Hypertension Awareness Project Proposal
Hypertension is among the leading killer conditions in the world as it predisposes individuals to cardiovascular diseases, which compromise the quality of life among individuals. The high prevalence rates are associated with lifestyle choices such as excessive smoking and drinking, the lack of physical activity and poor nutritional choices. Therefore, hypertension is preventable through lifestyle modifications, which can be achieved through the creation of awareness and educating the general population. To educate the participants, the project details a 4-week plan to provide education for 100 employees of a local business entity. For a budget of $50- $100, informational material will be provided to the participants to increase their knowledge of hypertension. The outcomes of the project will be evaluated through surveys that will be distributed to the participants at the end of the training period. The success of the project will depend on the responses of the participants that illustrate their retention and knowledge gained in the two weeks. The end project is expected to increase awareness of the risk and effects of hypertension. Therefore, if the project is successful, then the methods used can be applied on a community level and nationally to increase hypertension awareness.
Introduction: Statement of the Problem
The high prevalence rate of Non-Communicable Diseases (NCDs) contributes to the deaths reported globally as a result of these diseases. According to The Lancet Global Health (2018), Cardiovascular diseases (CVD), in particular, are the leading causes of deaths globally, and they represent about 50% of the Non-communicable disease. Some of the risk factors, as identified by Oussama and Mohammed (2015), include excessive smoking, unhealthy lifestyles, excessive intake of alcohol, physical inactivity, and unhealthy diets. These diseases can be prevented through healthy lifestyle choices and increased physical activity to minimize the risk associated with the disorders. Hence, this calls for extensive education on hypertension to create awareness to prevent the rates of hypertension prevalence in the world.
In their study Kirkland et al. (2018) estimate that the “National medical costs associated with hypertension are estimated to account for about $131 billion in annual healthcare expenditure averaged over 12 years from 2003 to 2014 in the United States.” Given these statistics, individuals with hypertension spend ana average of $2000 annually on medical expenses, unlike their peers without hypertension who spend less (Kirkland et al., 2018). However, there is limited education on hypertension prevention and management, which further contributes to the high rates of hypertension in the world. As stated by Daskalopoulou et al. (2015), information on hypertension control and treatment is relatively low. Daskalopoulou et al. (2015) further argue that factors such as geographical location and available resources in developing nations are linked with the awareness of hypertension; hence, the regions with inadequate resources have little investment in creating awareness on hypertension.
The high prevalence rates of hypertension create the need for increased awareness and education of the masses to control the deaths associated with hypertension. Hence, the limited information available on hypertension control and treatment created the need for the project. In the sample selected, education was provided to half of the sample, and the other half was given no education at all.
The implementation of the project will involve the education of 100 employees of a local business on the detrimental effects of hypertension and untreated hypertension. In this case, educational fliers will be distributed, and posts will be distributed for one week to increase the outreach. The first week of the project will involve the design of the poster, the 2nd and 3rd week will be used to educate the participants, and the 4th week will be used for the collection of data. The effectiveness of the project will be measured through a survey that will involve asking the participants their overall experience and the lessons learned during the research period.
The initiative is expected to create awareness of hypertension, its control, and treatment. Hence, the project will provide information to the participants that will prompt lifestyle changes, the adoption of healthy diets, and decreased consumption of alcohol and cigarette smoking. The patient, client, and community outcomes of the project is to reduce the medical expenses incurred in the treatment of preventable conditions such as hypertension. To this end, the increased awareness of hypertension will prompt lifestyle changes that will reduce the prevalence rates of hypertension and control the investment made on the treatment of hypertension patients. For the institution, the project will create the need for increased awareness of hypertension, which will prompt further investments in hypertension awareness and the creation for educational centers to provide information to the general public about the prevention and control of lifestyle-related choices such as diabetes.
Assessing the need for change
Hypertension is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular diseases, which contributes to several deaths in the world. According to Oussama and Mohammed (2015), declining rates of coronary heart diseases in the developed countries are attributed to the increased diagnosis and treatment of hypertension. However, a study by Egan, Kjeldsen, Grassi, Esler, and Mancia (2019) reveals that “by 2010, the global burden of hypertension was estimated at approximately 1.4 billion, and is likely to substantially exceed 1.6 billion by 2025. In 2016, non-communicable diseases accounted for 40.5 million or 71% of deaths globally; 17.9 million or 44% of non-communicable disease-related deaths were due to cardiovascular disease with hypertension as the leading risk factor.” Given these statistics, the prevention of hypertension is vital in the management of the disease in the world. Therefore, the project will assess the impact of providing hypertension education for two weeks to a local business entity.
Lifestyle changes in the prevention of hypertension include the reduction of overall body weight for the obese and the overweight, cessation of smoking, reduced alcohol intake, increased physical activity, and the reduction of sodium intake. As stated by Egan et al. (2019), the adoption of healthy lifestyles is vital in the prevention of high blood pressure and the management of hypertension. In this case, the adoption of healthy lifestyles contributes to decreased blood pressure and the reduced risk of cardiovascular diseases. Cessation of smoking, for instance, reduces the risk of cardiovascular diseases and prevents high blood pressure.
