Understanding the significance for the need of change and leading the organizations via that change is considered to be the most challenging for any leadership. For organizations and individuals’ change is the only invariable in present life. Some of the changes are reversible in nature whereas others are not as immense risk is involved in managing the change. It has been observed that change management should be quite effective, for instance the capability to move freely, having the capability of influencing others and unswerving the employees and workforces in administrative units and target systems. According to (Bernstein, 2009) all organizations of the modern era are presently undergoing some sort of change. Most of these change programs mainly arise from the management in charge like the business process, empowerment, cultural change and total quality (Fernandez et al. 2012) As explained by (Armstrong, 2003) the modern age is of global competition, turbulence, technological innovation, chaos and discontinuity and therefore the change is inevitable. Thus it is quite important to make necessary effort to protect the different stakeholders that are affected by change. Assessing the significance of the public sector (Civil Aviation Authority Nepal) these efforts must focused on aligning an organization with the continuous change in demands of the business environment and capitalizing the business opportunities. Change management is defined as a structured procedure that mainly causes proposed changes for reviewing the business and technical readiness in a constant manner that can be tightened or relaxed for adjusting the business experience and needs (Doppelt, 2017).
The change management is basically aligned to the employee performance in all the areas that functional in nature of the organization. For bringing in a change for making the organization successful, it is critically essential for building a work environment that needs dynamic processes, people, culture and systems. Thus all the change process stages must be followed intensively for avoiding the affect on employee performance. The organizations that successfully manage their change are considered of having integrated the policies of human resources with their strategic change and strategies (Weiner, 2009). Critically assessing the public sector of Nepal like other sectors in the economy is operating in a very intensive turbulent environment featured by enhanced competition, the continuous changing technology, adoption of the total quality management along with re-engineering of business processes. The Total Quality Management is considered to be an organization’s significant effort for improvising the quality via changes in practices, structure, attitudes and systems. The Business Process re-engineering is defined as the small and large initiatives, conservative and radical, whose major theme is to achieve the significant improvisation of organizational performance by enhancing the effectiveness and efficiency of significant business processes. (Thompson, 1997) referred that strategic change mainly arises out for organization need for exploiting the emerging or existing opportunities and deal with varied threats in the market. Considering the scenario of the Civil Aviation Authority Nepal the public sector has also not been left behind in this prolific process. On the other hand employee performance is of great significance and plays a key role along with change management. Employees being considered assets of an organization perform different activities and all the activities are mainly related to each other for achieving the goals or targets. All these activities performed by the employees help the organization to progress and establish a secure market position. Assessing the significance of employee performance in CAAN it is quite important to encourage all the employees by evaluating critical factors like training, skills, motivation, welfare, dedication, promotion and communication. All these key factors are the major aspects that drive the employee performance and needs to be understood by the management so that the efforts can be put into the strategic direction. Thus along with change management in public sector the employee performance is considered to be the key for having a prolific impact on the operations of the organization.
According to Bringselius (2014), management viewed hurdles to the organizational changes is a major issue regarding employee resistance, rendering the change ineffective. Whereas on the other hand Lawler and Sillitoe (2010) claimed that a model of change management may bring in reduction of employees’ resistance to change, eventually successfully instituting the various changes in management in the public sector and performance management. It has been observed that various organizations face challenges that force in adjusting or change. Development organizations like the CAAN particularly, needs to go through varied change processes while responding to the new development situations or just as a significant part of restructuring or expansion processes, Enhancing the market pressures specifically force the companies in implementing the drastic organizational changes for remaining competitive in nature. Public sector organizations like CAAN’s overall performance are affected by group and individual performance of the employees. Assessing the situation of issues faced by the public sector, it can be assumed that the public sector faces intense challenges in prevention of the employees’ loss to the competitors. These significant challenges have led to bring in significant change in the management for being more supportive and finding prolific ways for retaining and attracting talents.
Public sector being one of the most important sectors for an economy faces a significant problem of implementation of the strategic change management. Change management is considered to be a major functional are of management that is hardly appreciated or known by most of the managers. Thus it follows the skills those are needed for effectively managing the changes that are lacking for improvising the employee performance. Assessing the significance of change management and employee performance mainly in public sector in reference to CAAN, the research specifically aims in studying the prolific impact regarding the variables of organizational change like communication, leadership, employee development, tolerance to the changes and its prolific effect on the performances of the employees in the public sector in Nepal. This research study therefore emphasizes on improving the significant understanding of the organizational change and the possible effects mainly in the public sector in Nepal.
The aforementioned objectives of the research study prolifically highlight the key aspects for identifying the significance and importance of the research study on the chosen topic. As already mentioned the study would provide a significant analysis and evaluation of the change management and the impact on employee performance mainly in regards to the public sector organization Civil Aviation Authority Nepal. The entire research study would also enable in assessing the output level which can be considered by the impact of change management. Taking the perception of change management and its influence on employee performance this specific research study will also help in evaluating the longevity, development, success and growth of organizations by implementing change management.
Critically analyzing and evaluating the current study, the context of the study has been set on two significant factors i.e. change management practices and employee performances. Assessing the significance of both these key factors the study critically evaluates the impact of organizational change and employee performance.
Change management is considered as a set of distinctive procedures that are basically employed for ensuring the prolific changes that are implemented in a controller, orderly and systematic way to effect the organizational change. According to (Lewis and Seibold, 2008) change management is referred to a process of involving moving, unfreezing and refreezing the procedures, values and practices within the organizations. Unfreezing is mainly referred to the development of a professed discrepancy in between the ideal and existing state of an organization that generate the desires for change and lowering the resistance to change for the people. Moving on the other hand refers to the distinctive processes like education, training and reconstruction of the lead for developing new behaviors, beliefs and attitudes. Refreezing is referred to reestablishing a new equilibrium state within the organization mainly by stabilizing the new patterns via varied support mechanisms (Doppelt, 2017). According to (Moran & Brighton, 2011) change management is referred to as the process of continuous renewing the direction, capabilities and structure of an organization for serving the ever-changing needs of internal and external consumers. Like various other scholars (Brunes, 2004) explained that the change of organizational life is a present feature, both at the strategic and operational level, Due to the significance, change management is actually becoming imperative in nature and it therefore needs suitable managerial strategy and skills.
The change process was described by (Weinrich and Koontz, 2004) by using the Lewin’s model. The entire procedure involves three significant step approaches for introduction of the change, unfreezing, moving and refreezing. (Dessler, 2002) supported the three step model saying that leading an organization change is actually a multistep process. The author claims that there is a ten step change process that mainly starts with establishing the urgency sense, mobilization of commitment via diagnosing the problems, development of guiding coalition of the people who are influential, creating shared vision, communicating along the vision, helping all the employees for making the change, developing wins for short term, produce more change and consolidating gains, anchoring the new ways for performing operations in the organization’s culture and lastly observing the progress and adjusting the vision as needed (Weiner, 2009). On the other hand (Brunes, 2000) explained about the three significant phases of planned change. It mainly includes the planned phase, the action phase and the integration phase. The author mainly described these four major phases of change as initiation, design change process, implementation and reviewing and consolidation.
One of the major change management goals is with regards to the overcoming resistance to the human aspects of change for organizational members to purchase into change and acquire the objective of an effective and orderly transformation. Thus, it is essential for the change management to anticipate and prepare the likely reactions of all the employees and establish how to manage them. The various perceptions to change arise because of the difference in the employees’ background and their perception regarding change outcome (Van Dooren, Bouckaert & Halligan, 2015). Considering the significance of public sector mainly in Nepal adopting to change is a quite difficult objective to achieve, not only because it is unrecognized but also due to once set interpretations, patterns and values are quite tough to modify. However it should be taken into consideration that once it has been determined regarding the desired objective of the strategic change, organization members can engage in a number of steps that would put the entire process of change into motion.
Performance is mainly referred to as the efforts conversion into the productivities for achieving significant results. (Jackson & Mathis, 2003) defines the employee performance concept as what the employees does or does not. (Baldwin, 2003) added that employee performance is mainly referred to carrying out the actions in an efficient and effective manner to meeting the agreed job objectives. The author also added that employee performance can be impacted by a series of key factors like training, motivation, participation, innovation and improvisation of different communication channels (Fryer Antony, & Ogden, 2009). Employee performance is considered to be a significant aspect from the organizational point of view as it helps in enhancing the organizational commitment of all the employees. It has been observed that high commitment among the employees helps in overall success and development of the organization.
Employee performance in the public sector has been pragmatic to be a significant aspect as it is associated with the organizational trust and it also helps in enhancing the employee performance. As explained by (Kim et al. 2004) employee performance serve as a prolific predictor in the organizational retention as well as commitment. For instance, when the employees are quite satisfied with their job, they tend be more proactive in providing quality services that exceeds the expectations of the consumers as well as positively impact the attitude of the consumers towards providing service (Radnor & McGuire, 2004). Whereas on the other hand, the employees those who are not content with their job likely to face huge complications like occupational stress which impacts their productiveness in a negative manner. Occupational stress leads the employees to be less productive and therefore it is quite essential for the organization to consider that the employees are satisfied with their respective job. High performing, highly committed and happy employees are considered to be the most valuable assets or resources to the public sector organizations like Civil Aviation Authority Nepal. In terms of public sector change management and job performance of the employees play the key role in determining the organizational performance (Karakas, 2010). Highly performing individuals are the ones assisting in achieving the strategic aims therefore sustaining the competitive advantage of the organization.
Change management and employee performance is interlinked as it influences an organization with significant work related outcomes. Change management and employee performance prolifically helps in assessing the organizational performance to an immense extent. Thus, from evaluating the aforementioned aspects the research aim can be assessed as the significant impact of change management in employee performance. The research study critically provides insights about the significance of change management and how it impacts the performance of the employees in public sector. For critically evaluating the impacts and significance of the chosen topic, the Civil Aviation Authority Nepal has been taken.
Following the key aspects of the chosen topic, the key objectives of the research proposal can be analysed by considering the below mentioned aspects:
The aforementioned objectives of the research study prolifically highlight the key aspects for identifying the significance and importance of the research study on the chosen topic. As already mentioned the study would provide a significant analysis and evaluation of the change management and the impact on employee performance mainly in regards to the public sector organization Civil Aviation Authority Nepal. The entire research study would also enable in considering the output level that may be assessed by the impact of change management. Enchanting the perception of change management and its influence on employee performance this specific research study will also help in evaluating the longevity, development, success and growth of organizations by implementing change management.
On the other hand, prolifically evaluating the significant aspects of change management and employee performance, this specific research study would also highlight the key prospects that an organization can take in terms of bringing in a change and positively impacting the performance of the employees. Considering the scenario of the chosen organization performing its operations in public sector i.e. the Civil Aviation Authority Nepal, this research report would help in assessing the distinctive aspects of change management for the betterment of the organization. On an overall basis this research report would also help researchers to conduct research study where this specific paper would help as a reference to critically understand key facts related to the chosen topic.
According to various reports published, it has been observed that there has been a significant increase in overseas visitors from Nepal and statistically, the increase has been round about 42.7% as per the reports published in 2012. It has been noted that despite the significant growth in the aviation industry, this sector has faced critical issues and varied business challenges. As per the studies carried out by distinctive researchers it has been noticed that the sector faces inherent problems because of seasonal and cynical demand, fuel intensity, high capital and labor, political upheavals and government intervention. On the other hand a report published in the year 2000, also explained the major internal issues faced by the aviation sector. During this specific period the airline services mainly the Civil Aviation Authority Nepal faced huge crisis in regards to the customer satisfaction rate. This specifically highlights the significance of goodwill and reputation in this sector evaluating the quality of the offered services. Assessing the literature there are various instances that portrays there has been a significant decline in the quality of airline services mainly due to the ineffective internal operations. Considering the importance of management and performance, change management is effective enough to bring on to the significant changes in the management along with boosting the employee performance for better service quality. This specific research report mainly focuses on analyzing and evaluating the change management in the public sector organization of Civil Aviation Authority Nepal and experiencing how change management impacts the employee performance.
Prolifically investigating the chosen topic, this specific research study can be assessed as the critical assessment, which enables to devise and discover the key aspects, theories and applications. There are key factors that highlight the key review in regards to the significance and need of change management in public sector and employee performance. Specifically evaluating the entire situation of change management and employee performance it can be evaluated that these two aspects play a major function in the success of organizations operating in the public sector. Thus, in reference to CAAN that operates in the public sector, it is very imperative to implement the change management for acquiring the beneficiaries of employee performance, necessary information and consider taking strategic decisions by which success can be achieved.
The entire research study critically provides insight about the relevant and needful information that has been obtained by implementation of different methods like observations, questions and interactions. The significant use of varied analytical models along with theoretical framework prolifically formulate the systematic approach development by evaluating the significance of the change management and employee performance mainly in CAAN the chosen organization performing operations in public sector. The entire section prolifically provides insights about the research methods by emphasizing on the different methodological aspects like research design, research philosophy, data collection and sampling. The following ways enables in providing necessary information that is considered essential for obtaining the final outcomes.
Therefore, for having a significant observation in regards to the statistics test, the explanatory research design is utilized for acquiring needful evaluation of distinctive issues.
Assessing all the three philosophies, the positivism philosophy has been used for completion of the research. This specific philosophy is considered to be quite helpful for considering the qualitative approach which is more subjective than the quantitative approach. The approach mainly emphasizes in reflecting and evaluating the prolific aspects of intangibility factors which are related to the realistic knowledge social realities observation and positive information.
The deductive approach method therefore can be considered as quite significant in data collection by which the final outcomes can be prolifically assessed.
Research techniques are mainly categorized under the quantitative and qualitative research techniques. The below mentioned analysis provides a significant overview in regards to the research techniques used for completing the specific research study.
For completion of the research the qualitative research technique has been used because it enables in implementing distinctive methods that are used for exploration as well as investigation of distinctive procedure of human behavior and nature.
It is considered to be a major phase of the research study as the outcomes and success of the chosen topic for the research study depends on the various methods that has been considered for data collection. Thus, it is quite important for organizing the data that has been collected from various sources.
For completing the research study, both primary data and secondary data has been used. The primary data has been acquired from conducting unstructured interviews and sampling method. The major intention of conducting the unstructured interviews is to explore the responses, topic and issues of the participants. For this, 20 employees and 5 managers of the CAAN would be chosen for collecting the relevant information. On the other hand, the sampling will be mainly done by considering the feedbacks of the questions that would be asked to the participants for accumulating the necessary information. Secondary data has been acquired from varied sources like libraries, relevant books, summaries, articles, newspapers, internet and journals.
Change management in public sector and employee performance, the chosen topic is of great significance. Conducting the research, which prolifically highlights the significance, and impact of the chosen topic it is essential to consider various principles which needs to be maintained in an effective manner. The following key principles highlight the ethical considerations that need to be followed in an effective manner.
Chapter 1: Introduction
This specific chapter mainly involves in providing an in-depth overview about the research study being performed on the chosen topic. A specific background of the study, problem statement, context of the study, and rationale etc. provides an in-depth evaluation regarding change management in public sector and employee performance.
It is further followed by explanation of the research aims, objectives and questions with a brief description regarding the current research significance, research methodology and ethical considerations that needs to be followed in a systematic manner.
Significantly analyzing the entire research study on the topic chosen, it can be stated that there are key aspects that provides in-depth overview about the impacts and significance of change management in public sector organizations by considering the Civil Aviation Authority Nepal. It can be prolifically stated that change management in public sector organizations and employee performance shows the path for implementing the natural concepts of business, which helps the organization to prolifically attain the desired objectives and success.
Evaluating the interviews that have been held for the completion of the research study, a significant overview about the change management and employee performance can be assessed. Though it can be said that the individual outcomes can vary, but it can be stated that the importance of change management in public sector and employee performance tends to change as per the needs. Lastly, the entire research study significantly helps in making sure of the decision making process of change management and its significant impact on employee performance which eventually helps in attaining the goals and objectives of the desired organization i.e. Civil Aviation Authority Nepal.
Moran and Brightman (2001) states change as the process of continuously renewing an organisational structure, approach and capabilities in order to remain competitive to meet ever-changing demands of the market. Similarly Burnes, (2004); Rieley and Clarkson, (2001) emphasizes organisational change as part of the successful organisation and cannot be separated from its operational strategy. Whereas Kotter(2008) states change management remains reactive in case of employee performance. This, link between the need of change, its management and impact on employee performance, remains as vital area in this study.
Change within an organisation can be based on various terms, such as product, service, organisational structure, technology and market. These change activities can be internal or external and directly or indirectly affects people working within the organisation(Sadler, 1996). Similarly resistance to change plays dominant role in change management as change affects other stakeholder’s interest. In process of change employee’s ability, strength and resistance has been identified as crucial element that leads to success or failure of the change process(Bolognese, 2002).
Business organisations change and adapt continuously in order to remain competitive in market (Balogun and Hope Hailey, 2008) but effective organisational change seems to be rare (Meaney and Pung, 2008). In this context implementation is taken as major element than that of strategy. Meaney and Pung (2008) states that, only one third of the organisational change strategy are termed as successful by their leaders. The main reason behind lower success rate is resistance to change (Ford et al, 2008). Change within organisation is associated with various strategic considerations (Schilling and Steensma, 2001) and requires joint efforts leading to improvement in business performance (Balogun and Hope Hailey, 2008).
In this study researcher is exploring the context of change management in public sector (Civil Aviation), its impact on innovation, change strategy implementation, employee involvement and employee performance. Although during the change in leadership of Civil Aviation Authority emphasis on transformational change arises which haven’t turned to action, but up to some extent Continuous change process is going ahead which is uplifting the aviation in Nepal and supporting government policies. This part of the study tries to create base for the study and critically analyses the theoretical context of the topic area – change management and performance. Similarly the views of the authors, scholars and academicians will be contrasted in order to generate understanding over the topic and its implication in selected topic of study.
With the increase in importance change and its impact in business operation its management is also taking central stage in business studies. The efforts of various authors, scholars and researcher’s have helped to refine and identify its real value as per time and situation. Szamosi and Suxbury (2002) states change management as integral part of life and is a continuous process in most organizations. Bye, (2007) states that organisational change is inevitable although organisation’s are ready to deal with it or not. Stewart and Kringas (2003) identifies change as a difficult term to define and states change management as an ubiquitous theme in management literature. However Pettigrew, Woodham and Cameron (2001) stated change management as one of the great element of the social sciences. In this instance Nickolas (2004) identifies the term “managing change” with two meaning making the change in planned and systematic way and response to change where organisation has less control. This clarifies change need to be managed from wider prospective.
Andrews (2008) states that despite multiplicity and variety of change theories available in textbooks, handbooks and courses, the practice of change management is problematic. The increase in strategic flexibility and adaptability generated though globalization have direct impact on each firms regardless of their size, market area and available human resource (Jaros, 2010). Studies conducted by Meaney and Pung (2008);Beer and Nohria, (2000) only one third of the change efforts are successful and raises the issue of how to make change effective?. Ford et al, (2008) believes lower level of success on change management is due to resistance faced from employees and Piderit, (2000) emphasizes on higher understanding of resistance factor can be useful for better result.
From various concepts expressed by authors and scholars managing change topic is a complex term. This requires effective learning and change process intercepted positively between the employee and employers (Beckhard and Pritchard, 1992). Nadler and Tushman (1995) states that organisations are made of various elements such as people, work, informal arrangements and formal arrangements and to make change succeed consideration need to be made over the effect on all these aspects. Similar to this view Waterman (1987) also states organizations are complex beings and requires deep understanding of decision making, rational and irrational elements of internal politics and power, in order to make change effective. Thus in order to avoid confrontational situation or higher level of resistance change management should not be treated simplistically.
