Impact of Inclusion and Diversity on Organisational Commitment

Executive Summary

The following report addresses the impact of inclusion on organisational commitment. The prime objective of the study is to understand the issues stated. With the help of the study, the gaps and the limitations to the portrayed subject would be identified. The considered research helps in focusing the study, which would eventually answer the probable question which revolves around the proposed topic. However, the study is processed with the help of several pieces of literature being reviewed. Thus, it could be safely stated that the study takes into account the qualitative research methodology.

The prime study would be done while carefully reviewing the considered pieces of literature. It is crucial to understand that studies which utilize external data sources need to be commenced deliberately. Thus, the research has been completed using numerous yet distinct steps. The data thus collected from the literature review is taken into consideration for the further steps of data analysis. The commencement of data analysis would eventually help to gather appropriate information for a detailed understanding of the entire project. The research matter being simply vast and considerably important into the modern-day business architecture, the full gravity of the research carries significant value in real-time.

The research is aimed at the understanding of inclusion on organisational commitments. The study would carry different views from the various departments of an organisation. However, the study not being targeted to a particular organisation, the research would be conducted on an overall basis. Thus allowing an intricate level of understanding.

1.0 Introduction

1.1 Background

The study focuses on the very aspect, which is affected by the inclusions implemented over organisational commitments. The research has been specifically directed towards the relationship that the organisation or the associates of an organisation has on fostering the integrations. It is significant to understand that an organisation evidently can increase its value for every associated individual through multiple aspects of inclusion. It can be seen that compositions in an organisational issue are crucial for increasing organisational commitment. The pieces of evidence are specifically collected and critically studied with the help of literature reviews. The proposed literature reviews would be taken into consideration from secondary courses as it seems to be the best-suited approach for the proposed study. Enhanced inclusions into an organisation are mainly based on the associates and the employees of the organisation. Thus, with the help of the study, the intricate relation between the organisation and the individuals related to the organisation are identified. Through the research, it could be observed that numerous significant aspects are directly and indirectly related to the inclusion into the organisation(Kim, 2016). However, it is also important to note that several integrations have multiple probable outcomes. Thus, the stare of the type of integration is what really befalls the precise impact into the organisation. The study has helped to deduce the appropriate outcomes to the proposed issue; thus, the evaluation of the effects caused by individual inclusions had been easy to understand. The gaps and the limitations for the study are addressed through the help of the study; thus, allowing the identification and the need for possible changes in an establishment for project sense or inclusion. Through the specific data gathering and analysis related to the study, it had been evident that inclusion results in specific impacts in an organisation, thus the study places its primary focus into it for an enhanced understanding into the whole matter(Kim, 2016).

1.2 Rationale

The concept of inclusion in an organisation had been into talks for quite some time. However, the entire project matter being quite vast; there are much possible learning and no real end to the issue. The main reason being, every organisation, and every individual have a precise view of the matter. Thus, the main reason to address the proposed research is to be able to study the impacts that are caused in an organisation due to inclusions and pay precise attention to the study gaps and the meriting factors to the entire matter.

1.3 Problem Statement

It is crucial to understand the value or the gravity of a whole study. Thus, it is essential to understand what significance a problem statement holds for any research. The research question to any investigation is mainly aimed at identifying the precise issue to the topic of the study, regarding which the entire analysis is taken into consideration. The problem statement is primarily put forward to identify the gaps or the limitations of the research. The gaps are mainly the differences between the traditional state and the desired stare of the business or the organisation, into which the inclusions are to be made(Antonov, 2018).

The research question for the proposed result is as follows:

Can inclusion foster organisational commitment?

However, it is crucial to understand that original research may not have a single problem statement and thus may have multiple accounts as per the requirements. Yet, the focus of the project is very much mono-directional the provided problem statement covers the probable research questions for the research (Antonov, 2018).

1.4 Objective

The research in consideration focuses on analysing the concept behind inclusion on an organisation which would basically foster commitments towards the organisation for the viewpoint of the employees. Similar investigations have been commenced over the years. However, the research being utterly vast, the learning possibilities from the study is enormous. It has been observed that inclusive working environment and such implementations which increase the commitment of employees towards the organisation. It is important to note that every research has some kinds of research gap and limitations which are deduced due to situational factors (Yousef, 2017). Thus, the main objective of the study is to identify and conduct the appropriate study. Which are related to the identified factors which would help to build a better whole organisational structure for future application.

1.5 Thesis Structure

The research, as proposed being a vast one, there is an acute need of a thesis structure that would be followed for commencing the entire investigation. The study would thus be initiated through the following probable steps, which include, data collection, data analysis, findings, gaps or limitation identification, and finally, the recommendations for future implications. It is very much essential to note that the research follows a qualitative approach. Thus, literature reviews are taken into consideration. Multiple pieces of literature are considered for a better outcome, which eventually helps in an intricate understanding of the entire project matter.

