By description, safety management refers to the processes and or systems that are designed to oversee and control business operations and their outcomes with a focus on wellbeing, security and protection of stakeholders, more so customers and employees. As such system management commonly manifests in organizations through organizational procedures, policies, responsibilities, and objectives among other measures. The aviation industry is highly characterized by significant risks and as such safety management is of vital importance to aviation companies, Lima Air is no exception. This report is focused on detailing the hazard analysis of Lima Airlines in relations to its new route operations. The report relies on the Swiss Cheese Model to elaborate on how safety management will add value to Lima Airlines.
Latent conditions and the active failures of starting the new route
In using James Reason’s Swiss Cheese Model to understand risks and hazards that Lima Airline may incur, can be classified as either latent conditions or active failures. The latent conditions include hazards that can be identified with or without an accident. This is because it mainly entails the weaknesses of an organization. In essence, the latent conditions may be factors that may exist for quite some time before they lead to an actual accident and they are identifiable through reactive hazard identification methods because they are organizational issues. What this means is that the latent conditions in regards to the Swiss Cheese Model include hazards that arise as a result of the capabilities and systems of Lima Airlines. This may include the state of their airplanes as well as the effectiveness of their maintenance approaches. On the other hand, the active failures are concerned with operational errors, or hazards that may arise as a result of the activities, strategies and operations of the employees of the airline. The active failures are usually identified effectively through use of proactive hazard identification methods. In line with Reason’s Swiss Cheese Model, Lima Airline has to ensure that it effectively uses the reactive hazard identification and proactive hazard identification methods to identify and mitigate the hazards that the airline may experience in the new route operations. The hazard analysis of Lima Airline details the specific hazards that the airline will experience for its new route operations. The specific hazards are classified as either latent conditions or active failures based on whether they are as a result of operational systems, or actual activity and or operations of Lima Airline.
Hazard Analysis of Lima Airline
Over time, it has become apparent that some of the key aspects that airlines evaluate before venturing into new route operations include demand for their services in the new route, connectivity to the hub, aircraft availability, and competitive dynamics. These four factors are attributes that point out to the profitability and relevance of the new route. It is however worth noting that before venturing into the new route, the airlines must also conduct a risk/hazard analysis of the new route operations. This is so that they can get to ensure that the new route operations are acceptable to the airline’s system management frameworks, in that they are safe.
In line with safety management in the aviation industry, a hazard can be anything that has the potential of causing harm and or damage. Hazard in the airline industry can be identified from various sources including safety reporting, analyzed data presented by automated data collection tools such as flight data analysis (FDA), results of safety surveys and audits, reports from employees, safety occurrence trends, monitoring of daily operations, state and official investigation results, and internal investigation of safety occurrences. All of these sources are able to highlight sources of hazards and according to so and so, identifying hazards is the first step towards mitigating them.
Influenced by the hazard identification sources, approaches to hazard identification can either be reactive hazard identification methods of proactive hazard identification methods. The reactive hazard identification methods entails the monitoring of identifiable trends as well as investigations of safety occurrences. The hazards that this identification approach mostly identify are hazards that are associated with shortcomings of an airline’s systems and operations. This is while the Hazards identified through the proactive hazard identification methods are hazards related to potential system failures as opposed to failures that already exist. Commonly used proactive methods of hazard identification include safety surveys, operational safety audits, safety assessments and safety monitoring.
In using the sources and the methods mentioned above, the identified hazards for Lima Airline have been classified into four main categories. The hazards include hazards at the airport of the new operation route, flight procedures and local flying area, en route hazards, and aircraft performance hazards. Airport hazards include hazards that may arise from aspects such as the lighting of the airport as well as the surfaces of the runway and whether they are safe for successful landing and takeoff. It is essential to ensure that the airport(s) in the new route are of good standard and quality. These kinds of information can be obtained from observing the safety management system of the airport as well as its FDA. Other areas of potential hazard for the airport include its ground handling responsibilities and capabilities. It is essential that the airport has recommended loading certification and also that it has effective procedures for identifying harmful goods through its handling, so that Lima Airline does not ever incur the risk of transporting dangerous or harmful goods.
This means that their security provision needs to be appropriate so that they do not get to incur any issues especially in contemporary times when terrorism continues to target air transport. In order to mitigate airport risks further, Lima Airline also has to ensure that it evaluates the airside procedures and passenger handling contractor of the airport identified for the new route operations. It will also look into its ability and capacity to manage potential disaster and also how effectively it engages in aircraft maintenance. Availability of adequate amounts of the right fuel is also another aspect that can count as part of a hazard. In line with this, Lima Airline in its hazard analysis will have to evaluate not only the fuel availability, but also its quality. On top of all these attributes, Lima Airline will also have to ensure that the airport operations have taken into account potential challenges that may arise from issues such as wildlife and closeness to urban dwellings and nearness to water bodies, all of which can affect their airplanes during takeoff and landing. These are issues that pertain to runway safety. Weather records can also be a significant source of concern for Lima Airlines in relation to its hazard analysis.
For the flight procedures and local flying area, the hazards may include the terrain of the new destination, operational issues of the destined airport, and any visibility issues which will be evaluated through day/night case and minimum in-flight visibility (IFV) procedures. The flight procedures and local flying area also evaluate operational issues related to the new destination and Lima Airlines can use simulations to identify any potential hazards. In line with the flight procedures and local flying area hazards that may arise from commonly overlooked attributes such as language will also be evaluated. Different regions have different national languages and as a result the aviation languages used in procedures as well as equipments and infrastructures may be different and they may be a source of concern. The most prudent hazard analyses are those which are thorough and as a result explore facets which can be easily overlooked including the risks arising from language barrier and or differences.
En route hazards can include attributes such as minimum safe altitudes that would necessitate emergency decent and the ability of the new destination to cater for emergencies that may be outside controlled airspace. These are attributes related to radar control of the new destination where the new operations will be directed towards. Other aspects of the en route hazards include the military activities and general vicinity of the transit airspace. These are essential hazards as they can place the Lima Airline aircrafts under threats that are prejudicial to the safety of its operations. Therefore, in line with this hazard, Lima Airline needs to establish special diplomatic over flight clearances before plying the new route. In relation to aircraft performance, the main concerns include the performance of Lima Airline’s aircrafts. This is especially in relation to the weight of its aircrafts in relation to prevailing temperature and weather circumstances of the new destination and obstacles that it may incur in relation to the new destination. The hazards that the airline may incur may also pertain to payload and or range issues that may be required to ensure that it performs well in the new route.
In conclusion, through the reactive hazard identification and proactive hazard identification methods, Lima Airline can be able to identify the main hazards that it is likely to experience in the new route operations. The hazards can be classified as either latent failures of active failures dependent on whether they are caused by human factors or operational systems of the airline. Through identifying the hazards effectively, Lima Airline will be able to make better decisions in relation to its new route operations, and it will also be able to build greater resilience which will allow it to accrue competitive advantages in the new route. Moreover, understanding the risks will allow Lima Airline to achieve cost reduction in its operations.
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