In words of Berger (1994) change management is “the continuous process of aligning an organization with its marketplace and doing it more responsively and better than competitors”. In views of Nenge(1990) developing the idea of change is similar to learning where as authors like Dunphy and Stance (1992) came up with blended new idea of role of individual in change process, which shifted the tone towards forces of change and preferred leadership style. Whereas Lichtenstein (2000) identified organisational change as transformative activity through a complex model of change consisting of various stages. Similar to this Burnes (2000) stressed change management as multi level, cross organizational process which extracts the disorganised and incompetent trend that has been followed in an organization and implement strategy to gain competitive advantage. The view of Kurt Lewin(1947) also have some harmony with these view as he focuses on three phases of change management including unfreeze, change and freeze. This theory remained crucial in exploring and understanding change management and has been used widely but the criticism of being based on smaller samples and assumption of change in organisation in constant condition (Marshak and Grant, 2008). As identified by Kurt Lewin(1947); Kotter(2008); Ford et al (2008) the success of change remains vital in acceptance of change by employees. In this context, Palmer and Dunford(2006) states human beings goes though 5 states of grief such as denial, anger, bargaining, depression and acceptance in case of change or loss.
Employee responses to change are impacted by various variables. It is sensible to anticipate that employee will respond since the procedure of progress includes going from the known to the obscure, and when employee respond, it is vital to recognize between the manifestations of their responses furthermore, the causes behind them (Bovey and Hede, 2001b). Following is an study of three factors that exploration unequivocally recognizes as impacting employee’ responses to change: employee’s feelings and insights, correspondence, and employee investment in basic leadership. Confirmation proposes that these variables clarify quite a bit of employee responses, seemingly more than different variables show amid hierarchical change. In spite of the fact that these variables are nearly related and can even be viewed as joined from numerous points of view, each factor contributes individual and critical data.
Similarly Mcarthy and Eastman (2010) states change management includes requesting, deciding, achieving, planning, executing and assessing changes, and utilizing modern management strategies to manage the productivity of challenging situation. This additionally decreases the risk of negative effects and enhances organizational performance in obtaining stated organizational objective. Commerce (2007) also agrees and includes that the theory of change directly relates to organization’s culture on the grounds that change can’t effectively happen without changing the general attitude of the organization.
Apart from that well managed change can lead to increase in employee’s competitive strength with the training and development opportunities offered. Oakland and Tanner (2007) identified increase in employee competencies due to training and communication during change process remains positive for performance. With the increase in awareness, recognition, responsibility and advancement, job satisfaction and motivation level remains high. Whereas job dissatisfaction can be due to communication within organisation, working condition, supervision, organisational policy, job security and salary. These affected employees can be satisfied though involving and engaging in change process. Employee’s willingness to accept change is highly influenced though work related factors such as employee relationship with management, job knowledge and skills and job demands (Miller et al, 2006).
Although there is common consensus of requirement of change for successful operation of organization, the substance to change and how to manage well remains unanswered (Dawson, 1994). Traditionally, the scholars and academicians emphasized on stability in an organisation though least change initiatives (Stacey, 1996) where as McHugh(1996) emphasizes on developing dynamic, competitive strategies and using them continuously. Similarly Bate (1994) identified change as incremental or transformational and in case of the Civil Aviation Authority Nepal (CAAN), incremental change is found to be in application.
Organizational change and its management has evolved as one of the central topic in management theory and practice ( Van de Ven and Poole, 1995; Sturdy and Grey, 2003). Although the history of organizational change is long but is viewed from the organisational development and human resource management perspective. The initial concept of Change developed after World War I in terms of human relations.
Since the early nineteen hundreds, when Frederick Taylor convinced America that management should be scientific, management has been in a quandary endeavouring to discover itself. Typical early management research was based on a hard structure, perpetuated by the naïve views of previous researchers, whose work was also highly structured (Mintzberg 1973). To keep the science current, fresh insight should be frequently sought from the practitioner, and a softer methodology allowing inductive insight should be allowed. Much is written about what academics think managers do, but few studies go into the field to discover what managers really do, and to determine the interface between these two realms of reality.
The perspective of developing the concept of personal management and generating higher productivity remained popular and latter known though Hawthorne studies in 1920s (Drucker, 1954). Similarly Axelrod (2001) emphasized the study conducted by Kurt Lewin (1947) and analysed how motivated employees can lead to acceptance of change and productivity. During that period Lewin’s work on change management created framework for change agency and organisations. Karriker and Williams, (2009) states organisations can obtain competitive advantage though managing employees effectively though using techniques to obtain employee trust and leverage change and minimize resistance. In this context researcher’s like Choi, (2011) and Croonen, (2010) also stresses on the trust of employees on change and use of organizational justice framework. They also believe that the trust on management’s change activities and approaches is driven directly though employee’s feeling of fairness and management of change in an organization (Saunders and Thornhill, 2004).
Cooke, (2001); Greiner and Cummings, (2004) states that although lewin’s work on change management has potential to change but recent evidence identifies as more open to radical intent which was quietly ignored. Similarly Lippitt et al (1958) has great contribution in field of change literature though conceptualizing origin of change. But in recent days change have been categorized as transformational, developmental and transitional change(Anderson and Ackerman, 2001). Various studies by Brown and Wisenhardt, (1997); Gersick, (1991); Romanelli and Tushman, (1994) states the requirement of incremental change management.
The term “change management” became serious force for managers during 1980s and 1990s where most of the companies from North America and Europe get involved in at least one change process (i.e Total quality change, culture change or reengineering) (Cameron and Quinn, 1999). During that period the change in organisational structure was termed as rightsizing. Peters and Waterman (1982)’s work created the wave of how managers can get engaged in leading change. During this period effective change results were also observed and came under managerialist approach to change (Doolin, 2003). But in current days the focus of change has shifted to leadership and culture management (Detz et al, 2000). In management studies there are three elements that directly remains prominent in change management literature. Firstly, unquestioning acceptance of change as requisite of organisational success (French and Bell, 1999). Secondly characterizing change as a threat to organization and finally taking change as an issue of leadership (Woodward and Henry, 2004).
The change has also found to be the compulsion for existence for organisations i.e. 1980’s corporate Japan had severe economic downturn in West and looked for transform rapidly in order to survive (Burnes, 2000). In order to survive and remain competitive organisation also need to encourage the spirit of innovation, experimentation and entrepreneurship with appropriate culture for change (Collins, 1998; Wilson, 1992).
Globalization has also lead to higher degree of technological change in public sector organization. In this context Cetron and Davies (2005) states that the impact of technological advances will continue to play dominant role in structuring the way we work and manage organizations. The study conducted by Green et al, (2003) identified that the input of IT on labour market have higher importance than expected. One of the drawback of transformational change in technology is the change in structure of the organization and increasing mobility of employees(Luff et al, 2000). Due to the availability of technological support available for employees, there is higher change of employees being mobile and there will be no longer necessary for employees to travel to certain site and can work from home(Luff et al, 2000).
After the several criticism of Lewin’s change model several approaches to change were discussed such as culture excellence approach, analytical orientation, punctuated equilibrium model and continuous transformation model. The previous approach to change started from stability for longer period where as revolutionary approach took account of substantively disrupting established pattern and initiating the new base (Romanelli and Tushman, 1994). Continuous change model is based on complexity theory and emphasizes on adaptive position rather than stable equilibrium( Choi et al, 2001). In recent years complexity theory is being highly popular as change is a fundamental element of long term operation to gain competitive advantage and sustain in market. The authors like Black (2000); Macbeth, (2002); Stacey et al, (2002) also agrees that change happens in disequilibrium situation and complex system works as non-linear system. Similarly Stacey et al, (2002) states in order to survive is to develop new rules, which can create abilities to keep organisation operating, on the edge of chaos. Currently organisations face change rapidly in greater volume and of more complex nature (Bennett, 2001). Thus in this context Norton and Fox (1997) has stated that being able to adapt to change and operate is very crucial for organizational success. Norton and Fox(1997) also focused on keeping staffs ready to face challenges created by change where as Ilgen and Pulakos (1999) its a tough task than just telling to get staff ready for future.
The concept of evolutionary change is popular in recent years due to technological transformation and constant tabernacle in the market situation. Evolutionary change involves socio-technical system, total quality management and management by objectives (Yang, Zhou, and Yu, 2009). Similarly George and Jones (2002) emphasized on reengineering, restructuring and innovation for gaining competitive advantage though change.
In various model, views and approach of change evolved in various stages in past have developed great understanding and developed the change management theory stronger. Although the concept and background on development of various views seems different, the main theme identified is change management is a requirement, it can’t be managed in equilibrium position and shift in process is required and challenges in internal and external environment are also found to be major element for change.
With the increase in technological advancement and globalization change is becoming a feature of the organisational life ( Burnes, 2004). Change management is the approach to transition of individuals, team and organisations to certain desired future (Kotter, 2011). Kotter (1995) also states that change is obvious but only the difference is sooner or later, thus there is choice to manage it in structured and effective way or wait for forced change to happen. In order to gain organizational effectiveness business organisations tries to adopt various external and internal change attempts. In such scenario organisation and its management always focuses on the reason behind change, its environment and the internal situation in order to decide the change factors. In case of Civil Aviation Authority of Nepal (CAAN) as well there are various attempts of continuous and transformational change activities but the result or congruency of objective or reason of change and the result is found to be very low. Yang, Zhuo and Yu, (2009) states that the main target of organizational change includes the vision, strategy, culture, structure, technology, leadership style and system. Vision of the organization plays dominant role in guiding the change and its activities. It’s the core value of the organization but in some cases it also adapts accordingly to the external environment. CAAN has focused on gaining rapid success through transformation in its administrative style but the technological infrastructure seems to be the hurdle in the process.
Strategy is the long term goal of an organisation steps and resources required need to be considered in decision making so that the target objective can be achieved. Looking at the history of CAAN it has gone through low cost strategy, global expansion strategy and structural transformation strategy in order to remain competitive in the market. Purchase of big international destination planes was one of its kind, which latter remained fatal due to corruption and operational problems. The case of Boeing 767 aircraft from Austrian airline, Lauda Air was seen as a face changer in terms of Nepalese Airline but was cancelled to operate due to corruption issue (BBC, 2001).
To maintain competitive advantage, organizations must be able to adapt and change quickly. Change is also taken as unpredictable process and creates chaos among the stakeholders (Burnes, 2004; De Wit and Meyer, 2005). The factors that affect change are globalisation, technology, economy, environment and competitors. CAAN’s low level of technological advance acceptance and direct intervention of the frequently changing government have been found as a greatest hurdle in case of remaining competitive in the market.
Apart from knowing the various types of change its important for change leader to identify the forces responsible for change. The monitoring and observation of those driving forces can provide clue to management to move ahead for change with specific objective. The forces of change can be internal as well as external (Kreitner and Kinicki, 2002). The external and internal forces of change as per Kreitner and Kinicki, (2002) can be clarified though following diagram;
Fig. 2.3 Internal and external factor of change
|External forces||Need for change||Internal forces|
|Demographic characteristics Age, education, skills, gender, immigration.||Human resource problem -Job dissatisfaction, absenteeism, staff turnover, productivity, participation|
|Technology -Manufacturing automation, Office automation||Managerial behaviour -Conflict, Leadership, Reward system, Structural reorganization|
|Market changes -Mergers and acquisitions, competition, Recession|
|Social and Political pressure War, Values, Leadership|
Similarly Anderson and Anderson (2001) also identified some factors as driving force for change which includes external environmental forces ( political, economical, social, technological, legal and natural), market requirements (delivery speed, quality, capability of meeting customized needs, innovation, customer service), Business imperatives (change in mission, strategy, goals, product and services, branding), cultural imperatives (Values and norms, working and relating in company) Organizational imperatives (re-engineering, restructuring or work redesign), Leader and employee behaviour and mind-sets. These seven elements shows organizations acts to change due to external changes rather than internal. Although an organization change takes place external environment analysis is to be done in order to remain competitive and gain organisational objective as well.
Change is a continuous process in an organisation to remain competitive in the market and it can remain effective when there is a capable change leader. Leadership is an influential force in an organisation. The leadership style of an individual has direct impact on the group dynamic and operation style. In order to manage change successfully, change leader need to be aware regarding the external and internal forces responsible for change. The external forces of change include demographic characteristics, market changes, technological advancement and political pressure. Whereas, internal forces arises due to human resource problem and managerial decisions.
Civil Aviation Authority of Nepal (CAAN) have various issues related with political situation of the country. With the change in government or ruling party there is flip flop in the top notches and unauthorised use of resources and other pressure to favour specific constituency of ministers have lead to devastating effect (The Himalayan times, 2015). TIA is the only one international airport in Nepal which is also facing various management issues such as pollution, air traffic, flight delays. CAAN have announced to develop Pokhara and Bhairahawa Airport as alternative international airport which can help in managing air traffic faced by TIA. It is also working on unused airports such as Balewa of Baglung, airports of Rajbiraj, Dang, Plungtar of Gorkha to bring them in operation and spread flight services. Apart from that after the banning of Nepali airliners from flying in European airspace due to damning air safety evaluation by International Civil Aviation Authority in 2013 have raised further question on management issues of CAAN (Republica, 2015). Another issue related to ineffective operation is due to the use of CAAN as recruitment centre for loyalists of those in power. These elements directly states that change is a requirement for obtaining CAAN’s objective and deliver quality service to people.
Although many organisations emphasizes on change and its need but more than 70% programmes are found to be unable to obtain their need though change (Balogun and Hope Hailey, 2004). Research conducted by Louis Davis and James Taylor (1975, 1976) identifies that new opportunities and skill requirement arises along with innovation. The acceptance of technology in recent years have lead to decrease the cost of operation but is also opening opportunity for people to use new knowledge to solve existing problem in an organization. Along with the increase in importance of change, there is tremendous surge in concept and process to manage change effectively.
Managers or change leaders face change situations day by day and need to make decisions over them in regular basis. As change is a vulnerable period in organization’s operation and its effective management is crucial. Change management is like handling the transitional situation of certain change which also involves dealing with resistance and its management. Although there are various change methods and framework to introduce change (Kotter, 2007) its crucial to understand the reason behind change and is environment. The change activities within an organization requires documentation and should be controlled based on its objectives during its implementation period. Thus the use of proper change process remains crucial. The change management process also ensures that change is made systematically, use appropriate use of resources for obtaining proposed change and productivity. The success of the change management activities is also determined though the analysis of the cost involved, benefits of change, time and relative opportunities in the market.
Management’s role in management of executing change is a basic issue for effective results of key activities (Buss and Kuyvenhofen, 2011). Change management strategies of organisation and ways to include communication with employees while representing to their worries to the change, and give extra preparing when required (Rouleau and Balogun, 2011, Self and Schraeder, 2009). Late research examined the part of middle management in executing key change with an end goal to feature rule that can enhance effective vital usage (Buss and Kuyvenhofen, 2011). Unmistakably the management of dayto-day elements of middle management is of awesome significance, and that through their practices and musings chiefs can add to methodology (Balogun, 2008). Researchers have contended that management change is essential for organization to survive and succeed (Carter et al., 2012). Analysts bolster that in situations where change is seen as undermining, employee resistance may increment, and organizations require management to actualize effectively the change methodology (Austin, 2009). Original researchers underscored the vital part that human asset practices can play in the administration of progress, so as to look after confide in (Saunders and Thornhill, 2004). Authoritative researchers bolster that organization embrace vital changes to stay aware of the requests and quick pace of natural changes. Hierarchical change may happen consistently or incrementally (Burnes, 2004)
In case of CAAN, it has gone through various change process till the date but most of the objectives of the change hasn’t been achieved (Joshi, 2013) which also clarifies the urgent need of effective change management activity in CAAN. Some of the change activities in CAAN are also found to be affected due to the unstable government irresponsible transfer of funds and change on CAAN’s activities based on interest of loyal members of specific groups of people in power (Republica, 2015). Use of suitable change management models as per the situation of the organization though available resources can play dominant role in case of change management activities of CAAN.
As per the time and situation the views towards change and its management has been found different. In this scenario Mento et al,, (2002) also states that there are various change models intended to guide the change process and its implementation. Some of the widely used change management models are discussed here;
The Lewin’s Change model was developed by social psychologist Kurt Lewin (Kreitner, Kinicki, 2007) and includes the simple concept of changing the shape of a block of ice. He also emphasized change as a common thread which passes though all types of organisation regardless of size, sector and age. There are three steps included in this model- Unfreezing, change and Refreezing (Harper, 2001) and can be stated as below;
Fig 2.4.1: Lewin’s Change model
Unfreeze Change Refreeze
Source: Adapted from Lewin’s (1947)
Unfreezing is the initial stage of change where forces of change becomes higher than resisting forces. The dissatisfaction on current situation, organisation’s strategy, performance and organisation’s ability plays vital role in this stage. Lewin’s second step is changing. In this stage when organisation realize change is required it needs to persuade employees to change, create urgency making aware of demerits of old system and benefits of new system. Change takes place in this stage with the involvement of stakeholder’s making them feel its for them. The third stage is refreezing. In this stage organisation need to integrate new values and tradition and help in stabilize the driving and restraining forces. According to Branch (2002) Lewin’s Model of organizational change can be accomplished through changing the interpersonal skill of individuals, changing organisational structures, systems and directly changing the operation style. Lewin’s model focused on interdependence and ordering factors which clarifies the dependence among different units within organisation.
The assumption of stable condition and operation during change in an organization is one of the major drawback as this model is not suitable in turbulent and chaotic situation. This approach is found to be successful in case of incremental change where as unsuccessful in transformational or radical change (Dunphy and Stace, 1992).
Contingency model of change is also termed as Dunphy and Stace’s model which is extended version of Lewin’s three step model. This theory emphasizes on the situation and organisation needs to vary change strategy based on the environmental situation. Dunphy and Stace (1993) also states that with the difference in organisational structure, process and key values, the influencing factors also varies. Dunphy and Stace (1988) combined change types collaborative and Coercive to incremental and Transformative. After few years later, with added research Stace and Dunphy (1994) cameup with a further extended approach where two intensity of change categories are split into four as follows;
Fig 2.5.2: Stace and Dunphy Change model
Source: Adopted from Stace and Dunphy (1994)
Developmental Transition is a period of continuous change and organization uses this approach in case of their ability to maintain strategic alignment with environment. In this style change is made though consultative style and is more successful in case of team focused environment.
Similarly, Task focused transition also denotes continuous change and is directed from top. In case of this change middle management and upper management play direct role and are accountable for results too.
Charismatic Transformations is used when organisation is out of its fit and needs advantage of the ability of individual and charisma. Thus its also attached with personal characteristics of change leader.
Turnaround change by its name is transformational in nature. This approach is tough and is directly lead by executive management and holds the ability to change radically. This type of change can damage organisational culture, employee motivation and trust.
Thus this change model emphasizes on selection of the most suitable model of change rather than same for all as the environment plays vital role for its successful implementation.
Emergent model of change is also taken as alternative to planned model of change. This model views change from bottom up approach and takes change from open perspective, with ability to adapt on changing conditions (Burnes, 1996). Kotter (1996) from Harvard University developed emergent approach model which is also termed as Kotter’s 8 step model of change include detailed approach of managing change. This management change model can be clarified in detail going though its eight steps as process in managing change as below;
Fig 2.5.3: Kotter’s change model
Source: Adopted from Kotter (1996)
Create sense of Urgency: In order to rush for change leader’s of change often undermine the importance of creating environment and making people take change as its required. In this stage Kotter believes that urgency inspires people and generates the sense of awareness to support change efforts.
Create Guiding Coalition: Change cannot be successful if its forwarded or pushed by a change leader but gathering a group of people from different department and levels can help create environment of change. In this context D. Lee (2012) states gathering people with different skills, knowledge and authority remains vital in allocating and leading responsibilities of change. The new recruitment, training and development of staffs also helps to circulate the significance of the program. In this context, Burke (2008) also states that these types of activities supports the change implementation process.
Establish a vision for change: The answer of what is to be changed need to be compelling to all employees and accepted by them (Nadler & Tushman and why is to be changed is very crucial to make clear communication with people and lead them for change (Tushman,1990; Kotter, 1995). When employees and stakeholders accept change vision, it leads them for engagement in change implementation and indicates that they believe in decisions of organization (Palmer and Dunford, 2008).
Communicate Change Vision: This step focuses on communicating change implementation and confirms that they believe in the decisions by the organization (Palmer and Dunford,, 2008). These should be remained as a success measurement otherwise just completing the change task doesn’t mean we get the result. vision of change and its benefits to its key influencers thorough out the process.
