This literature review chapter is prepared to provide an in-depth understanding of type 2 diabetes management. The importance of a high fibre diet in type 2 diabetes management is analysed in this chapter. Debates can be described as chronic medical situations where sugar or glucose levels build up in the bloodstream. The insulin hormone allows the transfer of glucose from human blood into the cells. However, in the case of type 2 diabetes, human body cells are not able to react to the insulin as they need to. In the last stages of this disease, the human body cannot produce sufficient insulin.
Type 2 diabetes can lead to high blood sugar levels and cause various symptoms and complications. As per the view of Roden & Shulman (2019), the long-term effect of this disease can lead to extensive sugar circulation in the bloodstream. This research will focus on the symptoms and causes of the disease and identify the medication and prevention strategies. There is no particular cure available for this disease however it can be controlled by maintaining a healthy lifestyle. Medications and diet control are essential to managing type 2 diabetes effectively. This study includes the diets and diagnostic tests that are required to maintain this disease.
Individuals who have type 2 diabetes, their bodies cannot utilize insulin to bring glucose into the body cells. As per the view of Zheng, Ley & Hu (2018), type 2 diabetes forces the human body to depend on alternative sources in the tissues, muscles, and organs. This disease consists of a chain reaction that can lead to several symptoms and complications. As per the view of Drucker (2020), type 2 diabetes develops slowly in the human body and at the initial stage, the symptoms can be mild and easy to dismiss. The initial symptoms of this disease include lack of energy, continuous hunger, weight loss, fatigue, frequent urination, blurry vision, and dry mouth. These symptoms need to be addressed seriously by the individuals to detect the disease in the initial stage.
Figure 1: Symptoms of type 2 diabetes
(Source: Zheng, Ley & Hu, 2018)
In the later stages of the disease, the symptoms become more serious and dangerous for the individuals. As per the view of Rasmussen et al. (2020), individuals’ blood glucose levels can go high in the final stages of type 2 diabetes. The symptoms of the final stage of this disease include yeast infections, dark skin patches, foot pain, numbness, and slow-healing ability. These symptoms need to be taken seriously and proper medications need to be applied to control this disease.
Insulin is a natural hormone that is produced and released by the pancreas when individuals eat. As per the view of Langenberg & Lotta (2018), the human body becomes resistant to insulin in case of type 2 diabetes and this disease reduces the efficiency of the human body. This situation puts pressure on the pancreas to produce more insulin than the usual scenarios. As stated by Khunti, Khunti & Seidu (2019), the additional pressure on the pancreas can damage the cells in the pancreas, and eventually, the pancreas stops producing insulin. The situation may cause type 2 diabetes in the human body which can further lead to serious symptoms and complications.
Figure 2: Causes of type 2 diabetes
(Source: Langenberg & Lotta, 2018)
Glucose builds up in the bloodstream of the human body if the human body cannot produce sufficient insulin. As per the view of Ato et al. (2019), human body cells may starve for energy if the body is unable to generate sufficient insulin. Cell dysfunction can happen in the pancreas due to the added pressure to produce more insulin for the body. The liver may produce additional glucose which can lead to the development of type 2 diabetes. Genetic predisposition can influence the risks of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes.
The treatment for type 2 diabetes is mainly focused on medications and a healthy lifestyle. It will help patients to reduce the risks and help them to get overcome and control their challenges. Diabetes is a dry disease that can affect a person’s overall body and it is the route of other complications. There are different types of medications implemented by the patients such as biguanides, sulfonylureas, meglitinides, DPP inhibitors, alpha-glucosidase inhibitors, thiazolidinediones, glitazones, TZDs, and SGLT2 and bile acid sequestrants (Zsóri, Illés, & Czakó, 2018). These are examples of the medication treatment of type two diabetes patients. The biguanides include metformin which is a common drug to mitigate and maintain diabetes. It helps a patient to process their liver to hang for making glucose. The sulfonylureas and meglitinides help the patients to maintain the pancreas to make insulin in the body.