2.0 Literature Review

2.1 Inclusion of workplace diversity and the approaches of organisationalcommitment

            Workplace diversity is the most influential factor to consider the organisational commitment. Inclusion of diversity affords the potential advantages and disadvantages that impacts employee commitments. The management of diverse culture is responsible for reach the diverse perspectives of employees with different demographic attributes. Therefore, encouraging innovativeness and greater performance(Vuuren, Westhuizen, & Walt, 2012). Hence, the diversity management is not enough on its own to increase productivity and improve organisational commitment. Thus, the inclusive nature of workplace is defined by the empowered workers and supportive leadership approaches.

            The diversity in workplace is mainly created by diverse demographic factors amongst the employees. The differences of religion, ethnicity, educational background, socio-economy, personality, and other cultural notions. Therefore, the diversity is considered as the foundation for sustainable competitive benefits that can be derived from the values, resources, and philosophies of different cultures(Zanoni, Janssens, Benschop, & Nkomo, 2009).The benefits of diversity designate the positive evaluation of cultures. Recruitment of diverse workforce offers improved access and attracts and appreciates talent. This helps to reduce nonattendance and staff turnover, improving organisational commitment(Roberson & Park, 2007).

According to Porter, organisational commitment is the acceptance of the organisational goals and the readiness of putting highest effort to as a part of an organisation. Thus, maintaining their membership and inclusion in the organisations(Porter, Steers, Mowday, & Boulian, 1974). Gbadamosi (2003) described organisational commitment as the process of identification, contribution, and faithfulness with the sense of responsibility to stay with an organisation(Gbadamosi, 2003). The approaches of organisational commitment can be classified into three commitments, normative, affective and continuance.

Normative: The normative approach represents the sense of responsibility to stay with an organisation. The organisational culture, employee sovereignty, penalties, and rewards are considered as the crucial factors for this approach. The level of the commitment is decided by these controlling factors(Bryant, Moshavi, & Nguyen, 2007). The importance of organisational commitment forced many researchers to discuss the approaches, its definition, and the significances to find the impacts of inclusion on performance. Hence, the employees who are well identified with organisational goals and objectives are more focused for the competitiveness and sustainability of the organisation. Therefore, this enlightens the efforts of employees, as their inclusion, to achieve better performance and increase the quality of work. Improved quality and performance help to fulfill the responsibilities and increase the productivity. Thus, the most valuable strength for an organisationcan be defined as the most committed employees, who enhances competitiveness, organisationalsuccess andreduces staff turnover(Omar, Johari, Mohamed, Halim, & Majid, 2012).

Affective:The affective approach defines the emotional attachment of an employee to an organisation. Thus, this factor is responsible for employee involvement and integration with his or her organisation(Bryant, Moshavi, & Nguyen, 2007).According to Enriquez et al. the vision, objective and level of employee autonomy are the foremost determinant for the degree of affective commitment. Therefore, the degree is positively impacted by a healthy and supportive supervision and helps achieving effective organisational commitment among the employees(Enriquez, McBride, & Paxton, 2001).

Continuance:The perceived costs of leaving an organisation on the employees are determined by this approach of organisational commitment(Bryant, Moshavi, & Nguyen, 2007). The employees invest their effort, time, money, health for their workplaces, which becomes the crucial factors for their decision making and commitments to leave or stay with the organisations. According to Sharma & Sinha (2015) increased age and tenancy of employees within an organisation are responsible for the perceived cost of leaving. Other impacting factors are knowledge, vacations, job security, and pensions that considers the decisions of stay or leaving the organisation(Sharma & Sinha, 2015).

Therefore, the commitments of workplace diversity and the approaches of organisational commitment are addressed by the norms, knowledge, opportunities, and culturally applicable perceptions. Effective management of these factors needs to overcome the challenges regarding communication, discrimination, and legal and social responsibilities. The maintenance of organisational commitment is impacted by the inclusion of diverse culture, awareness,acceptance, and moral standards of others’ cultural norms(King, Gulick, & Avery, 2009).

Hence, a different perspective of organisational commitment argued that the organisations need to keep their long-term commitments in the workplaces, despite of the changes in technology and globalization. An increasing trend has been identified that the outsourcing of industry activities possibly requires reorganize the concepts of organisational commitment(Bar-Haim, 2007).

2.2 Job satisfaction and organisational commitment

The link between job satisfaction and organisational commitment is unavoidable for finding the impact of inclusion on organisational commitment. Inclusion approach and management of diversity creates job satisfaction and eventually improves the approaches of commitment. Organisational commitment represents the positive spirits towards the values and activities of anorganisation. The positive attitude of employees to contribute in the fulfillment of organisational goals. The organisational commitment has been considered as the belief and acceptance of the goals and values of an organisation by an individual, which creates the desire to remain with the organisation(Porter, Steers, Mowday, & Boulian, 1974). Organisational commitment was also defined as an attitude between an organisation and the employees that describes the recognition of the whole organisation.

            Job satisfaction can be defined as a combination of different environmental, corporeal, and emotional circumstances that creates a sense of satisfaction in an employee regarding his or her workplace. Silva (2006) described the job satisfaction a pleasant feeling created at the workplace. Hence, it can be considered that the comprehensive feeling regarding the jobpatterns and its attitudes regarding various characteristics are responsible for job satisfaction(Silva, 2006).

