Public Management Approach: A Case Study of China
The public sector of the country is one of the essential factors of the governmental policy which focuses on maximising the value of monetary resources of the residents. It could also be described as the implementation of managerial tactics to resolve the issues within a particular state (Brambini and Vang, 2018). Over the last two decades, the world is globalising at a significant pace and countries around the globe are under the process of the constant influx of problems and outflux of resources. China is the second-largest economy of the world, and the increased industrialism tends to be the dominating factor which enabled the organisation to possess a strong competitive edge over other countries around the globe. Increased export of products manufactured by China is the clear indication of governmental influence towards the manufacturing sector. However, there are certain problems or areas neglected by the government, which raises several public management challenges for the country (Tan and Tang, 2016). Although, the country is in a healthy state and the ability to cope up with the varying needs of residents is also flexible, but still, the country tends to face certain public management issues. Considering the problems, the current study aims to critically analyse the challenges in the public management services of the UK in accordance with the governance approach. The current study also seeks to provide a feasible solution to how the problems can be dealt with using the governance approach. The study will be of significant importance for the Chinese government as it draws light on the growing issues within China.
The world is globalising at a significant pace. In the complex countries diplomatic code where the countries tend to crumble at the time of technological revolution and increased globalisation, China has proven to be the most effective and dominating countries in the world. According to BRICS, China is one of the top five emerging economies in the world, with worldwide exports (Nayyar, 2018). The country also seeks to fulfil its duties towards the residents of the country, but there are certain areas which are lacking governmental attention. Thus, the growth towards good enough governance is influencing due to different factors involving political, environmental, social, technological, economic and legal factors.
One of the major challenges faced by China is excessive production in the country. As discussed above, China’s manufacturing plants and the growing production rate tends to be the dominating factor which has enabled the country to grow at a significantly higher pace as compared to other countries around the globe. According to the World Bank (2019), the economy of China is constantly growing, and the exports to the countries around the globe revolve around approximately more than 30.100 billion refer to figure 1 in the appendices. With the statistical analysis provided by the World Bank, it can be interpreted that China is one of the most dominating countries around the globe. Despite the advantages and worldwide recognition of the country, there are certain threats imposed by the country to the residents. One of the major threats imposed by the increased production includes the emission of hazardous substances and residential health system. According to World’s Top Exports (2020), China is the top exporter of diversified products, including machinery, mobile systems, computer parts and automobile refer to figure 2 in the appendices. By exporting different products, China raises a substantial amount of revenues which is then invested in the development of the country. However, despite the huge revenue generation, the environmental sustainability of the country is not as effective as it should be. The production system of the country is constantly growing, which is resulting in the emission of Co2 and other hazardous substances which have proven to be lethal for the residents of the country. According to a report by Forbes (2018), an approximate amount of deaths around the globe due to the emission of hazardous substances and the pollution revolves around more than 5.5 million, where China tends to play a key role in the growth of the death rate. Increasing death rate is the prime example of the severity of the problem of how polluting the environment is becoming and in what manner the governance strategy is failing to cope up with the basic need of people.
Apart from the technological revolution and increased industrialism in the country, another issue posed by the governance strategy of the country includes ethnicity. In the process towards globalisation and technology-oriented country, the concerns of residents play an important role in the country’s success or failure. The decision making process and need analysis system of the country is strongly influenced by the culture, religious values and the ways of doing things of the environment (Weller, 2018). The decision-making process has strong relevance with the religion and values of an individual, and countries plan the strategy in accordance with the needs of residents. The countries such as the UK understands the importance of the value system and how they enable the countries to achieve implicit and explicit goals. Thus, the countries tend to use the Arnstein Ladder to involve the audience as much as possible to bring the desired results (Kotus and Sowada, 2017). However, the system of Governance in China follows the communist ideology where the no-religion philosophy is carried out. The system of Governance of China does not believe in religion and expects residents to do the same. The theory of communism by Karl Marx is of the view that the state is the only religion for the residents (Tucker, 2017). The people of the country should accept the country as its representative. The communism system in China raises several problems for the religion-oriented residents of the country. Thus, the problem of ethnicity within the state is the most prominent failure of the governance strategy of the country. Although the religion selection is a right of the individual and no one can force any individual to accept a certain religion in accordance with the Article 18 (Riggins, 2017). However, China tends to operate by the rule of communism, and the intensity of the issue poses certain challenges for the residents.
