Arguments on the Existence of God


Religions consider God as supreme, omnipresent, and all-knowing. However, scholars have come up with various arguments have come up questioning the existence of God. While Christians and other believers, including Muslims, believe that God created the universe and, as such, they justify the existence of God to be authentic, some scholars don’t. In this case, the non-believers believe that the universe created itself. As such, the arguments based on the existence of God is divided according to scholars’ proposals, thoughts and philosophical ideas, Ontological, Teleological and Cosmological among others. Therefore, this paper discusses the various arguments that question and define the existence of God.

Ontological Argument of the Existence of God

According to (Oppy,2019), the ontological argument is a proposal in religious philosophy that explains and argues God’s existence is authentic, and it majors on reason and facts to prove the existence of God. Noteworthy, ontological argument explains and acknowledges God as supreme and perfect. Additionally, the (English Standard Version Gen 1:1) states that God’s creation was perfect and so was hence the perfect and supreme creation of the universe. In this case, the ontological argument proposes that since existence is perfect and God himself is considered perfect, God’s existence is automatically authentic and real. Additionally, the Ontological argument pushes Christians to consider whenever they decide to define the existence of God. Notably, Anselm goes further ahead to define God’s existence as conceivable when one puts their imagination in the correct spot. Hence, he considers God’s existence to be in conception. However, the ontological argument faces criticism from scholars like Kant and Hume. In this case, Kant argues that the ontological argument of God’s existence is conceivable; according to him, God’s existence cannot be established easily, as Anselm and the Ontological argument portray. In addition, Hume argues that existence is unpredictable and, as such, is God’s existence.

Cosmological Argument of the Existence of God

According to (Almeida,2018), the cosmological argument of God’s existence explains the existence of God by assessing how things occur and are to facilitate the explanation of God’s existence. In this case, the cosmological argument aims at explaining that due to the existence of things on earth, then similarly, God does exist. Also, has the assumption that everything happening does have a reason as to why it is happening, and God is the perfect explanation and illustration of why things are happening and how they are happening. The cosmological argument considers explaining God’s existence through empirical observation. Noteworthy, Kalam’s cosmological argument is based on the fact that anything whatsoever that starts to exist has a reason behind why it does exist. Additionally, in St Thomas’s cosmological argument, the reasons, causes, and motion are tracked and determined by God, explaining God’s existence. However, St Thomas’s argument is criticized that at times somethings can happen just for no reason hence that’s not a reason to confirm the existence of God. Additionally, contingency cosmological argument developed by Gottfried who states that contingent beings can never be the reason for their own existence. In this case, Gottfried states that God is the explanation for why contingent beings exist hence God truly does exist. Noteworthy, Cosmological argument of the existence of God applies both philosophical and scientific facts to explain the existence of God hence their facts are considered sensory-based. Finally, cosmological argument of God’s existence explains mysteries of God being the reason behind every being and non-being existence. Also, for cosmological argument of God’s existence the universe’s existence only has denotation and cause because of God’s existence hence the cosmological explanation.

Teleological Argument of Existence of God

According to Loke, A. (2022), the teleological argument of God’s existence is also known as the argument among the design. In this case, the teleological argument states that the universe is an example of a design. As such, a designer is credited for the universe’s design and acknowledges God as the designer, thus proving God’s existence. Following, ( English Standard Version Gen 1:3) God made the world and designed it by word of mouth hence the existence of God  and proof he is the universe designer. Additionally, the teleological argument of God’s existence focuses on the incredible, natural phenomena and structure of the universe; as such, this kind of creation could only be executed by a creative designer hence the consideration of the designer being God since they consider God to have an incredible, creative and deliberate mind. However, the teleological argument of God’s existence has limitations and critics. In this case, some of the critics state that every design has a designer responsible for it; similarly, the incredible universe design has a designer, and it is not a must that God be given credit for being the designer of the universe since there is no proof whatsoever and could even be an impersonal force who did the universe design. Moreover, another further critic states that since the universe is designed since we have no proof to show, then perhaps it is only our thoughts that think it is designed, and as such, the universe might not even be designed.


Ultimately, various arguments about the existence of God are based on every philosopher’s opinion and research as long as their research is evident and has credible facts. On the other hand, as much as proving God’s existence is iconic, we as humans still cannot have the correct facts and evidence to prove God’s existence. Despite the research in the mentioned arguments, the need for other forms to prove God’s existence is required even though finding proof is not necessary s such since believers will still believe in God’s existence even if proof is found that God does not exist.