Job satisfaction is achieved from the organisational justice and organisational behaviour. Therefore,Jamaludinhas been recognized the relations among the organisational behaviour, justice and organisational commitment and claimed that the normative and continuance commitments are created by procedural righteousness(Jamaludin, 2009). The affirmative commitment is created from the strong influence of interactional righteousness.Thus, the productivity of employees needs to be enhanced by the organisations to increase employee retention rate for longer period(Jamaludin, 2009). Development of organisational culturesimproves the employee commitments for their organisations(Akhtar, Ghayas, & Adil, 2013).

Another study by Altindis (2011) has been identified that the relationship between the motivation of health professionals and the organisational commitments contributes in organisational activity and performance(Altindis, 2011). Whenever the organisations are not properly governed by the owners, the employees feel tired. The employees need to be appreciated by the employers, otherwise their motivation decreases and affects the organisational commitment.Hence, the process of communication is required to be enhanced to create a flexible and friendly environment(Altindis, 2011). The studies observed that the employees with improved emotional intelligence holds better commitment towards their organisations.From the other side, highly committed employees need to increase their emotional intelligence to be inclusive and upsurge organisational commitment(Sarboland, 2012).

            The performance of the employees is directly related to the organisational commitment, as the employees are serving their organisations will be more committed if the organisationis impartial in its inclusion provisions. The effect of culture, especially the values of national culture and its efficiency on organisational commitment are determined by the interactions between different culture in the workplace in present day’s business scenario(Marc, 2010).  In a study with hotel employees describes that the pleased employees are more committed in the hotel industry workplaces. The emotional intelligence was directly involved in the workplacecommitment of the employees. The study found a significant optimistic relationship between emotional awareness and staying in the organisations. The employees in the hotels were able to understand their own feelings and emotions to compare with other employees from different demographics. More passionate employees have been found to be more capable to stay with their jobs and work with other employees. Hence, the association of organisational commitment and job satisfaction is largely defined by inclusive approaches of diversity management(Wegge, Schmidt, Parkes, & Van Dick, 2007).

            The relation between of job satisfaction and organisational commitment has become a subject of great attention due to its direct relation with the purposes of staff turnover. According to Karsh (2005), the employees having higher commitment and job satisfaction are less likely to leave the organisations.They claimed that job satisfaction is thedefining factors for organisationalcommitment(Karsh, Booske, & Sainfort., 2005).The inclusive nature of multicultural activity and management increases job satisfaction, as this creates more flexible environment. Satisfied workers are more committed and attend the work on proper time, stay with the organisation for longer time and behaves attentively to other employees, as well the organisations(Huang & Hsiao, 2007).

2.3 Diversity and impacts of human resource management

There are numerous advantages of multicultural approach of the organisations to make employees maintaining organisational commitments. But there are certain negative impacts of diversity that can impose some unintentional consequences. The ethnic minority regarding the races and female employees in the US are more supportive to the organisations than their male counterparts. Hence, this results in significant polarization issue within the organisations(Stevens, Plaut, & Sanchez-Burks, 2008). Diversity in gender norms is another vital area to concern for organisational commitment. The organisations in Asia-Pacific region usually focus on nationality and age, where the European companies tend to focus on gender and disability as the basis for diversity. Thus, the issues with gender orientation create a huge polarity within the organisations. Inclusive approach for diversity management in Asia-Pacific regions faces staff dissatisfaction due to gender issues in workplace(Insights, 2011).

The issues with employee dissatisfactions and workplace commitment need to be assessed and managed by the human resource management. The most popular and modern theory of human resource management comprises the motivation theory of Hertzberg(Becker & Gerhart, 1996). This two-factor theory regulates the influences in work contents and the affecting contents of worker satisfaction and dissatisfaction. Contemporary models of human resource comprise the commitments and its relation with human capital management accordingly(Becker & Gerhart, 1996).

            The most vital argument for the human resource model can be defined as the psychological agreement or bonding between the employees and employers. In this model of engagement, both of them need to be committed to each other(Tsui, Pearce, Porter, & Tripoli, 1997). The employers are accountable for improving the knowledge of employees they can gain more skills to better serves the organisation. Better service to the organisation also indicates to improved service for the customers of an organisation. Therefore, in this way the employers can improve the overall productivity of the workers and enhance organisational performance. The improved performance eventually assists to create job satisfaction andmaintain organisational commitment(Tsui, Pearce, Porter, & Tripoli, 1997). On the other hand, the workers who obtain the skills as capacity enrichment, as an indication of the commitments from the employers, they come to know that the organisation cares for their well-being. This factor is crucial that the employees become more committed and dedicated to the organisation(Tsui, Pearce, Porter, & Tripoli, 1997).

