along with cost-effective inputs for battery management is necessary to accommodate the successful introduction of electric vehicles. The analysis of buying behavior of customers and transport industry members highlight that keeping the costs minimal for the development of battery-powered electric vehicles and thereafter the services and maintenance charges are necessary to increase EV adoption. On the other hand, the level of environmental pollution from the transport chain as well as the lower cost of fuels such as petrol and diesel in Singapore indicates that there have been lesser needs for EV as compared to European and American markets. The response of customers influences the investment metric to pave way for manufacturing of EV and this has been thoroughly established across the research work.

The primary quantitative analysis has aided in the research as it has evaluated that technological basis would be improved extensively with the adoption of EV whereas the consumer behavior, as well as economic growth, is expected to increase as per results. Apart from that, the outcome of interview sessions has accounted for a summative indication that the core infrastructure basis and an ample amount of battery stations are required to accommodate for a seamless transition to electric vehicles. On the other hand, the demand for EV, HEV and PHEV has indicated the market share of electric vehicles is more likely to grow in the future as the vehicle costs are decreasing and charging mechanism is becoming faster. Hence, the barriers and factors can be mitigated with extensive infrastructure base and technological inputs thereby channeling better EV distribution and sales in Singapore transport chain.

5.2 Linking with objectives

Objective 1: To analyze the primary issues or barriers in introducing EV in Singapore

The first objective of the research is associated with the analysis of the primary issues or barriers that are hindering the introduction of EV in the Singapore transport industry. In the literature review section of the research, the influential factors in the form of internal and external factors isolate the application of EV in the domain of transport business. Moreover, the internal factors such as cost of battery, driving range, purchase price and a charge time of batteries and external factors like the price of fuel, behavior of consumer, diversity of vehicles, policies, and distance of travel have helped identify the primary barriers. The primary barriers are identified as lack of infrastructure and testing tracks along with high battery costs in Singapore. Henceforth, the objective has been clearly met in the literature review section.

Objective 2: To evaluate and identify environmental as well as economical impact of Electric Vehicle in Singapore

The environmental and economic impact of the EV (electric vehicle) has been mentioned in the literature review section. It has been proven that the incorporation of the EV in the transport industry of the Singapore region will effectively form a positive impact on the environment of the region. The elimination of the GHG (green house gas) emission and the nullification of the NRS (non-renewable sources) of energy consumption are the major advantages of the implication of the EVs in the transport industries. However, the insubstantial performance issues of the EVs have been proven to be viably implementing a negative impact on the economic condition of the Singapore region.

Objective 3: To determine different types of issues that has been faced by transport industry in introducing EV in Singapore market

The issues of the transport industries based on the introduction of the EVs in the market of Singapore have been presented in the research analysis and evaluation and findings section. The major issue can be reinstated to be the limited performance of the EVs and the lack of infrastructure of the transport industries in the Singapore region. Apart from that, the maximum number of transport industries in the region poses a major lack of technologically advanced pieces of equipment to produce and manufacture the EVs in the market. The importation cost of the technologically advanced pieces of equipment can viably cause the pricing system of the EVs to rise at a massive rate. This can cause a major lack of demand among the customers of the region and the industries can face a major loss in this scenario.

5.3   Recommendations

Recommendation 1: Use of renewable and rechargeable batteries for maintaining sustainability

Specific Using renewable and rechargeable batteries helps to reduce carbon emissions and helps to maintain environmental sustainability in a more systematic way. Thus, this recommendation can be considered as specific
Measurable Increased rate of utilization of rechargeable batteries would be way for measuring. On the other hand, utilization of rechargeable batteries in transportation industry can be another way in measurements.
Achievable This recommendation would be beneficial as well as achievable for transport industry in Singapore as another country has already utilized renewable and rechargeable batteries in their transport industry
Relevant After utilization of rechargeable and renewable energy other countries like China, Europe and others has able to enhance environmental sustainability and was able to reduce the intensity of carbon emissions.
Required Time About 1 to 3 years may require
Table 5.3.1: Recommendation 1

Recommendation 2: Improve and Develop infrastructure and technology

Specific Developing infrastructure helps to enhance the chance of gaining attention from customers and could able to enhance utilization of EV in Singapore effectively
Measurable Improved and increased rate of EV implementation would be measurement way.
Achievable This recommendation would be achievable for transport industry in Singapore as other countries have already developed their technology and infrastructure for increasing EV or electric vehicle implementation.
Relevant Developing technology in transport industry has been growing rapidly. Thus, this suggestion would be relevant for Singapore to enhance its chance in introducing EV.
Required Time 2 to 3 year may require
Table 5.2.2: Recommendation 2

Recommendation 3: Increase utilization rate of EV in Singapore transport industry

Specific EV technology has already been used by different other countries in order to maintain environmental sustainability and to reduce carbon and harmful chemical gas
Measurable The increased rate of EV utilization in transport industry would be the way of measurement.
Achievable It has been analyzed that other countries have already using EV to enhancing their business performance and increase sustainability. Therefore, this suggestion can be achievable for Singapore in future
Relevant This suggestion is relevant as by implementing EV other country was able to reduce air pollution by minimizing carbon emission. 
Required Time About 1 to 2 years
Table 5.3.3: Recommendation 3

5.4   Future scope

From the entire above discussion, it has been found that other different countries such as China, Europe, US, and others have been using EV in their transport industry and have able to maintain proper sustainability. It has been observed that the transport industry in Singapore does not focus on implementing EV; as a result, they failed to reduce carbon emission and other harmful chemical gas that has been emitted from petrol or traditional vehicles. This research work in future would help to analyze specific and necessary cause for which Singapore could not able to maintain sustainability in a proper way. Moreover, this research work would even help to determine how Singapore could able to resolve their issues in future.

5.5   Research limitation

There is some limitation in this present research activities due to which proper analyzing cannot be made. Time has been considered to be the most vital factors for which this research activity has been done within a specific time period. Apart from this, research activities have been done through limited resource as there is a lack of availability in resource. On the other hand, cost is another limitation of this present study. Therefore, it can be mentioned that the present research operation cannot be done properly and appropriately due to lack of resources, budget and time.

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