Antecedents to Retention among Child Welfare and Social Work Employees

Causes and Antecedents to Retention and Turnover Among Child Welfare and Social Work Employees

Description of the problem

Employee retention in child welfare and social services agencies is of great concern. The high turnover rate of these professional workers has posted major challenges to child welfare agencies and other agencies who are concerned with the welfare of vulnerable groups like the old, the sick, and the poor who need great services for this group of professionals. Social works is an academic discipline and profession whose main goal is to improve the quality of life and wellbeing of individuals, groups, community and the entire population (Abdallah, 2009).  They perform this role through direct practice, organizing the communities, policy, research, teaching, and crisis interventions. Their research and practices is always concerned with the counselling, social policy, psychotherapy, social program evaluation, and community development. Social workers are organized into local, national, regional, and global professional bodies ( Acker & Lawrence,  2009). The field in-cooperate psychology, anthropology, politics, philosophy, medicine, law, sociology, education and economics.

 Despite all these important roles social workers are expected to perform, there have been high cases of turnover among child welfare and social works employees. The retention rate is so low while the rate of people who are leaving or planning to leave the profession continues to increase day by day. Several research articles have shown that more than 43 percent of social workers in community mental health departments and 39 percent of social workers in family services are very likely to leave their jobs within the next two years (Abdallah, 2009).  The findings also reports that there is 5o percent yearly turnover rate among mental health workers at the community, and over 6o percent turnover rate each year among the general human services workers ( Acker & Lawrence,  2009). This study therefore intends to investigate the causes and antecedents to retention and turnover among child Welfare and social work employees.

Significance of the problem and the rationale of studying it

The current high employees’ turnover rate does not imply well with consistency, quality, and stability of services provided to the people who use social works and child welfare services. Turnover can have detrimental effects on staff members and clients who have remain to give and receive quality services when senior positions have been vacated and are filled with inexperienced personnel.  Moreover, high turnover rate is likely to cause mistrust of the clients to the system and at the same time can demoralized other workers from remaining or to enter into the field (Acker & Lawrence, 2009). Yet, there have been very few studies which have been undertaken to assess the causes and antecedents of this high turnover and low retention of child welfare and social works employees in different industries. In addition to that, there has been no attempt to pull the existing few studies so as to identify the major trends that are emerging in the rate of turnover of the employees (Abdallah, 2009).  This study therefore have a lot of significance in that it will investigate the causes and the precedents of high turnover and low retention of child welfare and social works employees (Mor,  Nissly & Levin, 2001).At the same time, it will pull together all the empirical studies which have been done on the same topic so as to evaluate the emerging trends in social works employees turnover so as to come up with recommendations and solutions to this problem (Thaden,  Jacobs-Priebe & Evans, 2010). Understanding the causes and the antecedents of the high turnover must be the first step for any action taken for the purpose of reducing the current high turnover rate (Mor,  Nissly & Levin, 2001).So, this study will be significantly important to the employers in the social works fields since they will be able to know the factors that motivate their workers and the factors that cause them to leave (Bride & Kintzle, 2011). Employers will understand how these factors are associated with each employee characters and the nature of the general work process over which they might have great control over.

Purpose of the proposed study

The purpose of this study is to assess the causes and the antecedents of high turnover and low retention of child welfare and social works employees. The effects of such high employees turnover rates is also going to be investigated in details by the use of peer review articles which have contents on the topic. Based on the findings of the study, a recommendation will be generated which will help curb the high rate of social works employees turnover. The recommendations from the study will be useful to the employers since it will highlight the situation on the ground and give a possible solution for the same. That is to say, the study will come up with suggestions to the solutions of ensuring high retention and low turnover of child welfare and social works employees (Acker & Lawrence, 2009). The study will use a systematic literature review in the analysis and synthesis of empirical evidence on antecedents and causes to turnover in order to identify reasons for the turn over by the employees, the grouping of those reasons and how the reasons are important in determining the employees’ actions (Mor, Nissly & Levin, 2001).

Antecedents to Retention among Child Welfare and Social Work Employees
Antecedents to Retention among Child Welfare and Social Work Employees



Numerous articles have been chosen, gathered and assessed to place more emphasis on causes and antecedents to retention and turnover among child welfare and social work employees all the articles have undergone critical review to ensure that only relevant and high quality literatures are involved in this study. This chapter provides the main content of the study. It describes the main findings from previous scholarly studies, based on the causes of high turnover and low retention of social works employees.