Weight loss and increased physical activity as a preventive measure of hypertension regulate blood pressure. According to Jiang, Lu, Zong, Ruan and Liu (2016) “obesity can result in serious health issues that are potentially life-threatening, including hypertension, type II diabetes mellitus, increased risk for coronary disease, increased unexplained heart failure, hyperlipidemia, infertility, higher prevalence of colon, prostate, endometrial, and breast cancer.” The excessive body weight, therefore, contributes to the increased risk for hypertension hence the need for increased physical activity. Increased physical exercise also helps to lower blood pressure, which is also effective in the management of hypertension. Therefore, individuals should avoid sedentary lifestyles and adopt regular exercise in their daily activities to control the risk factors associated with hypertension.
It is, therefore, essential to educate the masses on hypertension to increase awareness and prevent the number of deaths recorded as a result of these cardiovascular diseases. As stated by Ribeiro, Resqueti, Lima, Dias, Glynn, and Fregonezi (2015), the educational interventions increase the level of knowledge among the patients and contribute to the prevention of other health complications associated by high blood pressure. Therefore, educating the masses on hypertension creates opportunities for people to understand their present conditions and the treatment options available as well as increase the knowledge on the progression of the diseases and the complications associated with hypertension.
Robeiro et al. (2015), also suggest that providing opportunities for education on hypertension helps eliminate misconceptions surrounding the risk factors and contribute to effective control of blood pressures among individuals. Additionally, Robeiro et al. (2015) argue that “educational interventions can positively modify patients’ beliefs, which in turn can lead to a change in patient behavior, such as improvement in adherence to a therapy proposed by the healthcare professional and a possible effect on variables related to the disease, such as blood pressure levels.” Therefore, the awareness created is also important for patients as it affects the progression of the disease and the risk of other diseases associated with hypertension, such as strokes and heart attacks.
It is important to provide information about the risk and the adverse effects of hypertension and untreated hypertension to the masses as it contributes to the management of the disease. As stated by Zhou et al. (2019), national and regional hypertension programs such as the Canadian Hypertension Education Program have proven that hypertension can be controlled through the improvement of education and awareness programs which have in the past, contributed to high control rates of diabetes in developed countries. Hence, this project will implement a strategy targeted at a local business to determine whether two weeks of education about hypertension will be useful in promoting awareness among the participants. It also aims to educate people on the risk and the adverse effects of hypertension and untreated hypertension. The budget for implementing this project is minimal, and the benefits of increasing the awareness of hypertension will increase the control of hypertension, which in turn reduces the number of deaths reported as a result of the disease. The following PICOT question “Is two weeks (T) of hypertension education (I) useful to promote awareness (O)in employees (P)at one local business
branch compared to another branch?” will be used to support the objective of this project.
As argued by Ribeiro et al. (2015), “owing to the high morbidity and mortality caused by hypertension, and the global scale of this important public health issue, it is important to continue to investigate interventions that can improve blood pressure control.” Therefore, education interventions aimed at improving awareness about hypertension are important. In this case, 100 employees from a local business will be educated about the effects of hypertension or untreated hypertension by distributing educational flyers and putting posts on the breakroom and lunchroom. Since the project will be completed during the lunch break, there will be no need to request permission from the business owners to educate the employees.
The project will be completed between 3-4 weeks. The first week will be used to design the fliers and the posters. During this period, further research will be conducted on hypertension to refine the education material and compile the materials. The second and the third week is the implementation phase, whereby education will be provided to the participants on the risk factors associated with hypertension, its management, and its control. The education will be conducted during lunch break to eliminate distraction and increase the concentration of the participants. In the fourth week, data will be collected through surveys with five questions to determine the ability of the participants to acquire and retain information. The results will then be evaluated to determine whether the project was effective in creating awareness among the participants. The budget for the project is minimal and is estimated to cost between $50-$100. The cost covers the printing expenses for the posters and the fliers, which will be distributed among the employees.
The full participation of the employees would facilitate the implementation of this project during the training period. It will also be made possible through the presence of health experts who will provide professional insights into the issues addressed during the education period. However, the implementation of the project might be hindered by the lack of cooperation among the employees in providing information about the effectiveness of the information provided at the end of the four weeks.
Evaluation Plan for Project Assessment
The goal of the project is to create awareness of the risk and adverse effects of hypertension and untreated hypertension. The sample size of the project will be 100 employees from a local business. Education will be provided to 50 participants, whereas the other 50 will receive no education. A survey with five questions will be administered to measure the knowledge at the end of the four weeks. The correct responses in the survey will determine the success of the project, the benefit gained through the education material, and the right answers gathered from the participants regarding hypertension. If the participants do not meet the evaluation criteria, the delivery of the information will be modified to ensure that the participants retain sufficient information. The change will be communicated to the stakeholders through writing detailing the reasons for change and the factors that hindered the achievement of the goals. Hence, the change will be integrated into practice by providing more educational material and instructors to facilitate comprehension. Eventually, the change will be monitored through weekly reviews of the retention capacity of the participants through questions.
The high prevalence rates of hypertension contribute to the high expenditure in health care in the world. As a preventable condition, hypertension can be managed through lifestyle modifications such as reduction of the intake of sodium, weight management, increased physical activity, and moderate consumption of alcohol. Given the detrimental effects of hypertension, the lack of awareness and education on hypertension increases the economic impact, and the reduced quality of life among populations in the world. To this end, the proposal provides details on an effective way to increase hypertension awareness and provide education to the community. The success of the project will be based on the information retention of the participants. If the desired outcomes are not achieved, the project will be re-evaluated to achieve the desired. If the project proves successful, the education of the public on a community level will be implemented.