The resource allocation system of China is also another failure of the public management of the country. China is the technology-oriented country where the business and educational world is heavily dependent upon the technological revolution and globalisation (Paus, 2019). The increased technological dominance system enables the country to maximise the exports and earn a significant amount of revenues. However, there are certain limitations that hinder the effectiveness of an effective public management system. According to World Atlas (2019), some of the most developed countries of China include Beijing, Shanghai, Chongqing and Guangzhou refer to figure 3 in the appendices. Since the population in the countries is high, the resource allocation process of the country forces the public management planning to allocate the maximum amount of resources to the developed cities and industries. The process of allocating heavy resources disables the country’s ability to invest heavy resources to the developing or backward cities. The public management system of the country should be diversified enough to cope up with the varying needs of residents with the effective budget allocation system and capital investment (Kwarteng, 2018). Although China is an emerging economy with excessive technological dominance system, there are certain cities such as Xiaoguancheng and Sichuan are some of the most backward cities of China which tend to lack on resources as well as the facilities. The inequality of the resources in backward cities has a high intensity, and it indicates that the country is lacking an effective public management system and certain strategies need to be adopted to cope up with the varying needs of residents.
China is one of the top five emerging economies in the world in accordance with BRICS (Roberts et al., 2018). However, the technological revolution and increased globalisation tend to pose substantial effects on the growth of the country. In the previous section, some of the public management issues were discussed. The current section seeks to critically analyse the environmental problem in China and how it could be controlled using the effective governance system. To the best of the researcher’s knowledge, the normative approach of corporate governance can play an effective role in dealing with the issues arising in China. China is one of the biggest exporters which not only manufacture high-quality products, but it is accountable for a sum of the world’s exports refer to figure 6 in appendices. According to Statista (2017), China is the world’s strongest exported that ensures the manufacturing and availability of goods in different countries refer to figure 3 in the appendices. However, the process of production tends to emit excessive hazardous substances which result in a high death rate in the country. The normative corporate governance system is the resident based value system which focuses on the values of the residents. China tends to highly indulge in the corruption and inequality system (Cervantes et al., 2017). Although the country is growing at a significant pace, issues such as corruption are also growing heavily. The normative approach focuses on the citizen engagement and ethical code of conduct which disables the growth of unethical factors affecting the residents of the country. In developed countries such as the UK, the concept of corporate social responsibility (CSR) is under the process of constant growth (Brejning, 2016). The country is growing at a significant pace, and technological revolution not only enabled the businesses code of conduct to provide a high-quality production system and making up to the varying consumer demand but also enabled the individuals to possess a strong insight to what factors influence the health of individuals. Although the death rate in the country is also high, the changing preferences of individuals towards a sustainable environment have forced organisations to focus on CSR activities heavily.
Unlike the UK, China is not a developed country, but it is one of the top five emerging economies, and the issue could be dealt with the collaboration of governance with residential norms and code of conduct. Since the normative approach focuses on the ethical code of conduct, potential issues in the country could be avoided (Floridi, 2018). In the debate of environmental friendliness and residential ways of doing things, the theory of triple bottom line holds significant importance. Triple bottom line theory enables the organisation to deal with both the ethical issues without sacrificing the residential values of the country. The theory of triple bottom line exclusively focuses on the environment, social and financial factors of the country (Hussain et al., 2018). The theory could be applied to the current problem at hand where the environmental problems are affecting the residential health at a significant pace. The public management system of the organisation could focus on increasing the CSR concerns of the organisation. The concept of CSR states that the organisations operating in a certain country must give something back to society instead of the basic products. Thus, the organisation tends to carry out environmental friendly strategies which decrease the unethical behaviour in a specific country. China could avail the opportunity by using the normative approach of corporate governance. As discussed in the previous section, some of the issues faced by China due to ineffective public management system includes the ethnicity, resource allocation system and the environmental friendliness. Apart from ethnicity, both of the issues could be dealt with the adoption of a normative approach.