Summary of the previous study

The Significance of Employee Turnover

High social employees turnover have been a major problem for several decades because it interferes with efficiency and effectiveness of the deliverance of services. In 2004, a study on staff losses in family and child welfare service agencies reported that the high rate of staff turnover and low retention is always detrimental to their efforts on provision of effective social services to clients (Bride & Kintzle, 2011). The study highlighted two reasons for this effect. One, it is unproductively time consuming and costly, and two, it is responsible for the weary cycle in the recruitment, orientation, production and retention of employees in the system hence giving a bad reputation on social works profession (Bride & Kintzle, 2011). Employee turnover may also disrupt service delivery to the clients who might be in need of search services. Apart from this, such movement also demoralizes the remaining staffs who in most cases are forced to work with new incompetent personnel hence rendering the services of the social work profession to be of low quality.

Researchers group the direct cost of employee high turnover and low retention into three main categories. These are the separation cost (administration, unemployment tax, separation pay, functions related to termination, administration, and exist interviews), replacement cost (advertising job vacancy, administrative actions during the pre-employment period, exams and interviews), and training cost (job instructions and formal classroom training) (Caringi, Strolin-Goltzman, Lawson, McCarthy, Briar-Lawson & Claiborne, 2008). The indirect cost associated with high turnover and low retention of employees are more complicated and include loss or reduction on the efficiency and the effectiveness of the industry as a whole, loss of trust by the clients on the  profession, and less productivity because the new employees will require time to master their job responsibilities fully ( Acker & Lawrence,  2009).  The impact of the turnover on the client can be more detrimental since a direct care staff plays very significance role in the determination of the quality of care. This might be more severe in the child welfare agencies where children only count on the workers they regularly interact with (Abdallah, 2009).  Turnover has the possibility of causing decline of report and trust resulting into the dissatisfaction of the client with the services of that agency (Mahmoud, Douglas & Rebecca, 2010).  Turnover problems can be too much especially in agency where the quality of services delivered relies mainly on the human capital (knowledge, ability, and the skills of the employees) (Caringi, Strolin-Goltzman, Lawson, McCarthy, Briar-Lawson & Claiborne,  2008).  This can result into a negative impact on the wellbeing of families, communities, children and women who are under the social agency care (Behnke, MacDermid, Anderson & Weiss, 2010).

Cause and Antecedents to Turnover—Empirical Findings

Empirical studies of different literature indicate that there are three major causes and antecedents of turnout among the human service workers. These include (1) demographic factors including both works related and personal; (2) professional perceptions, including job satisfaction and organizational commitment; and (3) organizational conditions such as organization culture and fairness on matters of compensation in relation to diversity (Behnke, MacDiarmid, Anderson & Weiss, 2010).

Demographic Factors

Demographic factors are the most conclusive and common predictors found within literatures related to turnover. Several studies have found tenure with the organization, gender, job level, age, and education as the most significant predictors to employee’s turnover and retention within the social works profession (Skagert, Dellve & Ahlborg, 2012). Scholar argues that people with better level of education and are still young are more likely to leave the profession of social works than any other of their counterparts (Cho, Lee, Mark, & Yun, 2012). Workers who are also different from others for example being the odd one out in terms of ethnicity, sex, education, and age are more likely to leave the work and seek another job elsewhere where he or she will meet her cohorts (Abdallah, 2009).  Worth noting is the literature evidences which shows that turnover is least likely to occur among those employees from minority ethnic groups, those with better social support at home, and those with higher income (Haley-Lock & Kruzich, 2008). 

Most research finds gender and marital status as the major causative factors behind employee turnover within social works professions. However, having children at home has been found to be contributing greatly on the high rate of turnover; especially among women. Employees who are married in most cases are satisfied with their jobs and are willing to stay within their jobs without any stress (Burke & Hutchins, 2007). The unmarried colleagues are always on the search of greener pasture hence more likely to leave the job and the professions all to gather for another profession. Another significant finding is the relationship between tenure and turnover (Bride & Kintzle, 2011). Turnover rate is lower among the employees with a longer length of service than those with shorter length (Thaden, Jacobs-Priebe & Evans, 2010). Those who are employed to serve for a longer period of time are more likely to leave their works as compared to those who are employed to serve for a shorter period of time usually on contract.