Empowering on vision based action: Kotter’s next step involves the empowerment of others to work on the vision. In this phase of change any obstacles identified should be removed and plans for anticipating and looking ahead for system and process that undermine change.
Create Short term wins: Planning for periodic wins which can lead to main aim of the change project remains vital for encouraging people involved. These types of steps helps employees remain willing to change that the change implementation process is moving ahead successfully and provides alerts to resistant factors to change as change is important for organisational success.
Consolidate gains and build more change: Instead of declaring victory soon change leader need to use short term wins as reputation and keeps changing.
Anchor New approaches in the culture: Its crucial to make change a continuous process in order to meet the changing needs of the organisation thus it need to be inserted in organization culture so change reinforcement keeps continuing.
In this model there is huge responsibility on leader for organisational change. Apart from that this change process emphasizes on the on-going change process and making part of organisational culture. The main advantage of this model is the involvement of step by step process which helps to know the congruency to the expected result and get time to rectify anything that’s going out of the agenda. Similarly the emphasis of this model on creating the environment for change and making people involved aware regarding the change happening and its impact on organisation and them too. Thus, it helps to prepare for change rather than waiting for unexpected change to happen.
As it’s the step by step process of change management, change leader can’t skip any step due to the attachment of one step with other. Likewise another disadvantage of using this model is more time consuming.
The road map of change developed by Linda Ackerman Anderson and Dean Anderson (2010) through 30 year of experience include a guideline intended for managers, professional and leaders for implementing different change process effectively. The consultancy work done in different types of organization regarding change implementation lead to the development of understanding of this model and its methodology. The three main hypothesis on which this model is based include content, people and process. Content denotes the technological and organizational area which requires change. Similarly, People in this case denote behavioural and cultural change that support the content changes. Whereas Process is the action necessary for planning, designing and implementing content and people in unified manner (Ackenrman and Anderson, 2010). As like Kotter, Akerman and Anderson,, (2010) also emphasizes on the importance of human dynamic and consider it as a milestone in change process.
Anderson and Anderson (2001) believes that organizational change takes place in three different ways; developmental change, transitional change and transformational change. Hussey (1995) also suggest the developmental change and transitional change as stated by Anderson and Anderson can be termed as incremental change. Whereas Hayes (2002)identifies transformational change as discontinuous change. Which shows that in Anderson and Anderson model of change both planned as well as unplanned change are also addressed.
As discussed above there are various ways of managing change but have various advantages and well as disadvantages. The contrasting views expressed by authors and scholars have also clarified the selection of change management model as easy element. But in case of change management activities at CAAN, Kotter’s model of change holds various small steps with different features and helps to measure success step by step. And in case of frequent change of government policies as well its easy to identify the impact and affects the specific part of change only so there is chance of change happening at every step.
Although there are various changes taking place in our surrounding and public sector, the reason behind their change and the way of change is different. The main purpose of planned change is to obtain the higher level of effectiveness in order to obtain better performance and remain competitive in the market within certain span of time. Planned change is employed when organisation or decision makers identifies the requirement of change ( Burns, 2006). Lewin (1947) is one of the initial leader in developing this change concept through three step change management model (Refreeze-Change-Freeze). Lewin’s model of change remained very popular and widely used till the end of 1970’s economic crisis (Burnes, 2006). Similarly, Coram and Burnes, (2001) states that the planned approach to change is based on the principle that the change should be self sustaining. The Burke Litwin model of change also supports the approach of Coram and Burnes and states that developing organisational culture into organizational change is required for continuous change in an organisation. Similarly Wyatt Warner Burke(2008) focuses on the cultural function for greater impact on leadership, performance, strategy and mission. Similarly Latta (2009) also identified the cultural influence on change implementation in her study at University of Nebraska-Lincon.
Basically the planned approach of change was developed in response to rigid, top-down, hierarchical, rule based organisation. And public organisations are found to be mainly dependent on hierarchical structure which remains predictable and controlled environment ( Pul G.Thomas, 1996). Thus due to the way of operation and its systematic formation planned approach is taken as a characteristic part of the public organisation. In contrast to this planned approach view Coram and Burnes (2001) believes that change is a continuous, open-ended process rather than a set of “self-contained events”. Thus, they believe that the planned approach to change is not suitable for organizations which follows open approach the opportunities and risk in operation. Similarly Tatiana E. Andreeva (2008), studied regarding planned approaches in case of private sector organizations in Russia, identified that organizational change initiatives often change from initial plan, which indicates unplanned change strategy is more appropriate in real business situations.
A criticism of the planned approach is that it relies on the assumption that all parties in an organization involved in the change have a willingness and interest to be involved and that agreement will always be reached (Coram & Burnes, 2001). But there are various criticisms on this assumption as planned approach does not take potential organizational conflict situation into account. This means that in case of conflict of interest of stakeholders the change objective cannot be achieved but organizations go through such situations during change, which means planned change cannot be a complete change management process without considering other variable factors that creates resistance to change.
Due to long process of identifying the change situation, aligning new behaviour to environment before they actually change its being tough to use planned change in today’s fast changing world (Esain et al, 2008). The involvement of trial and error testing, group involvement, planning change its termed as very slow, static and suitable for simple situation only but not for complex or unstable period (Hatch and Cunliffe, 2006). In view of Kotter (1995) the reason for higher percentage of failure in change implementation is due to lack of adequate urgency for change, insufficient guiding collation, less communicated vision, failure to create short term wins, declaring success early and not being able to anchoring change in corporate culture.
Unplanned change is often described as emergent, unpredictable and can occur from anywhere, involving self organising (Weick and Wuinn, 1999). In current situation most of the organisations are operating at edge of chaos and far from equilibrium (Stacey,2005).
The concept of resistance to change is often attributed to Kurt lewin (1951). Lewin created the concept based on individual as a complex element which plays dominant role in change process. He also developed the three phase change model which tries to weaken the barriers of change and strengthen the drivers of change(Dent and Goldberg, 1999). Kreitner et al, (2002) states that “no matter how technically or administratively perfect a proposed change may be people make or break it”. In view of Swanepoel et al, (2000) organizations with long operational excellence do resist to change. Whereas Hayes (2002) argues that successful organizations are one who have strength to change and take risk for change in order to obtain higher level of success and competitive advantage. Apart from that Hayes (2002) also terms that continuous change doesnot face resistance where as fundamental and unplanned change creates resistance environment due to fear of uncertainty.
Whereas Paton and McCalman (2000) states that organization faces some degree of resistance from employees, suppliers, customers and distributors although they are very open to change perspective.
Resistance is inevitable, in other words, it can easily be said that resistance goes hand in hand with change management. In fact, Dent and Goldberg (1999) state that it has become a well-established mental model. Gary Evans (2004) explains that organizational change has a broader scope compared to hiring a new employee. It also involves adopting adaptive measures in the various aspects of organizational life, such as organizational culture, work processes and job responsibilities. Such change can lead to an overall transformation, if radical programs are implemented. Reasons for change in the workplace may include implementation of a strategy to achieve certain goals, transition to a different method of operations, adjusting to the effects of an external force and designation of a new leader or new manager whose work ethic could affect the entire organization or unit (Evans 2004).
Mark Ahn et al (2004) recognize that change in the organization affects not only its structure and culture, but also the personal management styles of its leaders; thus managing change is an essential part of leadership. One element though that he and his colleagues have mentioned in their study is the role of the ‘business press’ in featuring corporate leaders, or management celebrities, who promote ‘stereotype roles and scenarios’ when it comes to managing organizational change.
Traditionally seen as one of the first interventional studies in organization development, investigation by Coch and French (1948) in the Harwood Manufacturing Corporation was a classic study in organizational change efforts (Bemerth et al., 2007).
Amid the 1950s, imperviousness to change rose as a key point in administration contemplates as a power to overcome. Amid the most recent sixty years, the customary meaning of imperviousness to change has crawled into mainstream culture. Mark and Goldberg (1999) expressed that resistance is all around acknowledged. Resistance is expected, unavoidable and must be prevailed. This got truth sees imperviousness to change as a mental marvel in which resistance is sited inside the individual and the supervisor’s obligation is to defeat that resistance (Dent and Goldberg, 1999).
Some resistance, as can be accepted, is inevitable. However, according to Baker (1989) there are some occasions where management decisions result in creating situations where normal uneasiness becomes a severe problem, or a major issue, in the organisation. For example, lack of information provided; managers in many instances try to do well but end up in creating situations in which team members or other staff feel affected or neglected. Therefore it is important for managers to provide as much information as possible before the change and further inform the affected employees of the reasons for the change. Workers who receive correct and timely information about a change are better at accepting change than those that do not (Keohane, 2010).
In order to identify the individual process of change, there is requirement of including individual as well as collective activities, action and events as they unfold overtime. In this case Poole and Van de Van (2004) also suggest that creation of individual change occurs due to organization’s socialization processes, training programs, planned programmatic efforts and day to day operational activities. These types of influences can change individual behaviour and characteristics. These alterations are defined as individual change.
With the change in system, there is change in benefits to stakeholders as well and their interest is affected which can create resistance to change. For example the employees with lower understanding of computing technology will try to oppose the technological advancement in CAAN as it can lead to uncertainty of their job role or even have to exit from job, which is also indicated, by Kurt lewin’s change model as well as Kotter’s change model.
The level of trust is a critical factor influencing the thinking and perception of employees in relation to the change being introduced and implemented across the organization. Several studies reported the trust in leaders and managers to be a key element in ensuring effective implementation of change, either as an antecedent or as a consequence of relationships at work (Chedi and Hetschko, 2014). There are views and arguments coming from different studies showing justice as an important ingredient that gives rise to development or decline of trust in management and change is one context where the perception about justice and fairness if heightened (Moseley, 2017 and Wegge et al., 2010). The construct of trust is directly associated with cognitive, affective and behavioural levels and therefore have an impact on perception of employees towards the company’s management in terms of change being necessary and useful to improve their performance and productivity.
Resistance to change remains as vital element responsible in failure of change (Lawrence, 1954; Maurer, 1996). The resistance faced by change activity leads to increase in cost of operation, delays and even leads to failure (An off, 1990). Similarly there are more than 70% change projects found to be failed with main reason being resistance but alternatively resistance have also found to be acting as source of information to make change successful (Goldstein, 1988; Piderit, 2000; Waddell and Sohal, 1998).
The positive criticism and awareness created by resistant group have helped change manager to identify the faults within change activity and solve it before implementation.
As per the view of Hayes (2002), Hussey (1995:31), Kreitner and Kinicki (2002) and Swanepoel, et al (2000) resistance during change can be dealt through following ways:
White (2000) states, that the rise of new policies and organizations in public sector is generally, response to changes in global environment. The changes in the external environment bring about an expansive number of organizations managing with citizens and groups in varying ways. This type of adjustment in approach has realized an assortment of difficulties to general society part, compelling them to reform and change. The course of the change concentrates on coordination, association and joint responsibility. White claims that public sector organizations are required to grow and guide their change endeavours to produce new needs and Change Management in the Public Sector opportunities. They require review on the way of their working though the introduction of new system and from different perspective.
Similarly, Ebrahim Soltani et al. (2007), express that public sector organization have been liable to expanding higher financial accountability, productivity and viability in the course of the recent decade. The demand of such activities is increasing with the increase in people’s expectation from public sector organisations. Soltani et al. (2007) states that instruments and methodologies used in public sector are that they focuses on fixed structure and soft aspect of an organization, with a view of improving performance employee well being. The driver for the advancement of these apparatuses and methodologies is the organization’s desire to enhance quality, deliver workforce concerns and to upgrade adaptability by changing authoritative structures, procedures, individuals and culture.
Soltani et al. (2007) propose that the similarities in the different change activities completed in people in general area are that they concentrate on the hard (structure and frameworks) and the delicate (corporate culture) parts of the association, with the target of enhancing execution and representative prosperity. They additionally propose that there are two levels of changes. The primary, major/transformational, concentrates on larger issues, for example, mission, procedure, culture, authority and outside condition. The second level, which is transitional/value-based, concentrates on the most proficient method to fulfil task regularly and manages issues identifying with organizational structure, administration practices, worker inspiration and work unit atmosphere. They try to guarantee that each change activity did in an organization ought to reflect the status of both the fundamental/transformation level and also the transitional/transactional level.
There is various evidence in public sector, which clarifies the involvement of top-down approach. Similarly McHugh et al, (1999) also states that most of the public sector organization tries to view various projects as part of the change program. But McHugh et al, (1999) believes that success in change can be achieved though not attending each component in isolation, but rather through connecting and balancing all parts.
In contrast to general formation applied in most of the public organization of top down approach Max Weber (1968) emphasized control of it in the form of a hierarchy. He emphasized on the type of control system, which follows the policy, which remains as prime element and each officer can report to senior.
In this competitive business world public sector also are required to be competitive in order to satisfy customers. Although organizational change has become a permanent feature of public sector (Coventry and Nutley, 2001) the political and administrative sector is wide apart than management and organizational sciences (Kickert, 2010). In recent years the concept of change management has gained more attention as the demand for competitiveness for public sector is also increasing (Kuipers et al, 2014). Similarly in case of Nepal as well with huge change (transformational) change in political system and its governance citizen’s expectation from public sector is also increasing. As stated by Kuipers et al, (2014) public in Nepal are also expecting improved efficiency and quality of service from CAAN. As the main objective of private and public organization is different and their way of operation is also different apart from that administrative setting of the public sector is different than that of private one starting from the recruitment of the managers itself. Government’s policy and program towards organization and its objectives is also crucial part in case of effective operation and profitability of public sector organization.
Purdy (2003) states that employees have more input at work and could make great impact on organization’s productivity. Similarly Alasadi and Askary (2004) identified when employees empowered as partners in order to assist the change process, it leads to promotion of successful organizational change. In their study, employees were found to be feeling good regarding change process and were accepting change positively where management’s fear of resistance have played negative role on change implementation. Apart from that it’s crucial for management to make employees feel positive regarding change so they can handle change and lead to obtain organizational objective. People automatically resist change and this can negatively affect the organizational activity. The resistance created is due to uncomfortable situation and uncertainty created which leads to fear of losing job and uncertainty on the future role in organization.
Employee responses to change are impacted by various variables. It is sensible to anticipate that workers will respond since the procedure of progress includes going from the known to the obscure, and when representatives respond, it is vital to recognize between the manifestations of their responses furthermore, the causes behind them (Bovey and Hede, 2001). Following is an examination of three factors that exploration unequivocally recognizes as impacting representatives’ responses to change: employee’s feelings and insights, correspondence, and employee’s investment in basic leadership. Analysis of these variables clarifies quite a bit of representatives’ responses; seemingly more than different variables show amid hierarchical change. In spite of the fact that these variables are nearly related and can even be viewed as joined from numerous points of view, each factor contributes individual and critical data.
Considering the motivation of employees and their perception towards the change process depends upon several factors where employee participation, imposition of decision, disengagement of employees, job insecurity and several such factors results in acceptance or resistance to change (Terrell, 2015). The literature also suggest that central themes of employee influence, dialogue and adjustment to planned changes and improving the quality of decisions through improved employee motivation are some of the factors to be considered while planning the communication of change across the organization (Carnall and Todnem, 2015 and Bringselius, 2011).
It is necessary to analyse hindrances because it could take the organisation into a state of isolation (Terrell, 2015). It is to be noted that any process of change does not take place in isolation. It has many tangible effects on individuals as well as the organization systems as every individual, workflow and system is linked with each other and with the goals and objectives of the organization (Terrell, 2015). Therefore, the process of change management needs to come along with effective communication and training of users or employees to ensure successful integration of the process in day-to-day operations (Carnall and Todnem, 2015).
It is also to be noted that a lack of communication results in several assumptions where employees think that the upcoming change will close the windows of opportunity for existing staff, objectives will be changed or forgotten and problems will accumulate (Sirkin et al., 2005 and Wegge et al., 2010). These assumptions become the reason of voluntary and well as involuntary job changes among a majority of employees (Chadi and Hetschko, 2014). An unclear explanation of the change develops the fear that the employees are entering a dark, unknown stage in their employment with unpredictable consequences (Moseley, 2017) resulting in either a resistance to change or a shift in job as reported by employees of CAAN.
Furthermore, motivation of employees is the factor that has an impact on the level and quality of changes in the organization, and conversely a change in the organization can result in reducing or enhancing the motivation of employees (Terell, 2015 and Wegge et al., 2010). A majority of people consider change as a key rider-breaking element of motivation while it should be considered as a part of organization where the success of employees depends on effective implementation of change (Pokhrel, 2011 and Sirkin et al., 2005).
Organization that fails to understand the role of employee participation and adaptation of the technical progress find it tough to succeed in the competitive struggle. It is necessary to introduce changes to become more flexible and attractive to the market (Chedi and Hetschko, 2014 and Wood and Cunningham, 2003). The process of change management should not be limited to funding and introducing changes in methods of working, but should focus on providing a leadership that can help employees to consider the benefits of change and accept latest technologies and new knowledge (Moseley, 2017). Such an understanding is necessary to improve the market position of the organization and improve its ultimate profitability and performance (Lockwood and Koch, 2016).
Change and employee performance are very closely related elements and Hammer (2004) also states that operational innovation, the invention and deployment of new ways of doing work creates change in performance as well. Change is vital part of successful operation and is a continuous process for quality improvement within an organization. Stassen (2008) introduced a model to decide the impact of change management on employee performance. He took an arbitrary specimen of 20 firms utilizing relapse investigation and found that when there are changes inside the organization, individuals tend to accuse management or the upper management as ordinarily top administration are the person who implement the power of changes, for example, stiffer rivalry, moves in the new commercial centre or new innovation subsequently influencing employee performance.
Change in the work environment is an issue that every leader, administrator, and employees needs to manage eventually in his or her career. That is the reason it is essential to comprehend the effects of progress. Specialists are relied upon to be focused on consistent change, (Bianco& John Schermerhorn, 2006) and finish it with no diminishing of everyday performance, which means representative must perform well and change at the at some point. Persistently buckling down and attempting to change with a specific end goal to meet exclusive requirements will bring specialists stress and fatigue. Indeed, even the individuals who believe that they are sufficiently inspired to convey the employment can be overpowered and free enthusiasm for need of interruption and refreshment. They may need to take a break before having the capacity to confront dubious future once more (Bianco and Schermerhorn, 2006).
But higher portion of change activities are found to be unsuccessful (Beer and Nohria, 2000) due to the resistance faced during change (Bovery and Hede, 2001). The impact of progress on the worker can affect the organization in the event that the change is negative (Appelbaum et al., 2007). The vision of administrative change ought to be acknowledged by workers and different stakeholders of an organization to move forward in a positive way. Frequently the employees do not acknowledge organization vision in their present work and the change activity inside the organization generally falls flat. Management communication to the worker about up and coming organizational change before the beginning of progress is critical, not simply in the start of the execution change process, yet ceaseless correspondence all through the process. Worker interest in the usage of arranging or being engaged with an experimental run program can expand responsibility and extend information of what the association is doing (Whelan-Berry& Somerville, 2010). Authoritative individuals can hope to appreciate the advantages of authoritative change when they add to the change. There must be sure representative conduct changes, or the change usage won’t succeed. The conduct changes implant into the structure of the association (Song, 2009). As employees are integral part of every organization their involvement on change activities directly affects the result of change process. Bovey and Hede, (2001) states that employee emotions, communication and employees participation in decision-making plays vital role in change process. Various change efforts turns into failure due to the underestimation of value of employees (Ertuk, 2008). Employees are the people used in implementing change thus their understanding and trust over change objective remains crucial. When there is fear over their future role and this insecurity within individual decreases the interest towards it and even leads to resistance (Vakola et al, 2004).
Apart from that the recent study by Fedor et al, (2006) regarding organizational change and its impact on employee performance. In their study they investigated in twenty-two different private and public organisations and divided employee performance into employee performance based on change initiative and employee performance based on organization. The result obtained indicated that both employee performance types were impacted though three way interaction of the overall favourable negative and positive aspects of change for employees, level of change at work and the impact on change on individual’s job performance. Similarly the study by Cummings and Worley (2005) also identified that communication and job security are direct predictors of trust and openness.