            When the employees are satisfied with the job as well as with the companies, they become more affectionate with the organisations.The casual relationship betweenthe workplace, the context of work, managerial relationship, team-spirit and organisational commitment is the path to build the commitment factors(Samad & Hassan, 2007). The studies on the commitment-basedorganisations disclosed different strategies of human resource management. The managers need to focus on the job designing, and the psychological attributes along with the professional development and compensation for the employees. According to the studies, the relationship and the communication between the employee and employers are the most vital factors to for organisational goals and objectives(Samad & Hassan, 2007). Therefore, it can be decided that the organisational commitment causes two positive outcomes for the organisations. First, the improved customer service that looks for the organisational interest and second, the willingness to stay with the organisation, which significantly reduces the rate of staff turnover and the costs of recruitment and training(Nguyen, Mai, & Nguyen, 2014).Hence, the employee engagement can be considered as one of the vital factors for organisational commitment that looks for the inclusion of multiple culture and management of proper diverse human resources(Nguyen, Mai, & Nguyen, 2014).

2.4 Inclusive leadership for organisational commitment

The inclusive leadership is the word by the leader which indicates the appreciation and invitation for contributions of others. According to the author(Carmeli, 2010), inclusive leadership is defined as winning a situation with the common vision and goal of an interdependent relationship. According to another author(Garrison-Wade, 2017) an inclusive leader is very valuable for an organisation, who accepts every type of staff in an organisation as well as responsible for the outcome. Moreover, inclusive leadership considers a very essential role to form an inclusive association. This leadership includes three dimensions such as 1. Leaders need to tolerate failures and views of employees by listening to their perspectives and provide guidance and encouragement to support those employees. 2. Leaders identified as well as trained staff by focusing and respecting on praising achievement and training of an employee. 3. Leaders treat staff fairly by considering their interests and requirements as well as demonstrate a fair attitude to staff. Compared with other leadership, Inclusive leadership has a unique nature regarding inclusiveness, uniqueness, belongingness, and acceptance. Transformational leadership focuses on developing and motivating staffs based on the needs of an organisation. This leadership is the core of the leader, without the involvement of active employee, rewards and reciprocal influence. In addition, inclusive leadership allows the employees to contribute their unique views and abilities as well as motivate them to engage in activities of an organisation. On the other hand, servant leadership focus to assist succeeds and development of an employee, inclusive leadership focuses to tend the requirements of members regarding the availability and openness of group work(Carmeli, 2010). Whereas, empowering leadership focus on leading through coaching, teaching and sharing power.

            According to the author(Shore, 2018)Organisations constantly enriched and challenged through the diversity regarding their workforces. With the growing diversity within the organisation, leaders have become aware of the significance of making inclusive environments. The author has clarified that inclusion is essential for everyone. In the inclusive environment, people of every background treated fairly as well as valued and should include in the decision making the procedure of n organisation. Inclusive workplace depends on the “pluralistic value frame” which respects the entire cultural perspectives presented between its employees(Shore, 2018). In addition, inclusion engages an equivalent opportunity for the members of the social exclusion group for participating and contributing at the same time provide an opportunity for the members of the non- exclusive groups. The word inclusion and diversity treated the same as interchangeable such as several organisations utilize the title like “Chief Diversity officer, chief Inclusion officer, and chief diversity and inclusion officer(Shore, 2018). Therefore, in the entire cases, the major work is to control the practice of inclusion and diversity. Historically group those who are underrepresented constantly challenge diversity. Many explanations have been raised for this inequality in the advancement opportunities, for example, qualities of prototypical leadership perceived essentially for the upward progression, which is related to the White males. For women, demands of work and family, as well as the related departure from the work by women, have suggested as a cause for the fewer advancement opportunities. Hence, these explanations do not account for ongoing inequality in advancement and salary opportunities for the women as well as for the people of a different colour. As noted by (Shore, 2018) the most noticeable distinction among inclusion and diversity is that diversity could be legislated and mandated, whereas inclusion originates from the voluntary actions. It can be said that inclusion needs a level of playing field and provide opportunities by managerial and organisational practices, which offer actual prospects regarding equal access towards the valuable opportunity for staff who connected with the group of social identity, which faces greater discrimination. Whereas practices of diversity management have focused mainly on people of various colour, bringing women as well as members of another marginalized group within the workplace. Practices of Inclusion have pursued to make equal access towards the resources, decision-making as well as increasing mobility opportunities for employees. On the other hand, it is acknowledged that diversity cannot always provide beneficial outcomes to organisations. In fact, it increases turnover and conflict and decreases performance and cohesion. Therefore, focus on inclusionary practices could encourage and enhance potential advantages as well as opportunities for having a diverse workforce.

2.5 the effect of organisational learning

According to the author(Yenidoğan, 2017)innovations, technological developments, and global challenges made organisations to adapt all the changes. Organisational learning describes as “the growth of organisational efficiency by achieving better comprehension and information.” Researcher considersorganisational learning as the change of experiences occurring from the past, which leads behaviours”.