The higher the level of job in the professions, the low likely an employee will quit work. Those who have higher positions are highly motivated and are less likely to leave their position as compared to those who are at lower post and feel less motivated (Cho, Lee, Mark, & Yun, 2012). (Employees at the lower rank will consider moving to other professions where they can get better posts and become more motivated. Rate of turnover is only related to the level of education for those who are employed to the middle jobs (Burke & Hutchins, 2007). This shows that those with limited education as well as those high specialized skills tend to remain in their jobs for longer period of time than those who have moderate education qualifications.

Professional Perceptions

Working conditions and the conditions of clients; like burnout in health and social service field in most cases lower the workers morale hence triggering turnover. There is evidence that emotional and psychological support from family members and friends outside the working environment can be a motivating factor towards easing the stress acquired from the work place (Emanuel & Beatrice, 2007). It is evidence that such supports are likely to reduce the rate of turnover among the employees in social work industries (Burke & Hutchins, 2007). Professional commitment to the clients or consumers who are served by that organization can be a motivating factor hence is most likely to reduce the rate of turnover (Kim, 2014). Individuals who have the vigor to serve the clients within their professions are less likely to leave their job while those with I do not care attitude are most likely to leave their work for another one (Kim, 2014).  Research findings also indicate that employees who are often in conflict between their professional values and the organizational values are more likely to quit their jobs compared to those with no such conflicting values (Caringi, Strolin-Goltzman, Lawson, McCarthy, Briar-Lawson & Claiborne, 2008). Those whom the organization’s values fit their needs and desire always find it very comfortable to remain working even if everyone is leaving.

Job satisfaction consistently predicts whether a social works employee will quit the job or remain retained. Those who are satisfied with the jobs they are doing and the positions they are holding are less likely to quit their jobs compared to those who feel not satisfied with the job (Kim, 2014). Satisfaction may vary and can relate to issues of remuneration, staff appraisal, working condition and the nature of the job (Burke & Hutchins, 2007). Several debate however exist on whether job satisfaction can really make the rate of turnover to be on the rising side and whether if any, the relationship is direct or indirect. Several authors find that job satisfaction can lead turnover since in influences the employees commitment to the work he is doing (Burke & Hutchins, 2007). Commitment of the organization has also been pointed out by several studies as a major contributor to job turnover (Chang & Huang, 2006). According to these reaches, an employee who has strong commitment to the organization will have willing of putting more effort for the success of the organization and hence less likely to plan on leaving the job.

Organizational Conditions

Child welfare and social work employees usually experience conditions of higher level of occupational stress than workers in many other settings. Studies report that workers with higher level of occupational related stress have higher chances of relinquishing their positions at job place. Some of the stress related characteristics which can make an employee to leave his job are lack of clarity in job description, overtime and work overload (Chang & Huang, 2006).  Supports from the supervisors and other coworkers are very important in increasing work retention and lowering work turnover (Mahmoud, Douglas & Rebecca, 2010). Scholars argue that workers who remain working in public social welfare system get more support from their supervisors who attend and help sort out work related problems. Perception on the justice being administered at work place can also influence the rate of turnover of the employees (Caringi, Strolin-Goltzman, Lawson, McCarthy, Briar-Lawson & Claiborne, 2008).  Employees who view the payment procedure of the organization as jus are more likely to get retained in their job compared to those who feel that the procedure is unjust and unfair.

Gaps in the available literature

These study results are in most cases conflicting with each other, something which reflect the complexity in measuring and defining the outcome constructs and multifaceted predictors as well as the varying differences within the work contexts (Thaden, Jacobs-Priebe & Evans, 2010). Until recently, studies had been examining turnover based on affixed point in time and used turnover of no turnover dependent variable (Cho, Lee, Mark, & Yun, 2012). This has however begun to change over the past few years. Many studies have used the intention to leave instead of the actual turnover as the variable outcome, leave alone including it as a variable. The reason is that, before any worker quits the job, he or she must have made a conscious decision on when and why to do so (Caringi, Strolin-Goltzman, Lawson, McCarthy, Briar-Lawson & Claiborne, 2008).  These studies have also failed to provide possible recommendations for the reduction of high turnover rate among the social works employees.  Great impacts of high turnover like reduced efficiency and effectiveness or service delivery, workers shortages, bad reputation to the clients seeking the service among others are not discussed in these studies in a convincing manner (Cho, Lee, Mark, & Yun, 2012). Moreover, there is no study which has integrated all the other research findings so as to come up with an amicable solution high turnover and low retention rate of employees of social works.