Among the various types of change within organization technological change has remained crucial in recent organizational changes as it brings transformation change and communication, training and development of employees remains vital. An investigation by Dauda and Akingbade, (2011) utilizing board information from 13 nations found that innovation change can just prompt expanded profitability or enhance performance when joined with different assets successfully by HR or when done viably, and utilize technology productively and ethically. Advancement makes workers more viable and firm more proficient. Technological advancement can enhance employee and firm performance as well (Li and Deng, 1999). Employee would be able to quickly procure new information and further progression capabilities through preparing. Others associated with this exchange would underline that the intercession technique should be driven by vision and system (Beckhard and Harris 2008), and that the bolts connecting the parts ought to be twofold headed, mirroring the intuitive idea of the segments in the change procedure. As per an investigation did by Robertson, (2007) technological change has gigantic impact on employee performance. Technological change is essential factor for impacting the performance level. A large portion of studies has more than once demonstrated a positive connection between a firm’s technological advancement and execution, and presumed that innovative progression is imperative for employee performance. Numerous businesses, countries in the created and creating nations have built up innovative work units, divisions and associations to empower them to adapt to mechanical change. Machuki and Aosa (2011) inspected the issue of the presence of edge impacts in the connection between innovation change and worker execution utilizing another econometric strategy that takes into account suitable estimation methodology and induction. They additionally clarified that adjustments in innovation and physical setting to the ways change can be expert essentially influence the level of worker execution.
Apart from that organizational structure change also remains in centre of attention of employees as it creates shift in way of operation, job roles and employee involvement. As indicated by Styhre (2009) later type of the advanced media or electronic frameworks, for example, automated framework and new machine framework that realize change require new types of correspondence and well control in an organization, with a specific end goal to have a decent reception would good be able to appropriation of management change and connection to increment employee performance. To defeat these issues, well correspondence about representatives „appraisal framework should actualize to give workers better comprehension about their execution. Plus, it is additionally an incredible chance to alarm the hole between the genuine and wanted execution in the hierarchical objectives. Consequently, when the execution evaluations are done accurately, organization may measure the expenses versus advantages of the representative’s performance. Pepper, (2006) in his subjective investigation to decide the impact of association structure change on representative execution found that management changes, for example, procurement of the organization will make assortment of correspondence issues that undermine employee performance, as well as the achievement of the communication from top to bottom of the organization (Pearce and robinson, 2002).
Thus, from different grounds such as technological change, structural change, cultural change, change affects the way of operation, employee performance, motivation and the overall performance of an organization.
Researcher has developed the following conceptual framework, which can help to clarify the issues discussed in this study.
This chapter has tried to explore the impact of change on employees and performance considering public sector and its environment of operation. The views expressed by authors, scholars and academicians during various time have played vital role in analysis in this part of study. The analysis of the views expressed in this study suggests that change is an on-going process and keeps on affecting the day-to-day operation internally and externally. The authors like Burnes (2004) Rieley and Clarkson (2001), Kotter (2008) emphasized change as integral part of successful organisation and employee’s efforts remain crucial. There are various change options raised by researcher such as change in terms of structure, technology, product, service, and direction of operation and use of resources.
The main reason behind change is found to be the positive aspiration of management towards better results. Balogun and Hope Hailey, (2008) have also stated that change is being taken as a weapon remain competitive in market though adoption of proactive approach in management. Apart from that authors like Bye (2007), Pettigrew et al (2001) have stated that change is inevitable and has to happen sooner or later. But various researchers (Ford et al, 2008; Meaney and Pung, 2008) have also claimed that more than 70 % change efforts have failed which creates dilemma. This not only clarifies importance of change but also the requirement for effective change management so that the desired result can be obtained. In views of Ford et al (2008) the main reason behind change failure is due to low level of management of employees during change and higher resistance faced by them.
Change management is taken as a continuous process within and organisation in order to gain competitive advantage in this tough global market work. Lichtenstain (2000) also indicated change management as a complex activity where as Burnes (2000) believes it’s a multi level, cross-organizational process involved obtaining competitive advantage in the market. Although the history of change is long but the concept has been found to be developed after World War I in terms of human relations. Different views arose like Frederic Taylor convinced America regarding requirement of scientific management. During that period researcher’s views were also highly structured and changes were minimal but with increase in attention on this area theory started growing. Drucker (1954) emphasized on personal management issues, Mintzberg (1973) on motivation, Axelrod (2001) emphasized on how motivated employees can help implement change effectively. The term change management is found to be more centric after 1980s with the involvement of change process in North American and European companies, which focus on cultural, reengineering and total quality aspects. But coming to this this era, change management has shifted to management of culture and leadership leading to better performance (Detz et al, 2000). Technological advancement has gained so much pace that employees fear to accept change in fear of losing job. In this context Green et al, (2003) also indicated that IT have great impact in labour market and structure of the organization.
In order to manage change various models of change have been developed throughout the period. It’s the richness, which have created so much pace, and attention towards this topic area. Kurt Lewin’s (1947) change model which is also known as Unfreeze-change –Refreeze remained vital in communicating change process in simple steps and is used as planned change management model. This model of change is found to be suitable in case of stable condition but researcher’s have criticized it on this ground that change is mostly a chaotic condition and assumption of stable condition makes it inappropriate where as Dunphy and Stacey (1992) states Kurt lewin’s change model can remain successful in case of incremental change.
Where as Kotter’s change model involves various 8 steps in the process of change. As per his views change is a continuous process and in every step of change there should be better communication among change leader and employees, sense of urgency, guiding vision to obtain its target, training and development of employees, identifying short term wins which also indicates the direction of change and probable future result. Similar to Kotter , Akerman and Anderson (2010) also emphasize on importance of human dynamic and consider it as milestone for change process.
Resistance up to some extent is inevitable and goes hand in hand with change management. In this context Mark Ahn et al, (2004) states organizational change not only affects structure and culture but also the people management style of leaders too and is an essential part of leadership. Although resistance is taken in negative terms and is a response from individuals on proposed change it do help in strengthening the change activity and gaining more. Positive criticism and awareness created though resistant group have lead to mange change identifying the faults and solve them before implementing. In this context some level of resistance is required for better change management too.
Private and public sector organization have different way of viewing opportunities and act simultaneously. As they vary on their objective their way of operation is also different. Public sector organization are based on political and administrative surroundings which affects its way of operation and Ebrahim et al, (2007) states that the competitive strength shown by private sector and people’s expectation from public sector is increasing pressure on accountability, efficiency and effectiveness. Researchers have also found that most of the public sector organization goes through top down approach rather than bottom up approach.
This section provides an overview of various methods in the study, analyses the alternatives available and impact on the result as well. Basically research study is itself an investigation and analysis through the use of various methods, techniques of data collection and analysis in order to solve the research problem and create better understanding. In this case CrishJohnes (1970) states methodology should remain flexible in order to meet the requirements of time and research objective, which tries to focus the literature to connect the past and future without binding the choice of future. The present research deals with the evaluation of the change management strategies in CAAN. Hence, the research would design the methodology in such a manner so that it can help to obtain the important data about the change management strategies that are implemented within the organization and the impact it has created.
Saunder’s et al (2009) divided research methodology in to Philosophy, approach, strategies, time horizon and data collection method where as, Crotty (2007) tried to narrow them into epistemology, theoretical perspective, methods and methodology. While selecting the research methods, the main concern is to ensure that the used method fits in the research and how it affects the study remains vital. Apart from that the use of various methods and their impact also raises issues on reliability and validity of the research thus researcher need to focus on the research objective, type of research and its required method. In this part of the study researcher is analyzing the research methods used, the study design, procedures followed in data collection, including methods implemented in order to maintain validity and reliability of the instruments.
The methodology section had made Saunders’s onion model as basis for selecting the methods for evaluating the impact of the change management in CAAN. Onion model based on Saunders et al (2003) can be stated as below;
Fig.3.0: Saunder’s Onion Model
Source: Saunders et al, (2012)
The research philosophy denotes the brief information regarding data collection, analysis and its use (Saunders et al. 2012). The term research philosophy is related with the development of the knowledge and the nature of that knowledge. The research philosophy used by the researcher holds various assumptions, which denote researcher’s view toward the world. These assumptions directly affect the research strategy and methods used in the study. The research philosophy can be categorized into three different elements; Epistemology, Ontology and Axiology.
3.1.1 Epistemology: Epistemology is basically used in case of quantitative study as it focuses on the realistic part of life. Bryman and Bell (2003) states that epistemology whether social world can be studied through the use of principles and practices used for natural sciences. Some of the philosophies included in epistemology are positivism, realism and interpretivism.
Saunders et al,(2007) states positivism denotes the epistemological beliefs which scientific method remains as the most appropriate method to discover knowledge regarding the processes through which physical and human events occur. Whereas Realism is taken as a philosophic belief, which denotes the reality exist independently of observers. Interpretivism deals with the interpretation of the participants and hence this philosophy is not selected for the research of change management (Bryamn and Bell, 2003).
3.1.2 Ontology: Ontology denotes the philosophical views on the way world operates. The main concern on ontology is how social entities should be considered- as objective entities or social entities. Objectivism denotes social entities exist in reality but individual can obtain objective information from perception due to inductive and deductive logic Whereas, Subjectivism stresses on creation of social phenomena through social actors.
3.2.3 Axiology: Axiology is the philosophical dimension, which studies judgements about value. It also states that the researcher’s personal views and values also plays vital role in study and uses judgements on how to complete the research.
As is evident in the above figure, there are different research philosophies from which the researcher needs to choose from. However, for assessing the impact that change management has created CAAN, the researcher has opted for the positivism philosophy. This is because positivism philosophy takes account of the real facts and the data. The real facts about the impact of the change management would be gathered from CAAN and this would help to fulfil the research objectives and reach an apt conclusion and based on them recommendation would be provided.
The two types of research approaches that ate used in the research are deductive and inductive research. For assessment of the impact of the change management on CAAN, the researcher has selected the inductive approach.
The inductive research approach begins the creation of the objectives and then data is analysed. In case of inductive approach, the theories are developed based on the observation and analysis of the research. The inductive approach includes looking for a pattern based on the observations and developing a theory for those patterns through hypotheses (Bernard, 2011). Similarly Lodico et al, (2010) also states that inductive reasoning uses the observation of researcher in order to develop theory or analyse the circumstances being analysed. The literature review has certain theories of change management but the analysis would not be guided by it. Apart from that due to lack of any pre assumption the result of the research cannot be indicated before the research is completed. The main advantage of using inductive approach is that no complicated framework are used in this case. But after the generalization of principles they need to be verified though logical method. The main criticism on inductive approach is that the limited knowledge of relations and data on researcher can affect the research (Saghafi, 2014).
Beiske (2007) suggests that the deductive research approach studies a certain theory and tests to see if that theory applies under intended circumstances or not. Deductive approach follows the course of logic precisely. Argumentation begins with a theory and leads to a new assumption. This assumption, is tested via comparison with the observations and finally it would be accepted or rejected (Sneider & Larner, 2009). In addition, deductive argument can be described as a general to specific (top-down) reasoning process (Pelissier, 2008). While the inductive approach is quite opposite. In other words, the deductive approach includes formulating assumptions and testing them via research process, while inductive studies have nothing to do with assumptions. Some of the criticisms about the deductive approach can be due to misunderstanding. Expecting a theory to necessarily be practical is not a right expectation. If a theory can present a framework for describing and developing new thoughts and practices, that theory is a useful one. In most cases, the technological application of the existing knowledge is not possible. The technology of providing, selecting and reporting information might not be that high to be able to operationalize the procedures obtained from the deductive approach (Saghafi, 2014).
Inductive approach starts with the observation and reaches to generalized conclusion where as deductive approach constitutes the use of existing theories and forms research plan to test the assumption (Wilson, 2010). The differences among inductive and deductive approach can also be clarified though following diagram;
Fig. 3.2.1 Inductive vs Deductive approach
Source: Based on Saunders et al, (2009)
The research on the change management begin with the formation of the research objectives. The data is collected and analysed that would help the researcher to evaluate the research outcome and develop theories at the end of the research. Based on the new theories recommendations are provided and would help CAAN to make better management while implementing changes in the near future.
The research can be divided based on the types of the data collection. Basically quantitative and qualitative indicates the differences on view towards information. Quantitative approach denotes the numerical values and is fixed, where as qualitative method denotes theoretical representation of the findings and is also used to connect research problem, literature and analyse the quantitative findings. In research studies both approaches are used and neither of these are intrinsically better than the other but suitability of the need remains vital. Apart from that some researcher also tries to take advantage of both methods (Bryman and Bell, 2003).
Qualitative research is naturalistic; it attempts to study the everyday life of different groups of people and communities in their natural setting; it is particularly useful to study educational settings and processes. Denzin and Lincoln (2003) mentioned that qualitative research include the interpretive approach for its subject matter and it aims to interpret the opinion of the participants for analysing its meaning and make it understandable. According to Domegan and Fleming (2007), “Qualitative research aims to explore and to discover issues about the problem on hand, because very little is known about the problem. There is usually uncertainty about dimensions and characteristics of problem. It uses ‘soft’ data and gets ‘rich’ data’”. (p. 24). In this context Myers (2009) states that qualitative research is designed in order to help researchers understand people and social and cultural context. Similarly Philip (1998) also states that such qualitative studies brings the complexities and differences of world under study to be investigated and analysed.
Likewise Minchiello et al (1990) tried to clarify differences between these two approaches using diagram as below;
Fig. Qualitative vs Quantitative approach
In case of qualitative research, distinctive learning claims, enquiry methodologies, and data accumulation techniques and analysis are utilized (Creswell, 2003). Qualitative information sources incorporate perception and participant observation (field work), interviews and polls, reports and messages, and the researcher’s impressions and responses (Myers, 2009). Information is obtained from direct observation of practices, from interviews, from composed conclusions, or from open records (Sprinthall et al, 1991). Qualitative approach helps to obtain detailed answered about any subject from the respondents.
While quantitative research presents statistical results represented by numerical or statistical data, qualitative research presents data as descriptive narration with words and attempts to understand phenomena in “natural settings”. This means that qualitative researchers study things in their natural settings, attempting to make sense of, or to interpret, phenomenon in terms of the meanings people bring to them.” (Denzin and Lincoln, 2000, p. 3). Quantitative research makes use of questionnaires, surveys and experiments to gather data that is revised and tabulated in numbers, which allows the data to be characterised by the use of statistical analysis (Hittleman and Simon, 1997, p. 31). Quantitative researchers measure variables on a sample of subjects and express the relationship between variables using effect statistics such as correlations, relative frequencies, or differences between means; their focus is to a large extent on the testing of theory.
In this study researcher is using qualitative approach in order to obtain research objectives though the use of information obtained from open-ended questions asked in interview. This would help the research to present the data in the natural setting which implies that there would be no statistical tools for the interpretation of the data. The opinion of the participants would be simply presented in the form of discussion that would help the audience to better understand.
In this study researcher is collecting qualitative data though interviews without interfering their interviewee views and expressed through her analysis. Similarly Stainback and Stainback (1988) states three basic purposes of quantitative research as to describe compare and analyse casually. Considering these in this study researcher is analysing qualitative information obtained from interview and the literature in chapter two for assessing the impact of the change managements on CAAN.
The researcher have conducted the interviews in the head office of CAAN where it is possible to include the participants from all the department. 21 people are involved in interview which included people from higher level deputy director general (DDG) to general staff. For the general staff only few were included as some were not willing to participate and some were new as they do not have much knowledge the change happened in the organisation. The retired employees were able to provide view before and after the change management. The departments that were included in the interview are:
3.3 RESEARCH STRATEGY:
The third stage of the research onion represents the research strategy and states that research strategy is a plan to solve the problem. Saunders et al. (2007) considers various strategies as prominent but also clarifies that there is no one best type for all research and depends on type of study, topic area and its nature. Some of the research strategies in practice include; Experiment, Survey, Case study, Grounded theory, Ethnography and action research (Saunders et al. 2007).
Experiment is a classical form of research that help to address certain problems and issues. It is also a kind of research that involves different dependent variables. In this context Hakim (2000) states that the purpose of an experiment is to identify whether change in one variable affect the other variable or not. Survey is conducted using structured questionnaire to targeted sample population in order to obtain required information from the respondents. Survey is one of the common strategy in business and educational research. It is used in market research to gather valuable information about the target market (Saunders et al. 2007). The main disadvantages of using survey strategy, time required to design and pilot the questionnaire and analyse data and information obtained, which is a time consuming process than the qualitative research. Similarly another popular research study is case study, in which researcher deals around specific topic area during specific time and identifies the impact of the research issue.
Robson (2002) also states that case study strategy involves empirical investigation of particular contemporary phenomenon in its real life context through various sources of evidence. Thus this type of study holds the ability to answer various answers on why, what and how. Likewise yin (2003) stressed on the importance of context, the boundaries in case of specific incident being studied and the context are not clearly evident.
Grounded theory is emphasized by Saunders et al (2007) as one of the best strategy for inductive approach. Goulding (2002) states that grounded theory is specifically helpful in evaluation of the behaviour with a focus on developing a theory. This research is inductive in nature and analyse the topic area and obtains answers to research questions.
3.4 TIME HORIZON:
Based on the time consumed, research can be longitudinal or cross-sectional. Saunders et al, (2007) states that cross sectional study deals with the particular phenomenon at a specific period of time. In view of Robson (2002) cross sectional study often uses survey strategy in order to describe the research issue that helps in better comprehension.
Whereas, in case of longitudinal study, particular phenomenon is studied at different period of time or series of time and identifies the difference. This process is time consuming and provides results based on the long-term impact analysis (Robson, 2002).
As educational researches are bound to finish in short period of time, cross-sectional study is popular among students and this research researcher is using information of different point of time and analyzing the situation before and after the implementation of the strategy and is longitudinal in nature. This study compares and contrast with the changes taking places in different period, their impact on organisation is analysed based on the observation in longitudinal basis.
3.5 DATA COLLECTION METHOD
Data and information plays vital role in successful completion of research study. Primarily data is categorized as primary and secondary and their sources can be clarified from following diagram;
Fig. 3.5 Data collection
3.5.1 PRIMARY DATA COLLECTION
Primary data are the data collected for the first time to use for specific purpose. This type of data collection is also known as first hand data collection, which involves the direct involvement of the researcher for collecting the data and information from the related person, place or the company. Primary data involves the higher expenses and time duration for its collection but all the information received from the secondary sources cannot be able to meet the research objective and solve the research question thus primary data are collected (Ghauri and Gronhaug, 2005). The advantage of using the primary data is the increased reliability and the validation. The primary data is updated as the researcher collects them first hand (Dornyei, 2007). The sources of primary data include survey, questionnaires, and other methods such as distribution audits, warrant cards etc. The primary data collection tool used in this study can be clarified as below;
3.5.2 SECONDARY DATA COLLECTION
Secondary data are second hand data which are already used for other purpose than it is going to be used now (Dornyei, 2007). The collection of secondary data involves less effort, time and money thus it is very popular and is widely used in the academic as well as business research. Some of the method of secondary data collection is; academic books, journals, magazines, company annual reports, libraries etc. However, the process of collecting the secondary data is not always easy and often involves spending of money to get access to journals and books. Secondary data are sometimes available in ready to use formats and saves, time, effort and cost. The main disadvantage is that its reliability and its congruency with the topic being researched.
According to Cooper and Schindler, (2003) sampling is the way of choosing the few elements from the population in order to represent as a whole, which helps to cut cost, time and efforts. Primarily sampling technique divided into probability and non-probability sampling technique. In terms of probability sampling the probability of selecting or the chance is pre-known where as in case of non-probability due to the unawareness of target population it’s not known. In case of qualitative data collection purposeful sampling and convenience sampling are popular due to their ease of access and use. Purposeful sampling technique denotes the use of participants who can provide in-depth information on topic of study. Whereas the technique which uses most accessible and convenient participants to the researcher.