To effectively carry out the strategy, the country needs to use the multi-level governance approach as the intensity of the issue has proven to be lethal for millions of residents. On the basis of geography and population, China represents approximately 20% of the world’s population according to World Economics (2020) refer to figure 4 in the appendices. The huge representation of the population is a clear indication that the country has to use the multi-level governance system. The concept of a multi-level governance system is heavily dependent upon the fragmentation of governance. The dispersed governmental strategy tends to emphasise the areas of importance competitively better as compared to the other mods of governance. Thus, the multi-level governance system is a necessity for China to have better control over the growing issues. The country could also use the Arnstein Ladder to involve the audience (Kotus and Sowada, 2017). Arnstein Ladder is an essential framework that represents the residential involvement in the decision making the process of governments and how it enables the governments to develop 100% optimise plans. By involving the diversified spectrum of residents from a fragmented location, the country could plan the strategies effectively and efficiently. Considering the market and location situations in China, there is a heavy need for environmental friendly strategies to limit the growth of the factors affecting human health by polluting the environment (Dermody et al., 2018). Considering the risk factors, it is essential for the countries around the globe to make substantial changes in the hierarchy. Although the points laid out in the bureaucratic system presented by Weber holds significant importance in the hierarchal management. However, in order to comply with the changing dynamics, it is essential for countries to make deserved changes to get desired results.
The automotive industry of China is one of the world’s strongest markets which is accountable for the effective contribution to the GDP of the country. The automotive sector of China also tends to be the most polluting sector. According to Statista (2019), the automotive sector of China has suffered from a huge downturn which created substantial devastation between many authors around the globe refer to figure 5 in the appendices. Considering the growing issue in the country, China took a substantial leap and devised new strategies by the name of China VI (Cui et al., 2018). The new emission standards influenced the automotive sector heavily, and the huge decline in commercial vehicles and passenger cars has been observed. The authors around the globe have labelled China VI emission standards is the most challenging emission standards in the world. Refer to figure 5 in the appendices; the substantial decline in automobile sales has affected the country to a significant extent. The automobile sector of China contributes significantly to the growth of the GDP, aggressive taxation policies and emission standards tend to affect the revenue generation of the country. Adaptation of new strategies is the clear indication of the preference towards environmental friendliness by the country, but the issues tend to raise a number of issues. China needs is a technology-driven country, and certain technology could be adopted to reduce the emission of hazardous substances. But the stance taken from the government of China tends to affect the revenue generation system of the country. By using the normative approach of governance, China can control the emission system without sacrificing the revenue generation. The normative governance approach focuses explicitly on the norms and ways of doing things of a specific society (Jinnah, 2017). The country could devise the strategies in accordance with the residential code of conduct. However, the aggressive emission policies devised by the government of China is not effective for the country as seen in figure five in the appendices that the production of automobiles have suffered a substantial decline and the country might suffer from even more revenue loss in the future.
Apart from the automobile sector, environment-friendly strategies also need to be implemented in the production of mobile phones and computer-related products. The products manufactured in China have dominated the businesses diplomatic code around the globe and marketplaces across the globe are filled with China-made products. However, increased production tends to affect the environment at a significant extent. According to Science Daily (2015), professors from more than 2 universities have observed the excessive carbon dioxide in the products made in China. Same product manufactured in another country tends to have way less carbon dioxide as compared to the products made in China. The report further debates that there are certain sectors such as steel mills, minerals and manufacturing sector of the emerging economies such as China tends to have an excessive emission of hazardous substances. Thus, the country’s need to develop a plan that deals with the changes is a necessity. The problem faced by China could be resolved using the normative governance approach. The normative governance approach focuses heavily on the rights of individuals and guides the country towards a certain ethical code of conduct. Thus, China could carry out different marketing activities to increase awareness among residents of the country about environmental concerns. Furthermore, the imposition of environmental-friendly corporate governance model could also be used to limit the growth of the factors affecting human health in China.
After critically analysing various factors, the study concludes that there are different problems faced by China’s public management plan, and the issues are arising at a significant pace. The countries tend to face the resource allocation system problem, ethnicity problem and environmental problems. All of the aforementioned problems tend to be of high magnitude as it heavily affects the residents of the country. Among different problems, the environmental factor was chosen to be analysed in the current study as China is labelled as the emerging economy, which ensures the availability of products in different countries. The study further analysed that the environmental problems faced by the organisation could be resolved using the normative governance approach. The country has to use multi-level governance to deal with the growing issue. Furthermore, certain changes in the hierarchal order are also necessary for the change management process. Thus, the country should devise certain strategies in accordance with the normative governance approach. The theory of triple bottom line and corporate social responsibility was also discussed in the current study as it deals with the problems faced by China. The findings of the current study state that both of the theories synchronises with the normative governance approach and with the proper development and implementation of the plan, the growth of factors affecting the country can be stopped. Thus, it is recommended to the country to adapt to changes by using normative governance approach as it enables the country to deal with the changes.
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