  • Conceptual framework for the proposed study
  • Statement of research questions

As the study will be carried out, it will seek to answer the questions below:

  1. What are the causes of high turnover and low retention rate of child welfare and social works employees?
  2. What are the impacts of high turnover and low retention rate of social works employees on the quality, consistency, and stability of services provided to the people who use child welfare and social work services?
  3. What are the possible solutions which should be employed by employers for the achievement of high retention and low turnover among employees in social works?


Proposed research design and data collection procedure

This study will developa systematic review research design which will be based on the secondary sources that were involved in the collection of primary and secondary data on the topic of causes and antecedents to retention and turnover among child welfare and social work employees. A systematic review research design will be selected for this study since it aims to explore the many causes of low retention and high turnover rate among child welfare and social work employees, determine the possible impacts of these as well as suggesting possible solutions to the problem (DiStefano & Cayetano, 2011). It will not be limited to any particular theory that which also emphasizes quantitative research. It is hoped that this methodology will result in insights into the causes and antecedents to retention and turnover among child welfare and social work employees. The strategy of the search will mainly focus on academic journals that will be available publicly online, for example the Journal of child welfare and social works (Chang & Huang, 2006).

Books will also be utilized for the purposes of finding meanings, shifts in trends, and other factors on causes and antecedents to retention and turnover among child welfare and social work employees. It is hopeful that these books and journal would help present a relatively exhaustive review of literature on the causes and antecedents to retention and turnover among child welfare and social work employees. A methodology that will ensure high validity and reliability of the findings will be adopted in this study. The methodology will also be described in a manner that allows duplication so as to enable validation of the study findings by other researchers.

Data collection procedure will involve entering key words like causes and antecedents to retention and turnover among child welfare and social work employees, turnover among social works employees, employee retention and turnover, and child welfare employees turn over. Only sites showing these results will be visited for further knowledge on the topic. However, the inclusion criteria will be followed to the latter and only those articles which would have utilized English language, published not older than the year 2008, and provide relevant information to the main subject which places an emphasis on the causes and antecedents to retention and turnover among child welfare and social work employees will be visited further for the purpose of the study.

  • Sampling design/ description of the proposed sample

Samples will be selected from the available secondary data which will be accessible online. Studies will be included as a sample if it meets the following criteria: If they were done in English language, if they were performed on child welfare and social works employees, employers or any other person having knowledge on social works, If simple random sample collection was used in the process of sampling, If they will be easily accessible, and are purely peer reviewed articles not older than five years. Data with randomized sampling design will be considered due to its numerous advantages over the non-randomized design as it has no bias. The most appropriate method to determine the causes and antecedents to retention and turnover among child welfare and social work employees is through the use of simple random study design. Title and abstracts of all links on the topic will be checked. Only journals which fall under the inclusion criteria will have their content retrieved and hard copies produced. Their content will be scanned to ensure that they look at the causes and antecedents to retention and turnover among child welfare and social work employees. Nothing will be accepted outside this content. Further evaluations will be carried out to ensure that the articles are appropriate enough to be incorporated in the systematic review. The key evaluation questions will be: Did they effectively answer their research questions? Was the research design appropriate in gathering valid answers to the questions? How was the validity and reliability of instruments and results? Were the results valid from the given data?  Upon gathering as many articles as possible but not less than 50, data will be reviewed from them.

  • Description of plans to protect human subjects

The study will be based on the secondary research of literature available in the public domain and will therefore not involve direct contact with human subjects. Only research findings from the previous studies will be evaluated in order to get more information on the causes and antecedents to retention and turnover among child welfare and social work employees (Shin, 2011). However, the researcher will ensure that ethical principles are adhered toduring the process of data collection. The research will be conducted by adopting a systematic research design with utmost responsibility and integrity while avoiding any form of misconduct. The research will be conducted in a way that does not violate copyright regulations of the primary sources; present a plagiarized work with redundant duplications, and report on studies with ethical insufficiency, and contravene the publication ethics and guidelines. This research will acknowledge all the sources and the individuals who will contribute in completing this project successfully. The researcher will seek for Ethical permission and approval from relevant authorities such as Databases and institutions in order to access information crucial for this study.