The research would analyse the impact of the change management in CAAN. For this reason, the employees of the organization are selected. 21 people are involved in interview which included people from higher level deputy director general (DDG) to general staff.
The departments that were included in the interview are:
3.7 DATA ANALYSIS:
Data and information used in the study is the vital part of the study and its analysis directs the result of the study. In this study researcher has conducted interview with Top management, middle management and operational level employees currently working with CAAN and retired employees to obtain the in-depth situation of organisation in terms of change and its impact on its operational activities. The participants were selected through purposive sampling. They were the part of the organization and has been through the change process for which they were considered important for offering valuable information. Participants and the collected information is analysed based on the research objective and various dimensions identified by researchers to be discussed in order to obtain answer to the research questions. The information obtained from the interview and the literature review in chapter 2 will be analysed which helps to refine the congruency of the authors, scholar’s and previous study result with current situation of the organisation. The data that has been collected in the interview is evaluated and analysed with the help of the discussion. For research objectives different questions were set and the data are analysed based on discussion.
3.8 RELIABILITY AND VALIDITY:
As per Easterby-smith et al, (2008) reliability denotes the extent to which data collection techniques or analysis leads to consistent results which can be defined the percentage of inconsistency in the responses obtained from survey with the change in respondents. This indicates that a reliable interview needs to vary as people have different opinion but researcher need to focus on threats of reliability as stated by Robson (2002) subject error, participant bias, and observer error and observer biasness. Thus the researcher needs to be conscious regarding these errors in order to obtain reliable result.
Validity is taken as the form of assessment, which is accurate and trustworthy (Bond, 2003). Validity also denotes the accuracy of the data and research methods used in the study. The research can be identified as valid if the result of the study can be reproduced under similar methodology.
In this study researcher would carry out data collection and analysed it, apart from that secondary data used are also referenced properly. Active attention on the aspects of error that can happen during the research and selection of specific research method suitable for the study have increased the level of reliability and validity of this study. Researcher has also clarified the reason behind using specific methods in this study, which also enhances the quality of the research by removing biasness.
3.9 RESEARCH ETHICS:
Ethical issue is vital part of the research and rules of the society varies with the change in time, situation and place. Researcher has provided special attention on ethical aspect of the researcher so that the best identical piece of study can be developed without affecting anyone (Glesne, 2015).
In order to maintain personal identification safe, participants of the interview are not asked about their name, DOB, address etc. The information obtained from the participants is recorded and saved in password protected pen drive so that the misuse of the information can be prevented. All the participants of the interview were informed about the type of research study and purpose of conducting this research (Glesne, 2015). Apart from that researcher has informed the participants about voluntary participation and participants can opt to answer any question at any time, as there is no mandatory aspect attached to it. But during the study researcher has informed the management of CAAN and the participants if they are interested to know the result of the study they can provide their name and address so that the findings can be posted. The research were started after they gave consent.
3.10 PILOT STUDY
Pilot study denotes the short cut version of the full study or a trial run to know the view from end users. As it involves pre-testing of research instruments like interview questions or questionnaire and interview schedule and is termed feasibility study as well (Teijlingen and Hurdley, 2001). Thus pilot study involves the reassessment of the technique and its elements before going on to data collection. In this context Blaxter, Hughes and Tight, (1996) also states that it’s the process of reassessment without tears.
In this study, the researcher has omitted pilot study but carried out testing research as the researcher has made only one fieldwork in Nepal. Researcher took sample interview with one friend as well distributed interview question to 10 friends and asked opinion on the semi-structured questions. During the interaction researcher have came to conclusion to avoid any Yes/No question and move for more in-depth answers with reasons which will helps to understand impact on the topic area. Apart from that few friends told the interview questions are too many and time consuming with some of them have similar answers, thus researcher tried to filter those repetitive questions with similar answers and deducted 6 questions in total. This pilot test has provided greater understanding how interviewee will interact on interview and helped to get ready as well and guided towards aim of the study (Teijlingen and Hurdley, 2001).
3.11 SUMMARY OF RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
This section of the study has clarified about the various research methods used, the reason behind their use and impact on the study. Apart from that researcher has also identified and stated the reason behind any research methods not selected in the study. It is crucial to identify and select the correct method in order to make the study effective and valid. The researcher has analysed various aspects associated with selecting the methods and disclosed the reason, and makes it more effective. The use of Saunder’s onion model as base on analysing and selecting different research method has helped to avoid missing information that need to be analysed in this chapter and have gone through each layers with in-depth focus. The involvement of the researcher in data collection and the nature of study clarify the positivism aspect of the research. Similarly, researcher is using primary information and critically analysing with the theories available to develop a new theory and is inductive in nature. In case of data collection researcher is using interview and information obtained is theoretical, where as study is also based on theoretical aspect and qualitative approach is visible in the study.
Similarly in case of selection of various
strategies, researcher has used semi structured data collection method to
identify the organisation’s situation before and after the change activity and
its impact on organisation. Apart from that in case of data primary and
secondary both type of data and information is used but the interview have
higher impact on the study, which is primary source of information. Likewise
researcher seems to have given due attention on reliability and validity
aspects and used appropriate methods, clarified the reason behind use and cited
the secondary data used in the study. The study also emphasises on the ethical
aspect and responsibility of the researcher and in this study researcher has
maintained various steps to be more responsible on this aspect too and have
disclosed information like data privacy, voluntary participation, purpose of
interview and right to know result of study. Likewise the use of pilot test has
helped to make the interview more effective and create better understanding on
both researcher and participants.
The change management of any organisation involves a critical innovation under which the organisation constructs and heads towards the designing of the management (Sadler, 1996). However, in the present research of change management, the investigation of research objectives through inductive approaches will be analysed and accumulated. Moreover, the conclusions have based on the building of the relationship between literature backup and recorded interviews. Here it is worth mentioning that the concerned interview focuses on exploring and examining the current change management at the chosen organization, i.e. Civil Aviation Authority Nepal.
Therefore the topic of interview remains to be the changes introduced at the organization during last 5 years and the experience and perception of employees in relation to introduction, implementation and management of such organizational changes. Here the process of change management and employee involvement during such change is explored through 9 employees from CAAN of which one is current Deputy Director General while the another participant is the Retired Deputy Director General of CANN.
The present qualitative data has arranged and closely analysed within three major categories. These important themes associated with the process of change emerge from the literature review conducted during the study. The literature review reveals that a majority of change management models (like Kurt Lewin’s model of change, contingency model of change, Kotter’s model of change and Anderson and Anderson’s model of change) focus on the style of change management, scale of change and the role and importance of employees while implementing any change process across the organization. This makes the following three elements important for the current analysis
The above three themes are directly associated with the research objectives. Yet another theme identified during the interview process is presented to understand the impact of change management on employee performance and organizational performance as a whole. Therefore, the results are presented under four major themes where the fourth themes is:
In order to provide the views and answers of respondents, certain codes are used to make the discussion easy to understand and well linked with the literature review. These codes and the meaning of each of these is depicted in the following table:
|R-01 RP-DDG||Respondent 01- Rajan Pokhrel -Deputy Director General|
|R-02 DS-RDD||Respondent 02- Dinesh Shrestha Retired Deputy- Director General|
|R-03, UM-AC||Respondent 03- Umesh Panthi- Air Traffic Controller|
|R-04, RS-FC||Respondent 04- Rinzin Sherpa- Faculty Chief|
|R-05, KBT-RFFD||Respondent 05- Krishna Bahadur Thapa- Rescue and Fire Fighter Department|
|R-06, CAAN-E||Respondent 06- CANN Employee|
|R-07, BS-CD||Respondent 07- Birendra Shrestha- Corporate Director|
|R-08, AKA-FFD||Respondent 08- Arum Kumar Acharya- Fire Fighting Department|
|R-09, KRP-MAC||Respondent 09- Kishore Raj Panta- Manager Air Traffic Controller|
Further, the in-depth analysis conducted and presented in the following chapter, ‘Discussion’ will be addressed based on the following factors:
The major change definitions and its understanding have been discussed with the employees of CAAN organisation. The major factors have analysed which can be influential reasons for inducing a change in an organisation. Understanding of change mainly involves to portraying a broad picture regarding the management system. In an organisation, change is widely associated with products, services, shuffling of the workforce and internal and external stimulus of the organisation. The change can be a positive method, which contributes in building of an organisation in better way by revamping weaknesses. According to Todnem By, (2005), a successful management should undergo change to survive and succeed in a competitive environment. Arguable change is an effective measure but before constructing the change framework, it is crucial to analyse the needs and requirements of change. In contrast, when a change induces, then friction is also witnessed which then plays a crucial role in stabilisation of change.
In this regard, the major change factors or reasons for change are gathered and identified as the sub-themes from literature which are listed below:
Under this sub-theme, it is analysed that innovation and inevitability requires the necessity of organisation, novelty due to external factors, and strategic flexibilities for organisation, adaptability for internal and external factors, and autonomous function of the organisation (George and Jones, 2002). The understanding of change in context of innovation and inevitability can assist in analysing factors (Collins, 1998). In the following, responses of participants help in analysing the change management.
Here the responses received for question related to organizational changes during the past 5 years explains the need of introducing the technological changes. The question was asked from the top position holders like deputy director, retired deputy director, air traffic controller manager and director of rescue and fire fighter department. These respondents were selected fro this particular question as they have a long-term experience in the organization as well as aware of future organizational plans due to higher position in hierarchy of CAAN. The key responses received for this question are presented as follows:
According to R-01 RP-DDG:
“For the dynamic sector like Civil Aviation, the organisation needs to be technologically strong as it has to deal with any new or upcoming operators and to compete in international level.”
R-02, DS-RDD described:
“The one and only international airport was black listed by ICAO due to the safety concern, the issue was solved. The various technologies and equipment were introduced.”
R-05, KBT-RFFD said:
“The right and qualified persons are on right position after the change management. Before the change management, the management of the positions were disorganizing.” “Talking about the technological changes, hi-tech were always used in the airports before and after the change management.”
In the above-quoted responses, the necessity and adaptability of technology was considered crucial for change of the organisation. The innovation related to technological advancement and introduction of new and latest equipment is reported as the major change introduced by CAAN during the past five years. The respondents explained that the changing nature of globalized business environment with increasing competition and growth in air traffic are some of the reasons forcing these changes and the need for bringing in new technology to manage growing complexities of operations. This also comes up as a necessary step due to safety issues being faced by this particular international airport and helped the company regain its position with the introduction of various technologies and equipment focused on improving safety and coping up with busy air traffic.
Moreover, one of the respondents regarded the change with the external factors, which are posing a threat and impacting the organisation on a large scale. It includes the thinking of whereabouts of the change to happen around the circumstances of the organisation. The respondents were of the opinion that change management was required to shorten the process of decision-making at the company. It made the structure more organized where qualifications and skills are better recognized. As already discussed, the changing nature of business environment require CAAN to operate in an intensively turbulent environment features with enhanced competition, the continuous changes in technology, adoption of new processed and business process re-engineering. Such external factors influence the public sector also where CAAN is required to adopt latest technology in order to exploit the emerging as well as existing opportunities and deal with various threats in the market. The need seems to be clearly identified and addressed by the organization as the respondents reported a major overhaul in technology being implemented to meet the objectives of business operations.
While discussing the necessity of change management, it is important to explore the meaning of change and its management as perceived and understood by the employees of the concerned organization, i.e. CAAN. Therefore, some of the respondents like Another question focused on exploring the employees’ understanding about the process of change manage air traffic controller, corporate director and fire fighting department employee were asked about their opinion on meaning of change management. The respondents explains that the employees at CAAN considers change management as a process of transformation which regards to innovation and it becomes inevitable for developing a suitable approach in aligning the organisations with novelty, strategic flexibility and adaptability. The following respondent described.
R-03, UM-AC said:
“A systematic approach to deal with the transition or transformation of organisations goals process and technologies. The change management is necessary for any organisation to cope with new technological advancement and systems.”
R-06, CAAN-E said:
“New equipment and technology have been introduced. The major I have found is the working style and working environment has changed.”
-An associated factor of working style is linked to the internal environment regarding change management. Critically, change in working style is attributed to the adaptability of an organisation due to its necessity.
R-08, AKA-FFD described:
“The change management in my view is the process of transition or transformation of organisation’s functions and structure from current state to desired future state.”
–The necessity and novelty are the main factors, which are required for change in an organisation.
Next important question related to understanding of change management focused on changes experienced by employees after the implementation of change. The question was asked from retired deputy director, rescue and fire fighting department director and manager of air traffic control department. This is so as these employees hold higher positions in the hierarchy and have information about procedures followed before the change, why the need of change arises and what exactly changed after the change. These employees were in a position to answer the question according to the experience and perception of their subordinates as well.
The question related with understanding of employees’ experience and opinion in relation to before and aftermath of change management depicted that autonomous function of organisation can make the services better. Moreover, the external reasons can serve as the strong stimulus for the development of the organisation.
R-02 DS-RDD explained:
“After the change management the volume of the air traffic has tremendously has gone high. Advance and new technologies were introduced to meet the standard international level. The organisation is now removed from the serious security concern list (SSC).”
In the opinion of R-07, BS-CD:
“ If you see the investment point of view of the organisation, we don’t need to wait for the government for the sources, we can manage independently; this is the most important positive change of the organisation.”
“The major negative part of the change management I would say is though the organisation is now authority, it has every right to make the decision but there is still an intervention of the government.”
Further R-02 DS-RDD, reported:
“The major change I have identified was the liberal sky policy was introduced. The increment of the air traffic was so high that the organisation itself is failing to cope.”
According to another respondent, before and after effects of change was explained for defining it better. The respondents had linked the understanding of change with the betterment and thus, regarded it as beneficial for the organisation. Also, the respondents termed the change as inevitable for the organisation as it impacts more on the decision-making of designators.
However, some of the respondents also explain that the organization fails to manage the growing air traffic even after implementing change and provide the solution to construct an international airport in various major cities of Nepal. On the other hand, the same respondents is of the opinion that the new equipment has made the night flights possible in the country that was earlier impossible due to geographical background of Nepal. The respondents also enunciated that necessity and novelty are important for survival of an organisation This has been argued as a key element ensuring survival and competitiveness of business organizations (Colins, 1998 and Wilson, 1992). As Cetron and Davies (2005) discuss the dominant role of technological advances in structuring the way organizations work and manage its people and processes.
In the below-quoted responses, to improve the service quality, change in the organisation has discussed or made the organisation stronger regarding its services. Also, the respondents have discovered that CAAN must have its autonomous function as a necessity of change. It is to be noted that International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) is a specialized agency of the United Nations defining the principles and techniques of international air navigation. As per the principles of the organization, CAAN was listed as an unsafe international airport making Nepal a Significant Safety Concern (SSC) related region. However, the country has been able to resolve the matter through coordinated building of capacity and getting support from donor States and international organization.
R-02, DS-RDD explained:
“To run the CAAN smoothly and successfully ICAO is recommending for two separate organisations, regulatory and service provider.”
R-05, KBT-RFFD said:
“The organisation is going to be divided into part regulatory body and service provider as recommended by the ICAO.”
The above-mentioned responses assert on autonomous function along with the separation into two bodies. However, the separation can leverage the work efficiency, which in turn makes successful the change. This being possible as through this division, CAAN will be in a position to meet the policy and principles of ICAO while improving its regulatory mechanisms and ensure overall professional development of the organization (Aeropolitical Updates, 2018). Strategic flexibility within the management can impact more on its working style and services.
The structural change discussed by the respondents explains the need of building new strategies and making them compliant with the external environment. The respondents asserted the notion that strategic flexibility is an important factor regarding the efficiency of an organisation to handle the air traffic. This can been seen as a successful example in case of US aviation sector where a shift from obvious use of information for efficiency of the organization is transformed into the strategic use of such information to ensure flexibility in the organizational operations (FAA, 2014). Such a shift in focus helped the industry achieve global aviation objectives and meet the requirements of every customer segment through establishing projects of regional transition, providing technical assistance to other civil aviation authorities (CAA) while providing global support to develop technologies supporting recommended practices under the umbrella of ICAO (FAA, 2014). Therefore, US aviation has moved from a regulated era to a strategic use of available information acting as a resource to stability and progression (Monteiro and Macdonals, 2010).
R-05, KBT-RFFD entailed:
“…structurally new international airports are being constructed and in the process of completion.”
R-01 RP-DDG described:
“The main motive of changing of the organisation the Civil Aviation Department to Civil Aviation Academy is to make the decision-making more autonomous and transparent.”
R-07, BS-CD said:
“The organisation changed into the autonomous but which has definitely has brought change in work efficiency.”
Most importantly, the understanding of employee regarding innovation and inevitability of organisation must be assessed. Organisations majorly fail in the implementation of change processes in their setups due to the inadequate understanding of the need and benefits of the change by the employees working at various different levels across the organization (Klein et al., 2012). However, the attempt for change is directly proportional to the level of understanding of the employee towards change. Here, two pictures can be drawn; one describes the resistance of employee towards change and second explains the acceptance of the change with certain explanatory communications between employees and management. In this regard, the recording of the interview with an employee has enabled the researcher to analyse the results.
R-06, CAAN-E said:
“This organisation is a multifunctioning organisation. There are several departments which are under control of this organisation.”
This particular view raises the need of proper policies and rules defining different departments during and after the implementation of a change management process. There cannot be one-size fit all approach in case of such a multifunctioning organization and the strategies and plans of involving employees, communicating with them, explaining the process of change implementation and managing the overall change management process may vary according to the differences among department functioning, role and objectives.
Similarly, R-04, RS-FC said:
“The organisation will be separated into two different bodies; the employees are opposing for this change due to which there is delayed in implementation.”
In the view of above respondent, it has stated that the regulatory bodies must regard as the main functionary of CAAN. On contrary, the autonomous function of organisation was associated with employees’ acceptance. According to respondent, there should be the strategic flexibility regarding necessity of organisation and employees must be informed to avoid the disputes and confusion that resulted after the implementation of change. There was no resistance from the employees as they were excited about the new changes and were able to visualize upcoming opportunities in terms of new services possibilities and associated incentives. However, there were some serious disputes on the services and facilities the employees were getting. There were lots of confusion due to lack of proper policies and rules leading to failure in meeting employees’ expectations in terms of promotions and incentives promised after the implementation of the change management.
Summarising innovation and inevitability, the necessity of change, novelty of services, adaptability regarding external environment, strategic flexibility and autonomous function of the organisation is evaluated factors. Hornstein (2015) has endorsed that change management now becomes necessity due to the fast-changing business environment. Moreover, it is added that adaptability to external environment is needed with time to cope up the global challenges (Hornstein, 2015). Hence, innovation and inevitability are the main understandings for change management system.
The inducing factors for change management process are usually associated with productivity enhancement, improvement of corporate image, technology advancement and increased profitability. According to Chandler, (2004), there will be significant effect on the organisations plan, procedure, and product due to the changes in technology, in market, social value and in political environment. The induced changes in any section of an organisation have a larger impact on the whole organisation. However, McNamara, (2011) discussed the organizational change aligned with proper size, changes in technology, new establishment, reschedule of operations and the major partnerships Burnes, (2004). Due to rapid development in technology and growing knowledge in workforce, the change now has become the one of the crucial perspective in organisational growth. Additionally, Balogun and Hailey, (2004) has further said though the many organizations has accepted the need of change but most of the programs on the change management fails to acquire the desired results. In this regard, the inducing factors categorised as high productivity, profitability, cognitive and social skills, and technology development. In the following response, the inducing factors recorded.
R-01, RP-DDG described as:
“International Civil Aviation’s system and the rules and regulations are changing every year, so to cope with that there were changes in the Civil Aviation Authority Nepal technologically and functionally.”
R-02, DS-RDD described:
“There has been a drastic increment in air traffic, being a single international airport, the organisation is failing to cope the busy air traffic.” “As the two separate bodies working under the same umbrella, both are hampering each other interest. To run the CAAN smoothly and successfully ICAO is recommending for two separate organisation, regulatory and service provider.”
