COPD (Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease) Causes and Symptoms

COPD (Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease) Causes and Symptoms



COPD denotes the Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. The increasing prevalence of this disorder marks it as a major global health concern, resulting in a considerable disease burden for both the society and the infected individuals. The increase of the incidence and the burden associated with COPD seem to be growing. Research blames several factors for the increasing burden and prevalence of COPD including the barely changing smoking popularity, the overall aging linked to the global population, as well as increasing air pollution across the world. More so, another research notes that the disease might be one of the major causes of death and among the top causes of DALYs (disability-adjusted life years) globally by the end of the next decade. In this case, COPD will present a high increase regarding the DALY-caused rankings and mortality compared to 1990. Research highlights that deaths caused by Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease are common in middle to low-income countries. Besides, these nations constitute about 90% of the worldwide COPD deaths. In other words, professionals should place more effort and attention on the control and prevention COPD, particularly in these regions.

Regardless of denoting a growing worldwide health risk, experts still regard Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease as a treatable and preventable health challenge. Pursuing this further, suggested methods of managing COPD often revolve around the application of inhaled medication. Furthermore, researchers agree that the use of inhaling medications ensures direct and accurate administration of treatment to the appropriate part and reduces the chance of systematic absorption. Administering medications through inhalations not only decrease the possibility of respective side effects but also enhances the chances of medical benefit application. Nevertheless, research points out that, the management strategies of COPD have not thrived in guaranteeing ideal efficiency. On the same note, incorrect inhaler technique and non-adherence to medication represent the major causes for the incompetence linked to COPD management approaches. Thus, acknowledging the obstacles to the optimal use of inhalers among victims and establishing solutions to evade these barriers is essential to improve the COPD treatment’s effectiveness.



This assignment therefore adopts the Gibbs model of reflection in presenting a decisive reflective explanation of training such patients on the proper inhaler technique. Gibbs cycle of reflection utilizes an organized debriefing to uphold the reflection type affirmed in the experimental learning cycle of Kolb (2014). The model marks the reflection practice as methodical, incorporating various, distinctive stages to be efficient. Moreover, this reflection model represents a scholarly reflection drawing on research as well as providing a theory to implement the reflection process. Gibbs cycle involves six phases including description, feelings, analysis, evaluation, action plan, and conclusions. The approach is prevalent due to its emphasis on using experience to learn instead of trying to adjust the experience.

Research states that Gibbs reflective cycle is a notable model due to its focus on emotions’ function and admits their relevance in the process of reflection. Furthermore, nursing may often be an emotionally and physically demanding profession. Thus, reflection regarding such emotions and thorough investigation on how to manage them as well as enhance their future management is relevant in nursing.


Description (What happened?)

A 69-year-old man, Melista, was admitted to emergency and accident department with his health attendant’s referral. I have renamed this victim according to his pseudonym “Melista” to maintain and protect confidentiality based on the Midwifery and Nursing council guidelines. In this case, Melista presented a persistent infection on his lower respiratory tract. He also featured a worsening history of congestive cardiac disease and COPD. His record of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease resulted in him being forwarded for upper body x ray, particularly on his chest. Considering his critical condition, a chest x ray would expound further the reason for his lungs’ deterioration. Therefore, Melista was directed to St. John, Pat, Thomas’ ward where I had been working then as the student nurse.

Research considers COPD (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease as a leading factor in global mortality and morbidity. The disease features various characteristics such as severe airway hinderance that advances steadily over time. This gradual airway restriction progress is however an irreversible state. In addition to this, Melista, during diagnosis was instigated on short-term bronchodilators in a kind of inhalers. After all, this treatment line adheres to the respective guidelines of NICE (2010) regarding the management and diagnosis of COPD. These procedures also call for a medical attendant to assess the inhaler technique of the patient throughout and initially at treatment.

After assessment, I found that the inhaler technique of Melista was defective and required intervention. Research adds that inhaler technique is a primary reason for exacerbations. In turn, it often leads to more use of resources associated with COPD management (Bonini and Usmani, 2015). The intervention revolved around showing the patient the ideal inhaler technique. After showing the him the right approach, I requested him to show the technique.