  • Data collection procedure and instruments

Data was collected using an assortment of search engines that offered access to various articles, abstracts, e-books and papers. Related articles were also attained via accessing the abstracts and articles obtained by using the keywords highlighted in the study. Upon getting sufficient related articles, key informations will be checked and recorded. Analysis on how demographic factors like age, sex, education,  marital status  among other this affect retention and turnover rate among child welfare and  social works employees will be done. Contribution of professional factors and organization condition on the turnout of staffs will also be examined. Impacts of high turnout of staff and possible solution suggested by each article will also be reviewed to ascertain their relevancy.

Evaluation and synthesizing evidence will be performed on the articles verified and approved for the study topic. They will be evaluated, critically analyzed, summarized, and assessed as either of low or high quality before being incorporated into thematic analysis. Quality of papers or search materials will be evaluated in accordance with merits such as designs, exhaustiveness of advancing their research objectives, implications, limitations, and findings. The research philosophy will be discussed at this stage in order to assist in deciding on appropriate database search engines, to employ while looking for search materials in consideration of key words which will be indispensable in selecting search materials. The approved search engines and scientific publications will be utilized to search for articles and abstracts accessible online in the library. Sampling and quality assessment will be undertaken in database search engines capable of accessing Google scholar,, Wiley-Blackwell, NICE, NHS, and NPSA databases for articles in the UK and the US journals. Data collection will be achieved by the use of search engines assorted by virtue of providing access to abstracts, articles, papers, and e-books. The key words also will be used to collect data from related articles attained by accessing abstracts and titles obtained as it will be highlighted in this section of the study. The key words which will be used in the study are turnover, retention, child welfare, and social works.

Tools to be used in this study include  writing materials for recording findings, computer, accessible networks, hard copy of peer reviewed articles on the selected topic as well as soft copy from the internet, search engines such as BIN, CINHAL, COCHRANE Database,,  ERIC and Google scholar. From these engines, articles with be retrieved and analyzed based on the study questions and study topic. The study will also employ books in defining meanings, establishing shifts in trends, and causes and antecedents to retention and turnover among child welfare and social work employees. The books will provide an exhaustive literature review on the impacts arising from high turnover of social works employees   on the efficiency, effectiveness and consistency of the service offered by this profession to their clients. Methodology to be adopted in the study will (as been mentioned) involves current peer review articles which have information specifically on the study topic. Books will only be consulted for definition of terms and evaluation of theories and principles. This methodology will therefore help ensure high reliability and validity of the findings. It will describe the strategy in a way that can allow duplication in order to secure validation of the findings by other researchers.

  • Plan for data analysis and use of data

All the data obtained from different articles will be reviewed to address all the three research questions.  Factors highlighted by most articles as the causes of high turnover of child welfare and social works will be thoroughly reviewed before coming up with a conclusive remarks and recommendations. During the analysis, each included article will be coded for (1) its sample size, (2) publication date, (3) whether the study reported regression or correlation coefficients, (4) the type of turnover measured by the study(actual turnover or the intention to leave), and (5)study sample( child welfare or social works employees). This is likely to result into many variables to be assessed as there is likelihood that no on predictor variable will be common to all the studies (DiStefano & Cayetano, 2011). To solve such problem, each predictor variable will be coded into one of the three main categories (demographic factors, professional factors, and organizational conditions) and will be divided into the previous mentioned subcategories. Research which involve the use of peer reviewed article as the main source of data always explore the relationship between the study quality and the results obtained in such articles. Coding will be done based on whether the sample collection of the study was randomized and also based on expertise of the subject rating so as to come up with valid findings

The main aim of this study will be to investigate the causes and antecedents to retention and turnover among child welfare and social work employees (Preston, 2009). The first group of people to benefit by using the data from this study will be the employers in child welfare and social works professions.  Different organizations are also expected to use the data from this study so as to come up with policies that ensure that the rate of employees’ retention is higher than the rate of turnover. If the recommendations in this study are adopted by social works and child welfare institutions, more employees will be retained at their work place hence ensuring consistency in the provision of services required by the clients of such institutions (Preston, 2009). Of all the possible potential users, employers will benefit more since more employers will be likely to be retained hence efficiency and effectiveness at the work place.