The responses have entailed that the reason behind change process is to create higher productivity by constructing new airports and enhance the profitability. Moreover, the technology advancements consider being the major factor in providing flexible services. The responses have entailed that the reason behind change process is to create higher productivity by constructing new airports and enhance the profitability. Moreover, the technology advancements consider being the major factor in providing flexible services. The response from retired deputy director also mention the role of ICAO that defines the principles of safety and orderly development of international civil aviation. As mentioned earlier, the specialized agency black listed CAAN because of safety concerns. The agency has the authority to change the regulations, principles and practices whenever the need arise to avoid any safety concerns and provide opportunity of development for various organizations covered under civil aviation. So, the regulations of ICAO also forms the major factor inducing significant changes across the organization and ensure smooth and successful operations of CAAN while meeting the mandatory practices defined by ICAO.
R-03, UM-AC said:
“On my understanding the main reason for the change management in an organisation was the extreme pressure from ADB (Asian development Bank) and ICAO (international Civil Aviation Organisation).”
From above quoted responses, it is clear that the major factors of higher productivity, improvement of corporate image, meeting regulatory principles, technology advancement and profitability as the need of aligning the management with the surrounding international practices or external factors. Moreover, the pressure from certain organisations Like ICAO to make the CAAN safe and effective along with the challenges of air traffic and out-dated technology had induced the change management in the organisation.
The challenges regarding change management has effectively described that change is not widely acceptable as it requires table talks and proper channelizing of the rules and regulations without involvement of the political parties and stakeholders along with the employee unions. However, the concerns of the employee are more important to be addressed. When an organisation coins a term of change then it requires a crucial understanding of the change challenges, which needs to be address. The wisdom of a leader and effective decision-maker can help in taking hard-core step for change process. There are various challenges, which are described by the respondents in the present study, and the sub-theme of challenges has revealed the major factors for the change.
The key theme of understanding of change management process is surrounded by challenging factors, which provide initial hurdles and impediments to the management of CAAN. In the following responses, the challenging factors entailed by the participants:
R-01, RP-DDG described as:
“Due to the lack of knowledge in Government organisation is lagging behind for any changes in organisation. Stake holders, they don’t have safety awareness. They have failed to impose and implement the policy and regulatory change set by the organisation.”
“On socio – political environment context of Nepal, stakeholders are very powerful and have strong connection with the political parties. To execute any policies and programmes in an organisation, different obstacles are developed just to satisfy their own interest rather then the betterment of the organisation.”
R-05 KBT-RFFD said:
“Before the change management, the management of the positions were disorganizing. The qualification and skills were not valued.”
R-06, CAAN-E said:
“We have only international airport, organisation is failing to handle the pressure of heavy traffic thus there are two international airports under the construction.”
R-07, BS-CD said:
“There is no systematic policies and procedure that has followed for any change activities in CAAN.”
R-08, AKA-FFD said:
“The organisation still had to wait for the decision from government level.”
R-09, KRP-MAC said:
“In the context of country like there is manipulation, and the process and procedures are implemented on the mutual benefits of external and internal factors.”
R-01, RP-DDG said:
“CAAN ‘s policies and programmes are highly affected by the employee’s Union. To execute any policies and programmes in an organisation, different obstacles are developed just to satisfy their own interest rather than the betterment of the organisation.”
R-05 KBT-RFFD said:
“Political interference and trade union in the organisation has always affected the policies and programmes.”
From the above quoted responses, the operating strategies, resistance from employees, political interference and demands from trade unions or employee unions had decoded. Talking about the change process challenges, the respondents enunciated the hurdles from not only stakeholders, also from employee union within the management. For resolution of the smooth running of change process, the demands of employee unions have to be considered.
The researcher has encoded the theme of employees’ problems and identified the key issues of distrust on organisation, job anxiety and imposed decision regarding understanding of change management. Change however, directly relates to the employees because they are considered as the most important element of the organisation. In this regard, following responses entailed the stories of different level employee. Here different employees who were asked this particular question included a air traffic controller, faculty chief, an employee from rescue and fire fighter department, another from fire fighting department along with a manager and the corporate director.
These different employees at working level, supervisory level, managerial level, and director level help in understanding the impact of change management on employees across the organization. The ground level staff as well as the supervisors talking about their subordinates and the manager looking at the situation in different work teams and groups provided an overall experience and perception of employees about the change implemented across the organization.
R-03, UM-AC said:
“There was lack of participation and involvement of the employees of every level. The detail information was not provided, employees were not given a chance analyse and reason for change management of the organisation.”
R-04, RS-FC said:
“There was no involvement of different level of the employees. The process and decision-making were not transparent. We just heard about the new change management is happening but there was not participation for advices and suggestions.”
R-05 KBT-RFFD said:
“We were not actively involved during the change management.”
“We were just informed change management is going to take place and we were there just to welcome the change.”
R-06, CAAN-E said:
“As an air traffic controller, I was not actively involved in the change management process of the organisation. Every decision was made from the higher level and political parties.”
R-07, BS-CD said:
“At that time the organisation was guided by the government, all the decision was made from ministry level and high positioned employees.”
R-07, BS-CD said again:
“My position was just the officer level so there were no roles and responsibilities. We were just prepared to accept the new change management in organisation.”
-The second quote from the response generates an understanding of employee understanding for change, which he relates to extra burden and work pressure from organisation.
R-08, AKA-FFD said:
“The employees were attracted with the career progression opportunities offered by the organisation.”
R-09, KRP-MAC said:
“We were just given us a choice either we want to stay with the government service or move on to new change management. There was not such roles and responsibilities at that time, no much involvement in decision-making process for the change management.”
From above-quoted responses, it was evaluated that the role of employee in the organisation’s decision making was neglected. Hence, the employees had a trust-deficit and imposed change factor, which make them less skilful thereby jeopardising the success of the organization moving towards becoming technology-intensive in nature (Nuttgens et al., 2016). After the five years of change process, the CAAN is still struggling with its new management system. It can be resulted from above categories that involvement of employees in decision-making can help to go through efficient system. However, the political interference as an external factor and employees’ union as an internal factor must be addressed properly to evaluate the change management and build a trustworthy relation between the organisation and employee.
In this regard, the present theme has developed an initial understanding for change, which further leads to the change process and the discovery of major change processes, which are discussed. The organisation is a public-sector organisation comprises complex network for policy-making, decision approving and technology advancement due to its nature of working. Different public-sector organisations in Nepal including CAAN are classified and influenced by the external factors. These external factors may vary among different organisations and can be induced through trend setting from international setups or they may be imposed according to international laws and conducts.
Mostly, public-sector organisations are required to hold a link with the international code of conduct and work as a representative of a country. For such reasons, the public-sector organisation opts for the change management process and applies different strategic plans to align themselves with the existing environment.
Thus, CAAN attempts to meet the basics principles of the organisation and bears the change, which can unite the employees and needs of organisational by achieving set goals (Nadler and Shaw 2005). Any changes that introduced in organisation must lead to effectiveness of the organisation by utilizing all resources. However, the new change in any organisation creates an issue regarding involvement of the employees in the process of decision-making, which can affect organisation and the conditions of the work (Burke 1982).
Summarising the theme for
understanding of change, change management has elaborated under a broad
spectrum of the perception of participants. It is hence, evaluated that the change
is an inevitable process which requires a deep understanding of the reasons for
which the change takes place. The current study has designed its approach
towards the initial understanding of the change to take a stance over its
fusion with participant’s instincts. Although, this understanding is specified
with the CAAN management due to its on-going process of change; the research
has supplied major factors in exploring reasons, which can be involved in
change inducement. Moreover, the theme has guided for various challenges in
imposition of change, variability of change culture, technology advancement and
its operationalization and more persistently, to cope up with the external
Table 1: Discovered understandings of change management at CAAN
|Understanding of Change Management at CAAN|
|Factors Respondents||Autonomous body||Adaptability to external and internal factors||Higher productivity||Technology Development||Improvement of corporate Image||New Operational systems||High political interference and trade unions demands||Trust-deficit upon employees||Imposed Change|
|R-01, RP-DDG||P||P||P||P||P||P||Senior authorities like Deputy director do not see imposed change|
|R-02, DS-RDD||P||P||P||P||P||Retired deputy director do not see imposed change|
Employee involvement is considered to be the major factors, which have analysed and said to be influential factors for inducing positivity or negativity in employees. This point is highlighted in the literature review as well as revealed from the interview transcripts talking about need of proper communication and involvement of employees in decision-making associated with change management. The understanding of change involves in portraying of the broad picture regarding the management system. There are certain reasons for the friction of the employees, which can be catered and managed properly through wisdom of higher management.
In this regard, the major change factors are gathered and identified as the sub-themes from literature which are listed below:
In the below mentioned responses, the researcher excavates the extent of employee involvement in the change process and hence, suggest the possible pictures for drawing an understanding from the respondents. Employees’ concern in change process is considered as an important attribute regarding success or failure of change. However, these concerns if addressed properly then process of change becomes smooth. In the present research, the sub-theme comprises of ambiguity, communication barrier, imposition of decision, and disengagement of employees as categories, which are evaluated from recorded responses.
R-01, RP-DDG entailed his response as:
“I would not say all the level of employees were involved in change management process. Only the higher level of employees was involved and the process of the decision-making and it was transparent to some extent.”
R-02, DS-RDD said:
“Only the certain level of employees was involved in the change management activities in organisation. The new change management and the new act of civil aviation were developed with their involvement.”
-From the above-quoted responses, it is evaluated that only higher level of management was involved. It endorsed the factor of ambiguity among employees because there was no clear information about the process. However, the higher management was involved who had not taken their sub-ordinates into confidence.
R-04, RS-FC said:
“There was no involvement of different level of the employees. The process and decision making were not transparent.”
R-05 KBT-RFFD said:
“Not all the employees were involved during that time, lower level employees were partly involved, but that was just once or twice.”
-The above quoted responses expressed their views as they were not involved in change process activities and hence, disengagement of employees from the change management activities was recorded.
R-07, BS-CD said:
“There was interaction between the employees in terms different workshop and seminar. With discussion and involvement of the high-level authority, the organisation was change into the CAAN.”
-This response explained that there were different workshops and seminars regarding change but the concerns of employees were not addressed. They were imposed with the decision and then informed through seminars and workshops.
R-08, AKA-FFD said:
“We were not involved in any change management process activities in organisation. We were not given a chance to view our ideas and knowledge, we were just the informed that the change management is going to take place in organisation.”
R-09, KRP-MAC said:
“Not all the employees were involved in change management activities at CAAN. The board members committee determined the involvement in any change activities in CAAN of any employees.”
-From above responses, it is affirmed that employees of higher management level were involved only and among the rest of employees, information was spread without taking feedback. It has found that the information of change management does not fulfil the question instinct of the employees. It has in return cause the disengagement and ambiguity among the employees. A limited access of employees to the information process creates a gap between the management and employees. In addition, these factors may contribute to the resistance of employee.
Another factor which relates to employees’ concern are recorded as:
R-04, RS-FC said:
“An organised system of informing employees was not taken into consideration which disappointed the employees and created a gap between the higher and lower management.”
R-05 KBT-RFFD said:
“Involvement of the lower level employees was very minimal. There was no mass meeting or workshop organise by the organisation.”
R-06, CAAN-E said:
“There were no forums for discussion and the meeting organised for the change management that was going to take place in the organisation.”
R-07, BS-CD said:
“There is speculation that there can be an internal clash between the employees. This can be taken as difficulties during the transition phase of the organisation, which can be handled and tackled, by the act of the CAAN.”
R-09, KRP-MAC said:
“The organisation did not give importance to suggestion and advices of the employees for any kind of change activities.”
R-06, CAAN-E said:
“The medium of the communication was very weak.”
From the above responses, the employees found ambiguity during the change process. They attracted towards different other opportunities and tried to secure their future by shifting their jobs. This is reported as a common scenario in a majority of organizations failing to communicate the need and process of change adoption among employees. A lack of communication results in several assumptions where employees think that the upcoming change will close the windows of opportunity for existing staff, objectives will be changed or forgotten and problems will accumulate (Sirkin et al., 2005 and Wegge et al., 2010). These assumptions become the reason of voluntary and well as involuntary job changes among a majority of employees (Chedi and Hetschko, 2014). An unclear explanation of the change develops the fear that the employees are entering a dark, unknown stage in their employment with unpredictable consequences (Moseley, 2017) resulting in either a resistance to change or a shift in job as reported by employees of CAAN.
The entire scenario happened due to the reason of miscommunication among the CAAN employees and management. Through conventional practice, they were informed and the decision had imposed. It is the one side of the picture. On the other hand, another response draws a complete different picture, which had shown a complete lack on the side of communication. However, according to higher management, information was processed till the lower level by conducting seminars and workshops, as depicted in below states opinions:
R-01, RP-DDG said:
“There were several meetings and workshop were organised in different phase before the change management process.”
R-02, DS-RDD said:
“Meetings, seminar and workshop were organised. Advices and opinions were collected from various level of employee.”
The above-response has generated completely a different picture for employees’ concern.
Summarising all the responses from above-responses, it has generated that the information medium was not such effective that the involvement of employees was limited. Although the employees were deferred from leaving the organisation by providing them choice but at the part of suggestion, employees were not involved in the decision-making process. It’s due to the factor of generating a large research-based process for collection of opinions and the organisation may not wanted to indulge into a long process. Another reason, which draws the attention, is the fear of trade-union that may overarch the organisation with their respective demands. However, the extent of involvement into change process can lead to the misunderstanding and trust-deficit until the process is not fully established.
According to Griffin et al. (2004) the proper planning by the management can upgrade employee’s effort for the change and psychological comfort. Tavakolia, (2010) innovations, downsizing of organizations, merge and the restructure of organizations often affect the performance of employees. According to Mowday et al. (2013), the behaviour and culture of an organisation entails about the employees’ understanding and working which lately influence organisation’s performance. In this regard, it has evaluated that the role of leadership` is crucial because it is associated with the significant relation to organisational culture. In context of CAAN management, employees’ concern has found crucial because they were the engines of the organisation.
The answers received from different employees at CAAN explain that they were working for the organisations for many years and had rewarded their long journey of life to the organisation. When organisation do not gain the trust of the employee then it becomes difficult for them to manage the change process. In the case of CAAN the management has imposed the decision because aviation was transforming into the autonomous body and the decision was done on government or ministry level. Some of the employees were found disappointed with their no involvement.
Cumulatively, a complete picture entails that the process of change in CAAN has not taken the employees into consideration. Although, the organisation has tried to make the process smooth by giving their employees the opportunities and incentives, the expectations of employees in terms of their participating in decision making and implementation of change is not give proper consideration by the management. The management completely ignored the role of efficient and effective communication while introducing any change in the organization and this is revealed as a major factor influencing perception of employees about the management. The supervisory level and working class of the company consider the implementation of change as a failed process that has not resulted in much of the changes but have given rise to dissatisfaction among employees.
It is reported to be responsible for creating an environment of insecurity and fear making several employees to leave the organization and look for better and secured job opportunities. In contrast, some of the employees complained that management of these rewards and promotions were not ascertained and on the level of right man on right place. Due to the fact, it could enhance the chance of stronger trade union within the organisation. The excavated factors are generated as disengagement of employees, Ambiguity of organisational culture, systematic understanding, and restrictions in communication, imposition of decision, and calculation of change attributes.
The personal attributes regarding change in the view of employees was explored as the second sub-theme, which involved the categorisation job insecurity, unawareness of change, psychological strain and resistance against change. Controlling an organizational change on the subject of employee perspective successfully becomes the important focus of every level of management, just as survival in the change is important for employees. The success of the change in an organization is significantly associated with the approval of changes by the employees. The researcher has found there could be a negative reaction from the employee toward the change because of expanded work pressure and stress (Jones et al, 2008; Self and Schraeder 2009; Pech and Oakley 2005). The strategic position of employee in an organisation entails the roles of the leadership of an organisation, because it has a direct influence on organisation during the phase of change.
The response is generated through recording employees’ perception in following answers:
R-03, UM-AC said:
“There was no such role of the change initiator to make employees understand the reason behind the change, except the benefits and a written letter to each and every employee.”
R-03, UM-AC said:
“I would like to add is though there was drastic change after the change management, the organisation was on the state of confusion during the initial stage.”
R-04, RS-FC said:
“There was some resistance due to the services and promotions provided by the organisation. The trade union was so much strong that it affected the hiring process.”
R-06, CAAN-E said:
“Only few employees wish to stay with the government organisation whereas rest of others stayed with CAAN.”
R-08, AKA-FFD said:
“Promotions was not in a systematic way due to intervention of the political parties, those who have connection to political parties were easily promoted and sent to the different countries for the trainings. See I have to tell you about myself. In spite of spending fourteen long years I just got two trainings opportunity.”
-A grudge of an employee entails that there was a corruption regarding job opportunities and trainings. But the employee still associated with the organisation, described its job security rather job insecurity.
R-03, UM-AC enunciated:
“Though employees were informed, but the policies and rules were not developed properly, so there was situation of hesitation and confusion among the employees.”
R-09, KRP-MAC said:
“There are few negative personnel in the organisation who are always prepared to create the obstruction.”
-According to the response, there were certain employees who were involved in creating negativities among other employees responsible for posing some risk to the change process.
It is clear from above responses that change process involved the hurdles and impediment from employees as well. It’s due to the lack of communication and barriers among the verbal communication. The flow of information was not clear and the involvement of the political parties and stakeholders had aggravated the sentiments of CAAN employees. Also, there were some employees who shifted their career due to lack of information on behalf of organisation, which entails a serious concern towards the bonding of lower, middle and higher management. In addition, this change although has no severe impact but the CAAN is still struggling to cope up with its challenges and issues to pursue the change.
R-01, RP-DDG said:
The organisation gave an option to the employees if they want to stay or want to transfer to the civil services. Employees were attracted to the facilities, financial benefits and the career progression provided by the organisation.
R-02, DS-RDD said:
“Employees of every level were informed about the change process and they were given choice either to stay new change management in CAAN or to transferred to any government services.”
R-03, UM-AC said:
“But there was an expectation from the organisation is to cooperate any policies and programmes.”
“As employees had already decided to stay with the organisation, formally signed the consent paper to accept any changes. So, there was no choice just to stay with the organisation.”
R-04, RS-FC said:
“We were given a choice to stay with government service or to the Authority.”
R-05 KBT-RFFD said:
“The employees were given a choice to stay with government service or move to CAAN after the change.”
“I would say there was formal written letter that was sent to all the employees, informing about the new change management.”
R-06, CAAN-E said:
“They were given a choice to with CAAN or to transferred to other government organisations.”
R-07, BS-CD said:
“There was written letter to all employees that the change is going to take place in the organisation. Employees were given a certain period of time, to make choice to stay with government organisation or stay with the authority.”
R-08, AKA-FFD said:
“We junior level employees were just attracted to stay with the new change management as the organisation did not wanted to lose it qualified employees.”
R-09, KRP-MAC said:
“The employees were officially informed though written letter. All the employees were given a choice to stay with the new management or move to government service.”
In CAAN organisation, the change process had involved the employees to a certain extent and they were communicated by providing letters, workshops and seminars. However, their role was minimal.
As per the available literature, it is not sufficient to inform employees through letters and seminars, but it is necessary that they are involved in the process of introducing change (Avey et al., 2008; Ford and Ford, 2009; Bringselius, 2011 and Carnall and Todnem, 2015). Employees should be given the opportunity to make suggestions as to the way change should be brought in their particular working style or team making it easy for them to adopt the new working style. They should also be involved in taking up decisions regarding training needs, type of training required (on-the-job or off-the-job), duration of such training and the ways to monitor the successful implementation of change (Avey et al., 2008).
The literature also suggest that central themes of employee influence, dialogue and adjustment to planned changes and improving the quality of decisions through improved employee motivation are some of the factors to be considered while planning the communication of change across the organization (Carnall and Todnem, 2015 and Bringselius, 2011).
These factors are important to ensure success of change management as it takes care of psychological reaction, conviction, and opinion as well personality differences among employees and their preferred methods and modes of communication (Bringselius, 2011).