Feelings (What are you thinking and feeling?)

At first, I had little exposure of addressing the issues of victims like Melista. I was not sure whether I was fit for the practice. I had enough theoretical knowledge regarding chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, although my experience dealing with real-life incidents was inadequate. Nevertheless, I did not let my fear overwhelm my profession. So, I started evaluating the issue of Melista. I requested him to show me his inhaler technique. I was surprised to realize how direct Melista’s problem figured. In that, I initially noted that his inhaler technique was inadequate. Since I joined the health center, this was my foremost incident. As a result, I was anxious on whether to inform my mentor regarding the observation I made from evaluating the victim. I waited for my guide to make his observation because I lacked certainty on which element linked to the technique was defective. I tried avoiding any instance that would make Melista uncomfortable because of my skills’ deficiency.

Luckily, my mentor evaluated the patient’s problem and clarified the issue with his inhaler technique. The mentor then requested me to express the ideal method to Melista. At this point, I was fearful regarding demonstrating the approach to the victim in the presence of my mentor. Regardless of me having thorough theoretical comprehension about the inhaler technique, the anxious feeling persisted. Nonetheless, the mentor supervised and supported me throughout the endeavor. Soon, my initial nervousness waned fast upon expressing the appropriate inhaler technique to the patient. I even gained more confidence as I observed Melista demonstrating the correct technique later. Subsequently, I was delighted that my exploits resulted in Melista presenting generally greater control of his symptoms.


Evaluation (What was good and bad about the experience?)

Inclusively, the experience intervening the COPD issue of Melista was both positive and negative. Firstly, the initial feelings of apprehension and nervousness at the demonstration thought before my mentor represents a negative aspect of the experience. Nonetheless, I became more positive after sharing my encounter with my fellow students. I then noted that student nurses often feel anxious when intervening patient problems under their mentors’ supervision. Research concludes that more than half of the nursing students feel that expressing practical skills to patients in front of their supervisors quite intimidating. Research confirms my verdict regarding my experience showing a patient how to manage their chronic obstructive pulmonary disease by use the inhaler technique correctly.

Adding further to my experience helping a COPD patient, positive attributes relate to the satisfaction associated with care provided as well as having the capacity to acquire new exposure. I acknowledged that I should have outlined my foremost thought of improper inhaler technique to help advance my experience of learning. Besides, research says that outlining my initial thought and getting my mentor’s feedback would have been the ideal course of action. Irrespective of all that, I got necessary support as I demonstrated the best inhaler technique to Melista.


Analysis (What else can you make of the situation?)


Conclusion (What else could you have done?)

Conclusively, inhaled medications play a vital part in managing COPD (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease). However, this paper found that most victims rarely use these inhaled therapies accordingly. Improper use of inhaler procedure lead to suboptimal disease control and decrease medication delivery. Health attendants may consider various factors to confirm whether COPD victims realize the optimal results regarding inhaled medications include verifying that the victim uses the proper technique of inhalation or if the victim’s skills proof competent enough to utilize the prescribed inhaler. Additionally, interventions of health promotion which are reinforced using the behavioral and social science principles are more effective than those without a theoretical approach. In this case, emergency admissions related to COPD denote a large challenge in the global health care services. Nursing professionals should have a thorough understanding regarding the different aspects linked to precise learning needs of every patient. Furthermore, this would ensure that these professionals make rational decisions with the best success chance. These endeavors has enhanced my understanding of COPD and helped me further my practice. Lastly, the assignment has allowed me to implement my concept to practice.



Action Plan (If it rose again, what would you do?)

Based on my experience, teaching and assisting Melista has helped me understand the significance of certifying that patients can control their situation. During this experience, proper communication helped in creating a positive relationship between me and the patient. I intend to further my professional development by offering regular learning skills to patients. However, to realize this goal, I should be updated on relevant studies associated with my profession. Training is a major element in furthering professional advancement, which marks a central aspect in revalidation. Besides, perpetual reflective practice plays a critical role in helping me develop my skills, self-confidence, and knowledge.