Expected findings

Though the findings might vary, the study expects to find that there is high association between the high rate of staff turnover and factors like job satisfaction, professional commitment, and organizational commitment. The study expects to find that the strongest cause of turnover and low retention is one’s intention to leave (Emanuel & Beatrice, 2007). Employment alternative is expected to follow at second most contributing factor while job satisfaction can come third. More specifically, employees who are unhappy with their jobs, are stressed and lack social support from work place, and faces pathetic work condition and situation are more likely to quit their job for an alternative one (DiStefano & Cayetano, 2011). The findings of this study is expected to be in the general consistence with other studies which demonstrates the connection between stress, organizational commitment, job satisfaction, and social support  and the intention and turnover rate among child welfare and social works employees (Emanuel & Beatrice, 2007). Most of the articles have highlighted intention to leave as the most cause of high turnover and so is the expectation of this study. Stress is not the most possible reason for leaving a job because it can be transferred from one work place or profession to another (Haley-Lock & Kruzich, 2008).  The category of demographic factors is not expected to be the main cause of workers turnover. As mentioned in some of the literature discussed above, gender and ethnicity is not expected to play a big role in the high turnover rate of social works employees (Haley-Lock & Kruzich, 2008).  However, they are also expected to play some significance role since most people like working where there are their cohorts. Women and members of minority and the oppressed group are high likely to quit their jobs based on dissatisfaction, mistreatment, stress, and less organizational commitment. Within this demographic category, lack of competency and job experience is likely to be the highest causer for low retention and high turnover among the employees.

  1. Application to practice, implication for future practice

The finding of this study might mean both good and bad news for managers and policy makers in the fields of child welfare and social works. The bad news could be based on the findings that employees do not always leave job because of family or personal reasons but because of excess stress they get from the employers, less job satisfaction and lack of support from the organizations managers. The good news could be in case one decides to quit a job due to his or her own intention. Here, the employer has nothing to do since intervening might result into a fruitless effort. However, if the turnover is based on condition at work place and the culture of the organization, then it is possible that both managers and policy makers can respond and correct the matter. By knowing that lack of job satisfaction, burnout, and stress are the most contributors to high turnover of employees, interventions by employers and policy makers on this particular issues will obviously be important. An example of intervention which can be done by the policy makers and managers is allowing autonomy at work place, providing additional instrument and social support to all employees, and organizing stress training for the employees on a regular basis (Perry, 2006).   Other possible interventions which can be employed by the managers include reducing workload for each employee by employing enough working staff and providing peer support groups (Perry, 2006).  Based on the finding that sometimes the intention to leave a job by an employee always make him/her to leave, supervisors and managers can resort to frequent monitoring of the employees feelings about organizational commitment and job is possible for managers to work and reverse the feelings of dissatisfaction among the employee who are contemplating on leaving the organization (Emanuel & Beatrice, 2007). Since the findings are most likely to indicate that most inexperienced workers and those with limited training always fell less in the job and are more likely to leave, it means that managers can easily reduce the rate of turnover at work place by investing more on training of the employees and at the same time employing employees with enough experience on the line of their duties. A comprehensive orientation programs, teaming of new employees with the experienced colleagues as well as forming supportive peer groups can easily help managers sought out the mess of high staff turnover.

The current existing literature on the causes and antecedents to retention and turnover among child welfare and social work employees has left very many gaps uncoveredgiven the limited amount of research that has been conducted in these fields. Some of the gaps which have not been covered by the existing literatures includes examination of variables such as multiple methods of measurement,  interaction among different causative variables, characteristics of the clients, specific job conditions, economic factors, and organization setting and structure(Giffords, 2009).   There is therefore a need of further studies which consider those different variables and analyze them in a more multiple way. Future research need to determine the strongest cause of high employees’ turnover and discover how they can be corrected.

  1. Weakness and limitation of the proposed study

The main limitation of this study is few number of articles which are going to be reviewed during data collection. In order for the researcher to accumulate even twenty studies which addresses the same topic, more and more work will have to be searched across. Getting literatures which talk of the same things is not easy. The researcher will solely rely on the findings found on the articles which might have some errors hence raising the question of validity and reliability of the study. Generalizing the findings from different articles might not be easy given the small and diverse sample size each study in the articles used. Other key sources of weaknesses are expected to rise from the individual studies. Different measures might be used to asses similar predictor variables while many authors are likely to employ measures which have not been validated. Also the problem of mono methods of data collection in that only literature review is done to obtain the findings instead of consulting with the actual human beings who are more likely to give accurate result (Giffords, 2009).  Besides that, most documents might not be easy to obtain from the internet and some sites require prior subscription before accessing any information from them. Such conditions might be relatively expensive and time consuming for the researcher. There is also need of taking caution while relying on the organization’s results since most of those results majorly rely on group or individual perceptions on the organization rather than the actual condition in the organization.


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