It is observed that within the firms were learning in all the levels of an association is recognized, the staff becomes more committed towards their organisations. Moreover, in the sector of Hospitality where the enhancement of human resources acts critically to adapt to the changes that have been occurring, then the importance of organisational learning being understood properly. Problems experienced by organisations, require organisations to change into the learning process of an organisation(Yenidoğan, 2017). If the learning ability of an organisation does not respond to these developments, equivalent to fast dissemination and the emergence of information, it causes a threat to organisational development. The cause why a company stands behind a competitive situation is because of a lack of organisational learning. Personal learning is a method of organisational learning. Personal learning is a necessity for the presence of organisational learning(Yenidoğan, 2017).

Organisational learning is the building block of an association that motivates the employees to learn something for their future improvement. Organisational learning is essential for the advancement and formulation of human relations in associations. According to the Author if the learning is required to be understood within the level of organisation, then all employees of an organisation need to be offered access to the information. By doing this type of activity, learning turns in a holistic way as well as collects all the members with synergy and great force. The presence of communication in an organisation is essential in order to spread the information.

 All members can reflect their views as well as personal comments in relation to the activities and actions of an organisation. Therefore, members can discover information about each other as well as the method to interpret information. This is the way learning occurs within the organisation. While having communication, sharing of accurate and complete knowledge, proving information on the professional field, as well as the understanding the perception of each other, is essential. Staff needs to be aware of the learning system in order to achieve information, in this way the organisational objective will be attained through the process of effective learning. In an association comprising staff that familiar with the learning process, the output of better performance occurs. Staff in organisational learning that is sensitive to the opinions of each other through team learning; provide the formation regarding the collection of valuable information for organisations, which increase opinions as well as information on the topic. Sometimes members that have various competencies provide valuable information for the knowledge of other members.

According to the author (Jansen, 2015)due to the demographic changes within U.S. and European workforce, Western associations have developed into increasingly culturally diverse. It is considered that cultural diversity may have a deep impact on the staff’s well-being and performance of an organisation, therefore, the management of successful diversity is essential. Certainly, several organisations identify this challenge as well as an attempt to manage diversity through diversity workforces and comprising diversity within an organisational mission(Jansen, 2015).However, as the effectiveness regarding diversity initiatives is greatly dependent on the accessibility of majority members, communication and efforts of diversity deal entirely with minority groups.

Moreover, diversity initiatives are launched for solving problems that minorities mainly experienced with, like workplace discrimination as well as under-representation regarding minorities within leadership positions. As an unintentional consequence, the one-sided focus might lead to majorities for perceiving diversity “only for the minorities.” Certainly, members who come under the majority were less interested to work for an organisation, which indicates to value the diversity that follows the approach of “multicultural” diversity; and been revealed to support diversity efforts constantly less than the minorities. Approaches of Diversity reflect the expectations and normative belief of an organisation about the cause to diversify, the value regarding cultural diversity, as well as its association with the procedures of work. Approaches of Diversity comprise contextual sign that staffs utilize to analyse their inclusionary position.

2.6 Cultural Inclusion

Cultural inclusion promotes policies and laws which maintain cultural participation as well as the right to interpret and express culture. According to the author(Azmat, 2015)presence of several cultural and social groups advantage broad cultural skill of living within a diverse society. To build a cultural ability needs a regular evaluation of enhancement procedures to relate to cultural audiences, markets, fields, and industries. To develop essential skills sometimes involve high learning condition. The management of diverse culture is responsible to reach the diverse perspectives of staffs with different demographic attributes. Hence, diversity management is not enough on its own to enhance productivity and improve organisational commitment(Azmat, 2015). The diversity in the workplace is mainly created by diverse demographic factors amongst the employees. The differences in religion, ethnicity, educational background, socio-economy, personality, and other cultural notions. Therefore, diversity is considered as the foundation for sustainable competitive benefits that can be derived from the values, resources, and philosophies of different cultures. The idea of culture locates art activity in economic procedures and larger industrial. The commitments of workplace diversity and the approaches of organisational commitment are addressed by the norms, knowledge, opportunities, and culturally applicable perceptions(Azmat, 2015). Effective management of these factors needs to overcome the challenges regarding communication, discrimination, and legal and social responsibilities. The maintenance of organisational commitment is impacted by the inclusion of diverse culture, awareness, acceptance, and moral standards of others’ cultural norms.

Hospitality where enhancement of human resources acts critically to adapt to the changes that have been occurring, then the importance of organisational learning being understood properly. Problems experienced by organisations, require organisations to change into the learning process of an organisation. If the learning ability of an organisation does not respond to these developments, equivalent to fast dissemination and the emergence of information, it causes a threat to organisational development. The cause why a company stands behind a competitive situation is because of a lack of organisational learning. Personal learning is a method of organisational learning. Personal learning is a necessity for the presence of organisational learning.

Organisational learning is the building block of an association that motivates the employees to learn something for their future improvement. Organisational learning is essential for the advancement and formulation of human relations in associations. According to the Author if the learning is required to be understood within the level of organisation, then all employees of an organisation need to be offered access to the information(Pokharel, 2015). By doing this type of activity, learning turns in a holistic way as well as collects all the members with synergy and great force. The presence of communication in an organisation is essential in order to spread the information. By doing this type of activity, learning turns in a holistic way as well as collects all the members with synergy and great force. The presence of communication in an organisation is essential in order to spread the information.