Figure 1: Treatments for type 2 diabetes
(Source: Khunti, Gomes, & Medina, 2018)
The DPP inhibitors help patients in their body to break hormones in their pancreas and it works to maintain blood sugar in the patient’s body. The alpha-glucosidase inhibitors help patients of type two diabetes to help the digestion system on foods such as pasta, bread, rice, corn, and potatoes (. The thiazolidinediones, glitazones, TZDs help patients help insulin to work better in the body. The lower insulin in the body resistance the cells of the patients therefore the pancreas does not get work in a good process. SGLT2 inhibitors help the patients to maintain the kidneys and pee the extra sugar of their body (Khunti, Gomes, & Medina, 2018).
There is no particular cure for type 2 diabetes, a healthy lifestyle and regular medications can help individuals to control this disease. As per the view of de Bhailís, Azmi & Kalra (2021), metformin can be used by individuals to reduce their blood glucose levels and improve the responses of the human body to insulin. Medications such as sulfonylureas can be used to help the human body to make sufficient insulin. As per the view of Patakfalvi, Brazeau & Dasgupta (2019), meglitinides can be used by individuals to stimulate the pancreas to produce sufficient amounts of insulin. Thiazolidinediones can be taken to make the human body more sensitive to insulin. Medications such as dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors can be utilized to lower blood glucose levels in the human body. Sodium-glucose contransporter-2 is proven beneficial to restrict kidneys from reabsorbing glucose in the blood and transferring it in the urine.
Figure 3: Medications for type 2 diabetes
(Source: de Bhailís, Azmi & Kalra, 2021)
A proper diet is important to maintain type 2 diabetes patients and help them to maintain a good healthy lifestyle. Diet is an essential tool; it helps to keep patients’ blood glucose in a healthy and safe range and helps to maintain heart health. The patients should eat snacks and meals on schedule. As per the view of Meng, Bai, & Chen (2017), the patients should choose different types of foods including low calories and high nutrients. The patients should focus on not getting overeat. The patients should choose carbohydrates to take fibre and they should focus on the food that they are choosing to eat. Whole fruits, legumes, beans, non-starchy vegetables, oats and quinoa, and sweet potatoes are examples of fibre foods.
On the other hand, the patients should eat foods with omega 3 fatty acids for a healthy heart. Sardines, tuna, salmon, halibut, mackerel, cod, and flax seeds are the foods of omega 3 fatty acids. The patient should get healthy polyunsaturated and monounsaturated fats from different types of foods. There are various types of oils such as canola oil, olive oil, and peanut oil that can help to maintain the polyunsaturated and monounsaturated for patients (Huntriss, Campbell, & Bedwell, 2018). The different types of nuts such as pecans, almonds, and walnuts are also helpful as well as the avocados are also can improve the healthy polyunsaturated and monounsaturated fats.
Figure 2: Diet for type 2 diabetes management
(Source: Meng, Bai, & Chen,2017)
These options help a patient to follow and maintain a proper diet chart for healthy fats and it also helps to maintain calories. Opting for low-fat products in type two diabetics can help to keep a patient’s fat maintain and under control. Type two diabetes patients should focus on a healthy lifestyle and a healthy food lifestyle can change the health conditions and improve freshness in a patient’s life. Therefore the patients should pass on sugars and baked goods because this can increase the blood sugar and not provide nutrients. The patients should avoid alcohol and tobacco inhalation.
Various processes are there to diagnose type two diabetes such as random blood sugar tests, fasting blood sugar tests, and oral glucose tolerance tests. All these are necessary to know the sugar level of a person and it helps in understanding food habits or type of diabetes. American Oral glucose tolerance test is the most vital test, which is for pregnant women who have type two diabetes. It is necessary for pregnant women to consume sugar liquid in front of a doctor to test the level of sugar periodically. It is normal if the oral glucose tolerance test of a person is less than 140mg/dL, where 140mg to 199 mg/dL shows a person has prediabetes (Punthakee, Goldenberg & Katz, 2018). A fast blood sugar test is another diagnostic test that can be done with the help of blood samples of a person who is in overnight fasting.
A random blood sugar test is the very first diagnostic test of diabetes and it checks sugar level of last eaten food. Apart from all these things, doctors suggest healthy eating, weight loss, regular exercise, medication, therapy, and blood sugar monitoring systems. Insulin therapy and weight loss surgery are two other diagnosis processes of type two diabetes. Weight loss surgery can be done for heavyweight people and it improves the digestive system of a person (Fink, Fach & Schröder, 2019). Weight loss surgery helps in losing weight of diabetic people and reduces obesity levels through the surgical process.