Interestingly, there was no resistance because the all employees were given option to stay with the CAAN management or can shift to any other government organisation. Moreover, there was some evidence of psychological strain during the change process because the awareness was not spread among the employees. Disregard of the fact that employees did not resisted but to make the employee loyal with the organisation, a feedback system could be implemented and employees are asked for their advices to analyse their tilt. This not only give a satisfactory notion, also it would provide an indirect retention of employees. Currently, the typical communication channels at CAAN are limited to direct interaction between the supervisor and subordinates. This is similar in case of managers heading the departments where they are in direct touch with supervisor but not with the working staff of the department. Also, there is no upward communication in the organization making it difficult or even impossible for employees to give suggestions or raise their concerns on regular basis. They can communicate their concerns only through trade unions that hold a powerful place in CAAN as well as other industries and sectors of Nepalese business environment.
Van Dyk and Herholdt (2004) has disagreed on the fact that organization claiming the employee as the capital and though the fact still remains. They state that employee needs the organisations more than the organisations need the people. Thus, for the effective performance and management should be able to give opportunity to employees to design their jobs and roles. So that they will find the perfect job between their needs, skills and the values (Gruman and Saks 2011).
The personal attributes of the employees provided an insight about the crucial role of employee involvement onto the change process. It is not necessary to provide sensitive information to the employees but providing them with psychological contentedness is a much easier option during change management process.
When the personal attributes are discussed, the next sub-theme encompasses the motivation for employees, which categorises into opportunities, promotions, Skilful trainings abroad, incentives. These factors address the motivational factors for the employees.
Apart from that well managed change can lead to increase in employee’s competitive strength with the training and development opportunities offered. Oakland and Tanner (2007) identified increase in employee competencies due to training and communication during change process remains positive for performance. With the increase in awareness, recognition, responsibility and advancement, job satisfaction and motivation level remain high. Whereas job dissatisfaction can be due to communication within organisation, working condition, supervision, organisational policy, job security and salary. Although there is common consensus of requirement of change for successful operation of organization, the substance to change and how to manage well remains unanswered (Dawson, 1994). Traditionally, the researchers emphasized on stability in an organisation though least change initiative (Stacey, 1996) whereas McHugh (1996) emphasizes on developing dynamic, competitive strategies and using them continuously. Similarly Bate (1994) identified change as incremental or transformational and in case of the Civil Aviation Authority Nepal (CAAN), incremental change is found to be in application. These affected employees can be satisfied through involving and engaging in change process. Moreover, the motivational factors are crucial for enhancing the morale of the employees. In this regard, the CAAN employees share their experiences for motivational endowments from the organisation.
R-01, RP-DDG said:
“The employees were already being given a chance of career progression as well as the financial benefits, which were more than the double in CAAN then in any other civil services. You can say, those were the motivational factors for the employees to make happily to stay with CAAN.”
R-02, DS-RDD said:
“There were many motivational factors to make the employees remain with organisation.”
“The organisation did not want to lose the experienced employees and qualified on their areas, employees were promoted to one step further from their position.”
“Salary and allowances were increased. The employees were mainly motivated through the career progression and financial benefits.”
R-03, UM-AC said:
“The most important motivational factors for any employees was career progression, they were provided opportunities for training abroad.”
“Financial benefits and allowances were doubled than any other organisations in Government services. Thus, the employees were pleased to accept change very easily.”
R-04, RS-FC said:
“There was opportunity for career progression and many vacant positions were opened. In short there was promotion opportunity and economic benefits compared to government, which attracted us to remain with CAAN.”
R-05 KBT-RFFD said:
“After the change management it make me even think previous one would have been the better, at least it will go on process. New change management made the employees confused.”
R-06, CAAN-E said:
“There was increment on the wages of the employees; allowances and the benefits were provided.”
“Employees were given a chance for career progression by various abroad trainings and promoted to one level above.”
R-07, BS-CD said:
“There was a career opportunity, employees were motivated, easy on the resources planning these are the positive aspects of the change management.”
R-08, AKA-FFD said:
“They were attracted more to the opportunities and service offered by the organisation.”
“So, there was no such which the change initiator has to play a role to make employees accept the change management organisation.”
R-09, KRP-MAC said:
“The organisation offered employees various allowances.”
“Thus, frequent training is needed. So, organisation gave the opportunities to the employees to make them more skilful by providing abroad trainings.”
“The ratio who accepted the change management was higher than the those who resist.”
-The response entailed that there is some amount of resistance but all of the employees stayed CAAN due to the motivational offers.
The above-quoted examples have set a relationship between the opportunities offered by the organisation, which then motivated them to remain with the side of organisation. The organization changed from Civil Aviation Department to Civil Aviation Academy in the role of an autonomous and transparent body. During the process, employees were given an option to either stay with the organization to get career progression, financial benefits and abroad training to perform better for the country or they had the option of joining any other government job in the civil services sector.
The options were not limited as an offer from CAAN but came as links of the organization with wider civil services network ensuring job security for the employees even when they are not comfortable with the changing procedures at CAAN. CAAN has justified the change process with the perspective of the allowances, skilful trainings, career progression, and enhanced career opportunities. Moreover, the motivational factors are associated with the cognitive behaviour of employees. Furthermore, the associating factors of the motivation are explained as the key supports for retaining the employees in organisation. To cope up the external dynamics, organisations often provides offer to their skilful workforce but if these factors are manipulated with the political and stakeholder’s involvement than the motivational factors do not work in retaining the quality employees.
Also, it is explored in the responses that job satisfaction and career progression are the key factors, which can help in employee retention. However, it is argued that a skilful and talented employee shifts their jobs for better opportunities. In the CAAN, the organisation had decided to retain their employees either by giving them fruitful opportunity or by promoting them with certain incentives and remunerations. Moreover, these employees were given the choice to remain within the organisation or change their department within the other government sectors. Thus, the motivational factors included a flowchart from job satisfaction to removal of insecurity, environmental smoothness and enhancement in the job responsibilities. The skilful trainings and learning abroad was an added advantage for the employees of CAAN.
Cumulatively, the whole responses determined that during the change process, motivational factors helps in retention of the employees by raising their salaries to twice. It is quite similar to the example of Ford Motor Company whose founder Henry Ford had processed the change of his company and retained his managers and employees by shooting their wages onto thrice level of record salary (Wood and Cunningham, 2013 and Lockwood and Koch, 2016). In addition, he took his team into an extensive training period, which provided him with the fruits of existing Ford Motor Company. According to Ford, the weakness of employee is his job and salary, which a leader can authenticate through his existing resources. It not only saves your employees, also motivate them to work for the organisation and make them liable to the organisation. In context of the CAAN organisation, the motivation of the employee seems to be the fuel for the engine of change process. If the fuel were no more than the prospects of failures and issues would be reported.
Moving to the last sub-theme of employee involvement into CAAN change process the comparison of before and after effects of change would be assessed. The sub-theme is then categorised into autonomous system, two regulatory bodies, new technology, trainings and improved infrastructure. These categories have enabled the researcher to define the overall understanding of the change process and its impacts on CAAN organisation.
The change in organisational structure was termed as rightsizing. Peters and Waterman (1982)’s work created the wave of how managers can get engaged in leading change. During this period effective change results were also observed and came under managerial approach to change (Doolin, 2003). But nowadays days the focus of change has shifted to leadership and culture management (Detz et al, 2000). In management studies there are three elements that directly remains prominent in change management literature. Firstly, unquestioning acceptance of change as requisite of organisational success (French and Bell, 1999); secondly characterizing change as a threat to organization and finally taking change as an issue of leadership (Woodward and Henry, 2004). However, the leadership plays a crucial role in decision-making and provides the organisation with hard stance to pass through the process of change. As it has discussed in the earlier themes that the process of change is more or less correlates to the degree of understanding done by an individual. The change of an organisation, hence, should be understood at large because it involves a great many people whose careers are on stake.
In addition, the resources of the organisation and its image worldwide. In perspective of private and public organisations, the aim of public sector is not to make profits but also to provide easement to the natives and its people. Moreover, the public-sector organisations are indulged in generating resources and fulfil its deficits from governmental revenue. Although the Governmental procedures are lengthy and time taking so, the aviation authorities have changed their reporting hierarchies to the autonomous system. The government monitor and involve in process of evaluation only. The below-mentioned responses have generated the comparison of change in CAAN management in before and after perspective. The former sub-theme has integration into the balance system between the two analyses. The following are the recorded answers of the employees which develop an insight of the before and after comparison prospect.
R-01, RP-DDG said:
“The CAAN has achieved the targeted goal after the changing to autonomous body. Only disadvantage I have noticed the organisation is failing to cope the growth and changes.”
-The evolution of organisation into an autonomous body is an expected outcome of change process. Moreover, the capacity of growth must be handled by the organisation after change but it seems that there must be some intervening powers that do not sustain the change. Such a failure might be a result of delay in decision making at the organization, as a majority of decisions are dependent upon the approval of the President or some other political authorities. Moreover, a failure to cope with growth and changes may be due to inefficient communication of such changes and need of growth with employees resulting in lack of support and dedication from the workforce of CAAN. As reported earlier, a majority of employees chose to look for better opportunities and this came as an impact of ineffective communication of change and non-involvement of employees in decision-making procedure. These reasons seem to be working along with each other resulting in overall failure of the change management at CAAN.
R-03, UM-AC said:
“After the change process, the most important aspects, the organisation could take its the decision by itself though there were few restrictions.”
“New technologies were introduced which reduced the work pressure, the manual handling was easily performed by new and advanced technology.”
-The above-response can be intermediate with the scenario, which could be existed before because the changes took place after the change process and associated with absence of new technology, dependent organisation and decision-making deficit.
R-04, RS-FC said:
“The organisation needs waits for the approval for any decision from the ministry level, but after the change every authority is on the hand of Director General of the organisation.”
“Even the employees are satisfied; they get the chance for international exposure…”
“The disadvantages are still there as political interference on the decision-making process.”
-It entailed improvement in the speed of decision-making system. Organisation would not be waited long for decisions.
R-05 KBT-RFFD said:
“But only thing did not change, the influence of political influence makes us feel the organisation being an autonomous body still it seems under the under the control of government.”
-The major factor, which hindered the growth, is the political interference and stakeholders’ involvement for their own benefit.
R-07, BS-CD said:
“Before the change management in organisation, there was no corporate department.”
“The corporate department was formed after the change management in organisation; know the importance of corporate development in organisation.”
The employee had further elaborated the before and after scenario with addition of some facts. It enunciated as:
R-07, BS-CD said:
“We don’t need to wait for the government for the sources, this is the most important positive change of the organisation.”
“The major negative part of the change management I would say is though the organisation is now authority, it has every right to make the decision but there is still an intervention of the government.”
R-08, AKA-FFD said:
Still CAAN has to take advice on decision-making from Government.
The organisation is going to be separated into two different bodies service provider and regulator to run the organisation more effectively and efficiently.
R-09, KRP-MAC said:
“Yes, after the change management working style and the work environment of the organisation was changed.”
“New technologies were introduced which made our work easier.”
“We were given an opportunity to enhance our skills by different abroad trainings.”
Aforementioned responses have generated the comparative scenario of the change process. The responses have entailed some key findings which revolved around new technologies instalment, employees’ satisfaction with the privileges, working of the corporate department, autonomous system of the organisation and formation of two regulatory bodies which includes the service body and regulatory body for anticipation of the key responsibilities of the CAAN management. The understanding of the privileges discusses the change overturn in relation to the CAAN management. The focused responses not only discuss the privileges, but also describe that many employees are not given the promotions and privileges.
Their answers also develop the notion that distribution of promotions was complained to be on the basis of political and stakeholders’ intervention. Moreover, the connection of different departments within the CAAN has become functional such as corporate department. Moreover, the change management has not fully grasped the CAAN organisation. There were some intervening authorities, which impede the growth system of the organisation. It not only created hassle for organisation, but also hinders the smooth process of change. In this regard, it seems that a strong leadership with powerful assistance is needed to improve the management system. This is also suggested by some of the respondents but the actual success of such a leadership under the bureaucratic control of the organization is still doubtful.
It can be evaluated from the responses of participants for stakeholders’ position, their impacts and their intervening within the decisions of CAAN management. In the below-mentioned part, the responses in this context are recorded.
R-01, RP-DDG said:
“At time the stakeholder was not that powerful like now, and for any change process of an organisation, there was no involvement of stakeholder.”
R-02, DS-RDD said:
“During that time there was no involvement of stakeholder, though they were the members of CAAN’s Board Committee.”
R-04, RS-FC said:
“At that time stakeholders were not that power full and there were not many private airlines. So, in case of the change management activities at that time stakeholders were not actively involved.”
R-05 KBT-RFFD said:
“There should be change members of CAAN board, which includes the stakeholders like airlines, and travel and tourism board, whose vital role in the programmes and procedures of the CAAN.”
“They are affecting the rules and regulations of the organisation for their own benefits.”
“The influence of the stakeholder should be control for the better future of CAAN.”
R-06, CAAN-E said:
“There will be meetings and interaction with the stakeholders for any change that is going to take place in the organisation.”
“Some time it makes us feel like the stakeholders due to their control over the policies and procedures regulate the organisation.”
R-07, BS-CD said:
“The structure of the CAAN board committee has already proved the role and involvement of stakeholder in any change process in an organisation.”
R-08, AKA-FFD said:
“The stakeholders were in the board of CAAN and hold a definite power in the decision making. Many times, they influenced the CAAN decisions.
“They also intervene in the policies and reform it according to their own interests. This should be stopped, so the CAAN can process the change in better way.”
R-09, KRP-MAC said:
“During that time of change management, the stakeholders were not actively involved.
On the context of present scenario, the stakeholders are very powerful, as they are the members of board of director too.”
From the above responses and discussion, it can be evaluated that the stakeholders played a crucial role in the policymaking of the CAAN management. The responses generated the notion that stakeholders did not intervene during change process but they were part of the board members, which would surely put an impact on the policymaking of the autonomous body. The interference within the policy designing can be considered as the personal benefit of the stakeholders and not in the benefit of the organisation. In addition, the CAAN rules and regulations ascertain the non-interference of the stakeholders within the CAAN policies and it’s working. However, in perspective of the employees, the stakeholders are the powerful entities, which not only influence the policies, also aggravate the trade union of employees. It is because there is always an equal force of employees in an organisation, which make them stand for their rights. In majority, the stakeholders influence the organisation’s decisions to hold the game of the table that then benefit them. Despite of their benefits, they are not concerned with the benefits of organisation and employees. Alternatively, the employees make their unions to take advantage of deprive states and biased culture of an organisation.
Fitting the picture into the frame of the above discussion, the responses have generated the similar result that explains the role of stakeholders in the realm of their beneficence only. In this regard, suggestions from the participants explores a variant picture for stopping of intervention from stakeholders, hard policy-making, development of an international airport, establishing an authoritative power which embeds within the organisation’s charter and two regulatory bodies to function properly. The participants also suggested a transparent mechanism for auditing of revenue generation by the organisation, which will then help to draw the suitable policies of CAAN. However, in an organization like CAAN that is significantly influenced by political parties and trade unions, such recommendations may not prove to be practically possible thereby hampering the growth of the organization.
the theme from above, employee involvement in the change process requires an
in-depth understanding of the relationship between a successful change process
and employee motivations. It is supposedly a practice to reach a success level
of the change process. The study has excavated the factors from in-depth
understanding of the responses that described and discussed earlier under
different heads. Moreover, the present study comprises of proper development of
themes and its relevant processes of research formulation. The summary of
discovered factors is mentioned in Table: 2.
Table 2: Discovered factors for employee involvement
|Factors Respondents||Ambiguous organisational culture||Imposition of decision||Communication barrier||Insecurity of Job||Performance of employee||Resistance to Change||Motivations for promotion||Skilful trainings||Stakeholders role|
The change process and its impacts are discussed in context of the employees of CAAN management. Once the inducing factors are analysed then its impacts and its range are calculated. To understand the occurrence of change process, it is important to display a broad picture, which involves in portraying the management system. On the other hand, the change process is widely used for products, services, shuffling of the workforce and internal and external features of the organisation. Moreover, when a change has induced, then resistance is also witnessed which then plays a crucial role in stabilisation of change process for long term.
The organisational change process has discovered the main factor in leading the organisation towards the height of productivity and improvement of corporate brand image.
In this regard, the occurrence of change and their impacts on employees are gathered and identified as the sub-themes from recorded interviews which are listed below:
It has openly explained in the literature that the change management is the process which eventually helps the organisation to maintain their instabilities and cope up with the environment (Buss and Kuyvenhofen, 2011). Moreover, the researcher has involved in aligning those factors with literary findings and research work. The investigation made regarding the change occurrence process and would be confirmed or contrasted from the respondents’ answers.
The researcher has classified the sub-theme employees’ experience and perception about change-management into the categories such as role of employees, responsibility shifting, and positive behaviour. These categories are defined as per the questions asked and responses received from the participants. The answers to interview questions revealed some key factors and elements that explain experience of employees when change is introduced at the case organization. i.e. CAAN. Therefore, the defined categories help in explaining and analysing the answers in an efficient manner thereby finding answers to research question. These factors had elucidated as the set cores for an understanding of change in perspective of the organisational change. The researcher identified these factors as the one, which may lead to the influencing elements of the change process.
It has evaluated the findings that the change process in CAAN management has lasted impacts on the organisation by opting for crucial decisions such as autonomous system and separation of organisation into two bodies. Because the organisation has set rules and regulations, which after change deactivate and rearranged to implement again in parallel to change process. The researcher recorded the answers regarding change process and its management in the organisation.
R-01 RP-DDG explained:
“I regularly audit and inspect whether the airport and air traffic services are following the rules and regulations.”
“To meet the requirement of international civil aviation, the regulatory systems of CAAN is corrected, qualified personal are hired, and international expertise are invited from abroad to strengthen the CAAN.”
-The critical understanding entails that responsibility of employee enhances as per designation. Also, rules and regulations are set to fulfil completely. The respondent holds a high position in the hierarchy and being the deputy director general at the company seems to be aware of the various elements responsible for change management at CAAN. On this point, he explained that involvement of international expertise is taken into consideration to equip employees with new advancements. Here director general was responsible to bring a positive return for the upcoming change and to meet the objective he corrected the regulatory system of CAAN while strengthening the procedures in collaboration with international expertise.
R-02, DS-RDD said:
“During the change management, different committees were formed where my role was as a coordinator and as a member. I was working as a director and later promoted to deputy director general after the change management.”
-Role of employee and his responsibility has enunciated. If consider the above opinion, the change process requires complete support of employee. However, despite of being on a senior position, i.e. the deputy director general the respondents explained that in relation to change and regulation the organization still needs to wait for the decision from the cabinet or ministry level. This makes the process of change delayed at CAAN and hampers the interest and involvement employees. At the same time he reported that the change process even when not being much transparent, was planned and communicated to all employees giving them the choice of staying with CAAN or shift to any other government service.
R-03, UM-AC said:
“After implementation of change, process, the policies, and rules were not developed properly, so there was a situation of hesitation and confusion among the employees.”
R-04, RS-FC said:
“There were no such roles and responsibilities during the change, but after the change, there were roles and responsibilities to make everybody to accept the change.”
R-05 KBT-RFFD said:
“We were not actively involved in the change management. At that time there was not such roles and responsibilities.”
R-06, CAAN-E said:
“As an air traffic controller, I was not actively involved in the change management process of the organisation. Every decision was made from the higher level and political parties.”
R-07, BS-CD said:
“At that time the organisation was guided by the government, all the decision was made from ministry level and high positioned employees. My position was just the officer level, so there were no roles and responsibilities.”
R-08, AKA-FFD said:
“We were not involved in any change management process activities in an organisation. We were not given a chance to view our ideas and knowledge; we were just the informed that the change management is going to take place in the organisation.”
R-09, KRP-MAC said:
“We have just given us a choice either we want to stay with the government service or move on to new change management. There was not such roles and responsibilities at that time, no much involvement in the decision-making process for the change management.”