4.0 Methodology

In this chapter the systematic methods of theoretical analysis for the current paper will be discussed. The methods that are associated with relative knowledge are included in this theoretical analysis. A research methodology typically encompasses two types of theoretical models, qualitative and quantitative(Antwi & Hamza, 2015). Hence, due to the lack oftime and proper resources, the primary research was notachievable. Thus, the current paper used secondary data in the form of related literature to construct the answer tothe proposed question and objectives. The methods are described below:

Research Aim

The aim of the current research is to investigate the relationship and impact of inclusion to maintain organisational commitment among the employees. Therefore, the objectives have been made, which focuses on conducting proper research to find the gaps in previous researches. Thereafter, it will identify the factors that assist in maintainingorganisational commitment.

Research Philosophy

The philosophy is focused on the knowledge base and proper understandings of the researcher regarding the themes of the current study. The three major segments of research philosophy are, positivism, interpretivism and the mixed philosophy(Lacity & Janson, 1994).

In a qualitative study using secondary data, the method of interpretivism is used

Justification:The current paper uses interpretivism philosophy due to the lack of primary data and understandings. Additionally, the paper aims for a qualitative study that collects secondary information to make the research hypothesis. Therefore, the interpretivism philosophy has been selected for the current research.

Research Approach

The research approach is correlated with the research philosophy. There are two approaches for research, deductive approach and inductive approach. The deductive approach helps to frame a proper hypothesis and considers productive findings and conclusion from the study.(Zalaghi & Khazaei, 2016).

Justification:The current paper tries to conduct a qualitative analysis of the impacts of inclusion on organisational commitment.  The research approach gathers information from secondary sources and literature toevaluate andanalyse. The theoretical concepts have been derived from the intellectual works of other scholarly researchers. Thus, the research uses the deductive approach.

Research Design

Research design outlines the whole work and the methods to conduct the study in a systematic and organized way. The fundamental types of research include descriptive design, exploratory and casual relationship design. The designs deliver detailed description according to the research approaches and the subject of the study(Abdulkadiroğlu, Angrist, Narita, & Pathak, 2017). The current paper uses descriptive research design to construct the work.

Justification: The descriptive design method evaluates different scenarios of organisational commitment with different features and controlling factors in the relative literature. The secondary data requires a descriptive method of analysis and assessment to enhance the understanding regarding the thesis question. Hence, the knowledge of the current impacts of inclusion on organisational commitment needs a descriptive design.

Data Collection Method

Collecting relevant data from different reliable and authentic sources is the most crucial for research. The data can be collected from primary or secondary sources or from both sources. The data collection methods can be chosen according to the requirements and the time or setting of the research(Almalki, 2016). The primary data is fresh data, collected from a new survey and interviews. The secondary data is collected from previous studies in the related segment of research, which are publicly available. The secondary sources are online or offline journals, books, authentic websites, etc.(Almalki, 2016).

Justification: The current paper uses secondary data and literature from different studies conducted previously. The research question has been prepared according to the subject of the paper, focusing on different situations that affect inclusion strategy and eventually impacts on organisational commitments. Additionally, there was a lack of time and resources, thus the primary researches could be challenging. The challenges limit the ability of the paper to deliver proper understanding. Hence, the data collection method uses secondary data collection from the search system of the University of Liverpool and Google Scholar.

Data analysis method

There are different approaches to data analysis, such as the audit trail, reflexivity and peer debriefing.Reflexivity involves the process of critical reflection of the researchers throughout the process. The data collection method, analysis and interpretation are the stages of reflexivity(Watt, 2007). Therefore, the reflexive analysis of secondary data will be done for the current paper.

Research questions:

The subject of the current research regarding the relation between inclusion and organisational commitment looks for understanding the impactful factors. Hence the following main question has been prepared in order to design the objectives and other secondary questions.

Q1. Can inclusion foster organisational commitment?

Secondary questions are needed to find the answer to the main research question and prepare a prolific recommendation from the secondary data. The literature has been made according to the questionnaire:

Q2. Is there a relationship between workplace diversity and organisational commitment?

Q3.What are the roles of job satisfaction, and inclusive leadership for organisationalcommitment?

Q4. What are the affecting factors and the effects of organisational learning on organisational commitment?

Research Hypothesis

The hypothesis is the assumption of the probable outcomes of the whole research paper according to the research question and objectives(Wolverton, 2009). Hence, the hypotheses are:

H1: Diversity and human resource management have a significant impact on organisational commitment.

H2: The inclusion strategy is largely cohered with diversity management and builds organisational trust.

H3: Job satisfaction is a significant factor for retaining organisational commitment.

H4: The affecting factors of inclusion strategy and organisational leadership have a positive correlation with organisational commitment.