People can check their body mass index value and can overcome such diabetic conditions. Insulin therapy is another diagnosis option for type two diabetes patients and it helps them to avoid any kind of body surgery (Pittas et al. 2019). People take insulin through injections and it defines whether a person is stable or not in a broad manner. Insulin therapy is used by most young people as they sometimes get addicted to it and avoid other diagnoses in a large manner.
Doctors conduct this test after identifying symptoms of a person and different types of treatment for diabetes. It is necessary to cut sugar levels and refined carbohydrates from daily food routine. People can take insulin at any time of day and it reduces the level of blood sugar on a large scale, however, they may face side effects of insulin such as very low blood pressure and diabetes ketoacidosis (Wicker & Pfeiffer, 2018). It is necessary to work out regularly to prevent type two diabetes on a large scale and daily activities help in mitigating any kind of issue from health. Drinking water is a good habit in this case and losing weight can help in reducing the diabetes rate. It is necessary to quit smoking as it can increase the diabetes rate of a person.
Low carbohydrate diets can help in such cases and consumption of sugar can reduce diabetes levels. Apart from that, it is necessary to avoid sedentary behaviour during daytime and as it enhances diabetes levels up to 91% (Zhang et al. 2020). A high fibre diet is another option for this and it is necessary to absorb low carbohydrate foods to reduce blood sugar levels. Absorption of water and insoluble fibres can help to reduce blood sugar levels and risk of diabetes can be reduced.
It is necessary to optimize the level of vitamin D, it can reduce blood sugar level by 43%, and the intake process of processed food can be minimized as it destroys the health condition of a person. It is suggested to eat coffee or tea as it avoids increasing diabetes levels (Peddinti et al. 2017). The Diabetes Association has confirmed a screening tool to diagnose type two diabetes for adults and middle-aged people.
Patients with type 2 diabetes should follow some tips to prevent the risks of diseases. Therefore the patients should follow some exercise, weight management, proper diet chart, Medications.
Type 2 diabetes is mainly associated with an inactive lifestyle and it mostly affects the patients. Therefore the patients should get 30 minutes of exercise a day to help them to improve their overall health.
Being overweight is one of the major reasons to develop type 2 diabetes in a person. Eating a balanced and healthy diet and getting everyday exercise can help type 2 diabetes patients to keep their weight under control.
The proper diet chart can help a person to maintain a healthy lifestyle and a healthy lifestyle is one of the important tips for a type 2 diabetes patient. Patients should follow a regular time for healthy snacks and meals and always prefer small sizes of any foods (Franz, MacLeod, & Robinson, 2017). The patients should take more high-fibre food such as non-starchy fruits, whole grains, and vegetables.
The patients of diabetes 2 who have prediabetes then should follow the medication process every day. As per the view of Huntriss, Campbell, & Bedwell, 2018), The process of medication included glumetza, metformin, Glucophage, riomet, and foramen. It can help the patients to develop insulin sensitivity and help to keep maintaining the blood glucose level.
Based on the above discussion, it can be concluded that type two diabetes can destroy the health condition of people. It is necessary to adopt a low fibre diet to reduce diabetes-related issues, present assessment has determined various aspects of type two diabetes and it has provided symptoms of type two diabetes on a large scale. The present assessment has focused on type two diabetes management systems and provided various information about this. The prevention process of type two diabetes has been provided in a broad manner in the assessment. It has been identified that people can reduce consumption of high carbohydrate foods or sugar-based foods as it enhances diabetes. Diagnosis tests have been provided in this assessment to overcome diabetes-related issues in a broad manner.
Present assessment has provided a recommendation to overcome diabetes-related issues and treatment for type two diabetes has been represented in this assignment. It can be critiqued that water consumption is highly beneficial for a person to overcome any kind of issue. Various things have been represented in this report and people can easily understand the working principle of different kinds of tests to identify diabetes. The assessment has provided medication solutions for diabetes and described the main causes of diabetes.