Ethical Consideration:

Research ethics looks for the practice of morality for the interaction between the researcher and the people involved in the study. The additional issues, such as data fairness, plagiarism or fabrication are also concerned by the research ethics. The current research focuses on a sensitive issue of inclusion and diversity management in the workplaces. Thereby, the principles of organisational ethics have been followed. The following ethics are concerned during the study:

  • Fair use of secondary data, that means no fabrication or information theft from any of the prior researches.
  • The research cares for the reputation of people from all demographic factors and the organisations involved in this study.
  • The study concerns with reducing the social and psychological issues and risks from the study.
  • The reputation of related communities, their values and knowledge are respected.

5.0 Results and Analysis

Concerning with the literature in the current paper, one question needs to be answered: why the inclusion and diversity management became significant for the industries? Wide numbers of global and regional businesses adopted the changes related to cultural diversity to manage organisational commitment from their employees.

The analysis of the literature highlights that the global environment of business policies has raised the employee compassion towards inclusion and diversity related issues. The challenges related to nationalism, ethnic diversity and other demographic attributes have become the subject of concern. Several organisations have reported that the employees are personally apprehensive with their work and working environment. Therefore, the organisations requested the perspectives of their employees to address the issues of inclusion that also concerns the human rights, employee engagement, leadership and satisfaction in the job.

Additionally,the requirement of inclusion has become a significant component in the workplaces. There are several large companies who express themselves as a global organisation including gender, nationality, religion, culture, and other sorts of diversity into the business environments. The literature reveals that there are several indications of inclusion strategy and diversity management can outperform the peers of the leadership and teams. The organisations with inclusive skill and talent practices for recruitment, leadership, management, and development improved their productivity and profitability than theiropponents. Without the robust strategy of inclusive culture the team and leadership focused companies may not achieve organisational goals.

Analysing the literatures, it ca be said that the cultural benefits, leadership styles, employee development are the part of inclusion strategies. These vital elements of the strategy help to develop a sense of loyalty among the employees, which keeps them stay with the organisation.

­­The issue of inclusion and poor diversity management has been proved to be the most significant cause for staff turnover. The issues have aroused the awareness regarding gender and ethnic diversity in different industries in Europe and the employees expressed their strong perspectives on inclusion. Therefore, inclusion has become a compulsory element for corporate cultures. The culture of inclusion forces the organisations to listen to their employees at the workplace, which affects the organisation, its stakeholders, customers and other people related to the companies. Hence the diversity management and inclusion helped to improve productivity and maintain organisational commitment.

The role of organisational leadership identifies the courage, commitment, cultural intelligence and other leadership traits that can enhance inclusive leadership. These factors increased the capabilities of the organisations and assisted in maintaining commitment, from both employee and employers. The leaders need to adopt the new strategies of diversity management and measure the effect of diversity on the organisations. Hence, the leaders and the managers become responsible for the outcomes according to their behaviour.

The example from the front line organisations who adopted the inclusion strategy to manage work-place diversity and create job satisfaction shows the improvement in organisational commitment. For instance, the Lloyd’s Banking Group in the UK took the initiative for the innovative method of inclusion to manage diversity.The organisation gets on a multi-layered action to implant the diversity management and inclusion in its corporate culture. The organisation also recognised that the strategy prioritised the gender norms, which benefitted the women employees as well as the whole organisation, the customers and communities. The leaders had set a transparent goal that focuses on employing at least 40% of women employees by 2020. Hence, this incident facilitated the talents and skills of the employees regardless of their demographic diversity.The commitment of inclusive strategies recruited 31% of women employees in the prior years of business(Bourke, Garr, Berkel, & Wong, 2017). Thus, the fair rules of incisive approach helped to improve the feeling of job satisfaction and better organisational leadership. Therefore improving organisational commitment and retaining the employees for a longer time.

Another instance has been seen in the P&G UK, who became the leader in implementing inclusion within its corporate culture. The organisation spent more than 1.66 billion pounds to implement the strategy. The company focused on the improvement of women employees with inclusive leadership for all region and site specific programs. This resulted in the growth of women representation by 44% within 2013. Therefore, it has been found that inclusive strategy improved employee retention rate (Bourke, Garr, Berkel, & Wong, 2017).

The affecting factors of inclusion and organisational commitment have been found to be beneficial for the increased loyalty for the organisations. The factors like a reward, inclusive leadership, career development, positive work environment are crucial to growing organisational commitment among the employees. Researches have found that the reward and recognition system and a positive environment create satisfaction. Less challenging jobs and career growth opportunities help the employees to grow a higher level of social responsibility and behaviour. Hence, the hypothesis can be concluded as positive.

The H1 has shown a positive outcome that diversity and human resource management are the crucial factors of the inclusion strategy. The factors are responsible for developing the commitment to stay with the organisations for longer and perform an extra role in the organisations. Therefore, showing noteworthy commitment to the organisations.

The H2 also shows a positive conclusion, that the management of cultural diversity as a part of inclusion strategy has played a vital role to improve the willingness of employees to stay with the organisations. The moral and principles of different cultures, religions, and ethnicity need to be respected or treated equally to develop a sense of equality. The gender and racial equality make the employees more sensible and supportive of their organisations. Thus, developing strong organisational commitment.

The third hypothesis concerned about the relationship between job satisfaction and organisational commitment. The factors of job satisfaction have been discussed. Thus, it has been found that employee satisfaction at the workplace is the most vital factor in reducingemployee turnover rate. Therefore, the hypothesis is true, according to the outcomes of the analysis.

The H4 neither can be true nor false. The affecting factors of inclusive strategy have imposed both positive and negative outcomes for the employees. The negative factors of diversity management have shown reduced employee satisfaction and compromised organisational commitment, whereas, the positive management resulted in significant improvement. Hence, there lies both negative and positive correlation between the affecting factors of inclusion strategy andorganisational commitment.

6.0 Conclusion and Recommendation


This paper concluded with the impacts of inclusion as per the organizational commitment. It can be said that, analyzing the secondary data, had indicated the inclusion that was all about to looks and feels. The workforce diversity as per the organization commitment was seen as the most potent strategy for considering the organization commitment. Impact of inclusion affected the variety of potential advantages or disadvantages that stimulate employee commitments. The study revealed that managing cultural diversity was responsible. The numerous argues got found regarding the continued involvement inside the organizations. Through the changes, the study explored optimistic about overcoming the globalization through advanced technology.  The connection between organizational commitment and job satisfaction was also pointed out by this study. This was quite essential to find out the interlink between the above-mentioned factors. The research revealed the inclusion approach as per the management of diversities in order to create job satisfaction. It is noteworthy that, the study represented the organizational commitment towards the activities and values. As a result, the positive attitude of employees contributed towards fulfilling the organizational goals. In regard to job satisfaction, the organizational commitment revealed the interlinked between organization commitment and job satisfaction.

The study showed that how the Human Resource Management maintains the organization commitment by providing multicultural approach. Through some negative impacts found regarding the workplace place. Still, the study had provided unintentional circumstances across the organization of the UK. It can be said that, concerning organizational commitment, the study marked the sexual norms in terms of age, nationality. It was seen that the UK organizations not intended to focus the physical disability and gender in compare with the other countries worldwide. Hence the issues regarding gender orientation found as creating huge impact throughout an organization. It can be concluded that inclusive leadership is quite essential for winning the emergency circumstances.  The study focused on the inclusive of the leaders as ‘Transformative.’ The way of spreading maximum awareness organizations enhanced the challenges that were enriched. Considering the workforce diversity, this paper provided the characteristics of ‘Prototype Leadership.’ The hierarchical management of the organization perceived through the organizational contribution and team exclusion. Furthermore, this study revealed how diversity management affected the skin color of the people, especially women workers.

Furthermore, the study presented two UK based organizations such as ‘Lloyds Banking Group’ and ‘P&G,’ UK. This study showed that how these organizations took the initiative regarding ‘Innovative Methods of Inclusion.’ As a result, the organization implemented the multi diversity inclusion in its entire corporate culture. Hence, the organization prioritized the strategy in terms of gender equality. That was also revealed beneficial for the employees of the organization, especially the females one. Concerning the organization ‘P&G”, UK, the study revealed an incorporating commitment regarding inclusion and diversity in-depth of its workplace culture. Since the seven years, the company focused on the advancing women leaders through the ‘Comprehensive Leadership Development Strategy.’ Study presented the result, of 2008 to 2013,  where women representatives among P&G managers had achieved by 44%. Hence, this paper concluded that inclusion foster organizational commitment with its positive impact.


Examining the impact of inclusion regarding organizational commitment, some recommendations found that are as follow:

  • The long-termed commitments of workplace diversity and its approaches are required to be addressed properly. The opportunities, norms, cultural acceptances, and bits of knowledge are needed to be managed effectively. The maintenance of organizational commitment is optimistic for overcoming the barriers that are related to discrimination, communication, and socio-cultural responsibilities. The awareness regarding the inclusion of moral standards, diverse culture, and organizational commitment are suggested to maintain accordingly for betterment.
  • Concerning the job satisfaction, the organizational commitment paid as significance attention. Hence, the hierarchical activities of inclusive nature are recommended to provide more job satisfaction along with a friendly environment. It is optimistic that the satisfied employees would be much committed towards their works. The job satisfaction is considered as a major factor for fostering the organization commitment.
  • The barriers of employee dissatisfaction require paying attention to Human Resource Management. The ‘Motivational Theory of Leadership’ is suggested to apply in order to influence the employees. Some different factors, such as ‘HRM Contemporary Model,’ ‘Psychological Agreement,’ and bonding of employees and employees, need to get more committed for better serving the organization.
  • The inclusion is recommended to pay attention regarding managerial and organizational practices. It is optimistic that, actual accessing towards the valuable opportunity can lead to solving the vast discrimination. The practices of inclusion can be persued for making equal access regarding the decision-making process and resources of the organization. Conversely, it would be equally beneficial for the future outcomes of the organization.


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