Critically analysing, above responses, four different pictures have been drawn. The first respondent has involved in the change process on a large scale due to the higher designation level, he attains. The second respondent had the slight similar opinion and was found involved in the change process. The two other respondents designated at a
Levels like air traffic controller, faculty chief, and employee from other departments described the facts that during the process, there were no such roles and responsibilities.
It can be assessed that the responsibilities in the change process are liable to the higher designation to tackle the problems of the organisation. It is because the higher management can have the power of taking decisions and they may solve the problems and issues efficiently, which impedes the change process. Moreover, the change process involves the positive behaviour of the employees, either positively or negatively.
These responses clarify that employees at higher level in the hierarchy hold a different but positive view in relation to implementation of change management. However, those at a lower level or supervisory level in the hierarchy reported change management to be a negative process where employees were not given an opportunity to participate in the decision making associated with implementation of change.
In the above-quoted responses, the only factor or element reported to be the major contributor to the change process is the role of employees along with job shifting in the domains. The responses have described that the involvement in the change process was disseminated on the basis of designations. The higher management was informed only, and latter were only witnessed the process. During the process, no particular responsibility was evaluated except the auditing and checking of the funds, which burgeoned higher management only. The majority respondents were positive because the decision of change process is considered for the betterment of CAAN organisation. However, the reliability of the policies could only be developed when the change process marks its outcomes.
4.3.2 Sub-Theme: Process and Procedure (corporate departments, Investigating committees, transparency)
Under this sub-theme, the role of building of corporate department, investigting committees and maintenace of transparency is explored as it can be fruitful in processing change within the management. The answers of the codes record other effective procedures in terms of occurrence and understanding of change process. However, the respondents were aware of change process but couldn’t be able to identify major impacted areas after change. The key understandings from the respondents are recorded as:
R-01, RP-DDG said:
“Since the organisation comes from the bureaucratic area, we may not have the expertise.”
“Thus, the corporate department of CAAN needs to be aware and come forward and introduce the corrective measures.”
-From the above-response, it suggests that bureaucrats run the organisation previously and now, those tactics are needed to reap the fruits of change. Thus, intervention of corporate department is assumed to be an effective practice for fulfilling the gap.
R-02, DS-RDD said:
“There should not be any interference of the government. There is a high interest of stakeholder in CAAN, but stakeholder should not be a decision maker.”
-In continuation of above response, the respondent has included the prospects of change management by incorporating some transparent mechanism because the chances of monopoly during process are large.
R-02, DS-RDD said:
“There should be separate Accident investigation body in an organisation like in foreign countries, which will help to improve the safety concern of the CAAN.”
“The investigation committee is answerable either to the prime minister or to the president.”
-The mechanism of transparency is suggested as a separate procedure with a certain time limit. According to the respondent, transparency is of crucial importance to assess the viability of positive change process. It also aids in the betterment of the organisation.
R-05 KBT-RFFD said:
“Firstly it has to be divided into different parts so that each department can operate successfully. Secondly, the negative impact of trade union and the controlling power of the stakeholder have to be stopped, and then we can find the better procedure, which can fit the CAAN.”
-The above-quoted response has mentioned two hurdles as the major issue in the process of change. The respondent denied that change is not fulfilled criteria completely which incurs that the change process is not transparent. The mentioned factors are stakeholders and trade unions in the organisation. Trade unions and stakeholders’ power is quoted as a key hindrance affecting the policies and programmes at CAAN.
Moving to another response of lower level employee, which enunciates as:
R-06, CAAN-E said:
“I think the policies and procedures of the organisation should not be influenced by external and internal factors, but it should be beneficial to the organisation and needs to fit organisation.”
-In the view, a critical understanding develops that policies are not sufficiently regularised during change process within the CAAN. However, Continuous change requires a smooth process without intervention of stimulus either from external side or internal side. However, considering the historical position of the organization it will be influenced by external factors and changes in the economy. The changing polices of government, the support received from government and the policies of ICAO will always have an impact on the functioning of CAAN. Therefore, every process of change management needs to be introduced, implemented and managed in accordance of such external influences. Furthermore, present day organizations are influenced by the changes in the globalized world around them. No industry or company can work in isolation without being affected by other companies and regions making them interdependent in nature. Thus, CAAN change management needs to come up and regularize within the influence of external and internal factors and elements and not under isolation of such influences.
R-08, AKA-FFD said:
“The organisation, let’s say, transforms into the changing practice must contain aside plans for human resource, technology instalments, and the competent environment by providing training.”
“The need of separate factor of motivations and enthusiastic activities within the culture of the organisation can help to cope-up the change process.”
-In the context of above response, Nadler and Tushman (1995) states that organisations are made of various elements such as people, work, informal arrangements and formal arrangements and to make change succeed consideration need to be made over the effect on all these aspects. Similar to this view, Waterman (1987) also states organisations are complex beings and require a deep understanding of decision-making, rational and irrational elements of internal politics and power, to make the change effective. The organisational culture is estimated to be a powerful tool if utilised in process. A contented culture created by leaders can release the psychological strain of employees and they could be retained within the organisation.
According to R-09, KRP-MAC:
“First of all, there should be no intervene and influence of the political parties. Liberty of decision-making process should be provided to the organisation.”
“The number of participants from stakeholders in the board of committee member should be reduced. Then only the procedure, which can fit, better in CAAN can be established.”
-The above-quoted responses have developed the notion of organisational leadership intervention. An authoritative leadership effectively reduce the inclusion of stakeholders and political parties. However, it may be difficult to ensure such a strong leadership under prevailing political conditions of Nepal. The influence of political parties as well as trade unions is vibrant across the country making it difficult to avoid any inclusion of these elements. This is a key point revealed during this research that may prove to typical to a public sector organization. Such issues may not be present in case of organizations completed owned by private sector.
It has evaluated that the CAAN organisation has undergone the limited number of managerial positions, department heads, technology assembling and majorly of the transparency factor. The organisation required most importantly a mechanism of transparency, and afterward involvement of skilled human resource for aligning it with the external factors. The need for investigating committees during the change process can assist the transparent system of organisations. Also, the majority of the respondents agreed with intervening hassle of stakeholders and trade unions. They said that the change process would be influenced if the stakeholders and trade union intervene within the rules and regulation while devising policies. Moreover, the respondent of higher management explained that they required the assistance of corporate department to assist the process of change because it doesn’t include the only formation of two regulatory bodies. It is because the corporate department will help in technical assistance of organisation. However, the department would also involve in marketing, technology advancement, transformation of the change along with its occurrence.
The transparency, in this regard, is required, which can fit the CAAN organisation with proper management approaches. The notion of transparency evolved from the respondent’s remarks. Maintaining transparency can eventually lead to beneficence of organisation and thus, flourish the change towards positivity (Kaufman, 2005).
The main intention of the planned change is to upgrade the performance of the workforce in an organisation by focusing their efficiency of the groups in an organisation. The main key feature of this approach to the change in organisations is that it places importance on the collaborative nature of the changes. As every part of the organisations are collaboratively diagnose the problems of the organisation and collectively establish a plan specific change to address the issues (Coram and Burnes, 2001).
Moving ahead with the outcomes of the change process, respondents described their learning and experiences about the effective change. The sub-theme categorises power of decision, revenue management and change acceptance as main categories to be evaluated.
The conceptualisation of change requires effective learning and change process intercepted positively between the employee and employers (Beckhard and Pritchard, 1992). Thus, to avoid the confrontational situation or higher level of resistance change management should not be treated simplistically. Traditionally, the authors like Stacey (1996) emphasized stability in an organisation though least change initiative whereas another author McHugh (1996) emphasizes on developing dynamic, competitive strategies and using them continuously. Similarly, bate (1994) identified change as incremental or transformational, and in case of the Civil Aviation Authority Nepal (CAAN), incremental change is found to be in the application. Anderson and Anderson (2010) explained the change process, as a driver for the transformational process in an organisation, which supports the organisation in achieving, desired results. It is discussed that the organisation contains several areas for the change process, which executes from higher management level to lower management. However, the outcomes can be fruitful and beneficial in against to external dynamics if change is executed properly. It is a necessity for the organisation to change but to achieve the desired outcomes becomes the responsibility. Thus, process should devise according to the priorities of an organisation. In perspective of CAAN, the employees welcome the change process and the outcomes have to be revealed in the responses of participants. These participants included the higher management level and lower management level. The designations of the employees are important for drawing the outcomes of change for the organisation in positive direction.
The recorded responses are entailed as:
R-01, RP-DDG said:
“After the change management in CAAN, the organisation was self-dependent, and the process of decision-making was transparent.”
“The income of the organisation was enough being monopoly business in a country.”
–The change has not only put an impact on the rules and regulations of the organisation, but it involves the upgradation of the systems and distributes the affectivities of the organisation. In regard of the revenue of CAAN, stakeholders were taken interest and business monopoly set to gain its share.
R-02, DS-RDD said:
“The changes both in the technical field and structurally growing in that fast pace, but due to some restriction the organisation is failing to catch up.”
“There are new international airports are being launched, and new equipment is installed to endure the fast-paced technological advancement.”
-The response has explained the outcome of the change process about procedures of fit designs in the parameters of the organisation. However, the restrictions are regarded to the governmental intervening, stakeholders’ monopoly and trade union’s agendas, which hindered the effectiveness of change.
R-03, UM-AC said:
“The change was not managed properly. There was a misuse of power and the position.”
“Thus, with correct HR policy and involvement from the top-level staff to lower staff on the process of decision making would have the positive aspect of change management at that time.”
-The above response mentioned the misuse of power and position. However, the previous responses from deputy direct general and retired deputy director general reported that there was proper management and communication of the change among all employees. They also reported that it was the stakeholder’s monopoly and the agendas of trade unions that acted as hindrance to the effectiveness of change implementation and management. These differences in opinion reveals that employees at senior hierarchical positions like director and manager have a view that is contrasting with the experience of employees working at supervisory and working levels at CAAN.
Critically, the power and position if undermined then the change could flourish to its greater strength. As it is discussed in earlier sub-theme that transparency is the major contributor in smooth change management. Assorting transparency in context of power, the outcome can be a independency of organisation with own decision making power.
R-04, RS-FC said:
“The organisation itself generates the revenue and go into its account. Hence, the organisation does not need wait for budgets from the government for any structural expansion and technological installment. The organisation is financially independent.”
-The financial assets of the CAAN can help to overcome the budgetary challenges and fasten up its processes. Utilisation of revenue in correct direction is the main outcome of the change management. That is why, there is a huge involvement of stakeholders as they find CAAN as a business monopoly.
R-05 KBT-RFFD said:
“The qualified and skilled personnel were hired in fire and rescue department unlike before change.”
“High technology has been introduced with demand of changing the work environment.”
“Working style has been easier after the change management.”
-The power of decision involved hiring of human resource, technology instalments and inclusion of working style. A notion is coined that change is attributed to policy changing and rules devising. There are changes reported in working style and technology as well as the structural changes that were necessary to improve the functioning of various departments and levels across the organization. However, the decisions associated with bringing in change, or dividing the organization into two separate entities and those associated with trade unions and political parties are still controlled by the power of stakeholders. It is also reported, that till the process of recruitment the procedures are unbiased but during the time of deputation the procedures are influenced highly by political forces that hamper the working efficient in a direct manner. The stakeholders may not influence the organizational policies but they object some of the rules and regulations and therefore, the power is used in already processed decisions.
R-06, CAAN-E said:
“There was no desired outcome; the main reason was, though the organization changed into the autonomous body, and it still needs to wait for the approval from the ministry for any kind of decision.”
-The above-quoted response generated the perspective that employee or lower management have no or little fruits of the change process. They still need to be pledged for the organisation’s financial process, which takes time for approval.
R-07, BS-CD said:
“This change organisational structure has brought the division in work. Previously only one management level used to supervise the work, but now the responsibilities have divided into a different department. So, the outcome of the change management was positive I would say.”
R-08, AKA-FFD said:
“In my opinion, I would say there neither negative impact or positive impact from the change management from the change management process in the organization.”
-The above-quoted responses have explained that there is a variety of understanding among the employees of the CAAN. Some of them have welcomed the change with positivity and accepted the change. Some remained neutral.
In continuation of the responses, another respondent enunciated as:
R-09, KRP-MAC said:
“The outcome of the change management was positive.”
“The expected goal was not achieved, but there has been an enhancement in technology, manpower skill, and the standard.”
-The response characterised the change with positivity. However, there is some shortcoming regarding fulfilment of change process completely.
The responses are effective in terms of evaluating the outcomes of change, which categorised as power of decision, revenue management within the organisation and acceptance of change among CAAN management.
Encapsulating the sub-theme, the major areas, which described the outcomes were power of decision and revenue utilisation in technology instalment. One of the employees has explained that revenue generation of CAAN is done through organisation itself which can help the organisation to cope up its financial requirements. The revenue management is itself an important factor for revitalising of any organisation. Funds deficit can result in failure of change process due to shortcoming of finances (Chiang, Chen, et al. 2006). The major lacking found in the setting of rules and regulations, which are not devised properly. According to Hislop, Newell, Scarborough et al. (2000), the power of decision-making is a characteristic of an organisation and it should be free from any pressure and imposition. It is evaluated from the responses that the power of decision is not fully pledged to organisation. There can be involvement of certain external factors. Moreover, the outcomes are defined by the progress of an organisation, which takes it to new heights of success. In the CAAN, the need of change is to make align with the needs and requirements of employees and external factors. The skilled human resource is the dire need of organisation after change management. Also, an ambiguity is found among the employees of CAAN, which supposed the process of change could have a positive impact on organisation in future but presently it does not have any explored outcomes.
Summarising the main theme, it has evaluated
that the change process is nascent for an organisation, which needs a proper
care and watchful consideration of management. It also requires the
restructuring of organisation with prospects of aesthetic viz- functional
procedures. Enhancement of communication, channelizing the information and
establishing a fruitful outcome can become helpful in drawing a naïve culture
within organisation. Hence, the process will then contribute to the success of
the change. However, the change process is discovered to be the crucial phase
for an organisation because it has to maintain its stability and viability
within the context of external environment. The summary of the discovered
factors and categories, which are involved in change process, is elaborated in
the table: 3.
Table 3: Discovered factors of change process in CAAN
|Change Process in CAAN|
|Factors Respondents||Role of employees||Responsibilities of the workforce||Positive Behaviour||Impact of change||Retention of Skilled Labour||Corporate departments||Transparent Mechanism||Revenue management||Acceptance of Change|
Under this segment, change process is diversified in context of the organisational value. The impact of change is evaluated by comparing before and after versions of an organisation. To analyse impact of change, it is necessary to assess technology improvement, upgrading of culture, better functioning, inclusion of skilful human resource and internally compliant cultural change.
About the previous theme of understanding of change, the role of employee union found crucial to maintaining the cultural impact of an organisation (Cong and Pandya, 2003).
Nepal has a vibrant culture of trade unions and the trade union of the region is unique in comparison to other such movements of Asia (ILO, 2017). The trade unions in Nepal work together as a united group and hold the strength to level political influence with a new government and new constitution. Furthermore, the different trade unions like Joint Trade Union Co-ordination centre (JTUCC), All Nepal Federation of Trade Unions (ANTUF), General federations of Trade Unions (GEFONT), Nepal Trade Union Congress (NTUC) and similar other unions work together to represent Nepalese workers (ILO, 2017). ICO Country Office supports these unions in order to enhance the capacity of these organizations focused on workers’ benefits and effective representation of workers in processes of social dialogue at various levels (Pokhrel, 2011).
Describing structural change, the impact causes its either severity of flexibility in the organisation. In reference to the CAAN, it has divided into two bodies for proper functioning. Thus, leading to the functional change, the CAAN management hence divided its functions between two regulatory bodies. However, the respondents elaborated their answers in regard to technological, cultural, structural and functional changes. Through the following responses, the impact change has evaluated.
R-01 RP-DDG said:
“For any kind of change management activities in organisations, such as for any regulatory changes, structural changes or to hire any qualified employees, or any to bring any major changes in organisation, unfortunately, there is no systematic process and procedures.”
-To address the impact, the respondent elaborated that there is no parameter to evaluate the extent of such process.
R-02, DS-RDD said:
“When it comes to the change in rules and regulation, the CAAN still needs to wait for the decision from the cabinet or ministry level. The recent changes which organisation is trying to bring it on New Civil Aviation Act, it has to be passed through the parliament house.”
In the above-quoted response, it has found that the impact of the change can be calculated by skilled human resource and rules and regulation in the form of Act. The last but not least influences of the change management are the people which encompass the new and shifting demands of the skills, which direct results in fulfilling requirements of organisations (Tichy, 1983). It is, however, the main constituent in the public-sector organisation but in the part of the human resource, the organisation needs to train newly qualified professionals and make them experienced individuals for securing organisation’s future. In this regard, other responses are recorded and described below.
R-03, UM-AC said:
“The capable employees were leaving the job and few employees to knocked the door of the court for the promotion. Change management created the state of isolation.”
-The above-quoted response describes the policies and rules as a lack of the organisation, which had created a situation of panic among the employees of CAAN, and thus, they either left the organisation, or they took the legal cover for their rights. Here, the change process created an ambiguity on the part of organisation.
R-04, RS-FC added:
“Hence, the organisation does not need to wait for budgets from the government for any structural expansion and technological installment.”
R-05 KBT-RFFD said:
“There was no systematic process and procedure that the CAAN has followed to bring any changes in an organisation regarding culture and others.”
“But I think organisation should develop a proper process of technology and procedure for any kind of changes”
-In above responses, two conditions are isolated; a comprehensive procedure for installing technology and maintenance of budgets to expand technology. Organisations such as CAAN, require a technological evolution with due interval of time.
R-06, CAAN-E said:
“If the changes in rules and regulation for the employees then the organisation will call for the meetings. If the organisation needs to change anything for the stakeholders, then the organisation will interact with them. Mainly organisation needs to follow the CAAN act.”
-The response mentioned above mainly revolves around the rules and regulation of CAAN. The understanding of occurrence of change in CAAN was not that much appropriate. Due to ill understanding about the procedure of change, hindrance could impact the growth. It is necessary to analyse hindrances because it could take the organisation into a state of isolation (Terrell, 2015). It is to be noted that any process of change does not take place in isolation. It has many tangible effects on individuals as well as the organization systems as every individual, workflow and system is linked with each other and with the goals and objectives of the organization (Terrell, 2015). Therefore, the process of change management needs to come along with effective communication and training of users or employees to ensure successful integration of the process in day-to-day operations (Carnall and Todnem, 2015). A lack of strategic approach where the need is to introduce operational change results in a state of isolation where employees and systems work in a dis-integrated manner leading to lack of understanding of workers’ needs, poor implementation and management of change, and poor adaptation to the change (Terrell, 2015). Here, every systems, team and employee consider and work with the changed scenario in an isolated manner leading to failure of embedding the change in the organization’s culture.
In continuation, further responses are recorded as:
R-07, BS-CD explained:
“We had the very limited manpower after the organisation has changed into the autonomous body, the structure could be changed according to the requirement of the organisation.”
“If compared to the previous scenario with the changed one, there used to be very few first-class employees, but there more than 70 first class according to the need of the department.”
-The response mentioned above has generated the effectively of the human resource but these employees are very limited in number to supervise the change in CAAN management. It is due to the reason because change process creates ambiguity and an environment of confusion, which may affect the employees of the organisation (Brown and Osborne, 2012). Furthermore, the change process is valued and exemplified if it continues with all the compositions of understanding on every level. Here by using the term ‘first class employees’, the respondent discussed the role of different management levels that are supervising the work of employees. This makes the supervision efficient in the manner that one manager is holding responsibility of fewer number of employees resulting in a close supervision an check on quality of work. He explained that after the change is introduced, the responsibilities are divided into different department and therefore different managers along with the director general are heading the departments. The work is being checked and supervised under the format of division in work making the change management positive for employees.
R-07, BS-CD said:
“The organisation is multidisciplinary, so CAAN is technologies always wise ahead than any other organisation in the country. No systematic policies and procedure has followed for any change activities in CAAN.”
R-08, AKA-FFD said:
“I would say, there neither negative impact or positive impact from the change management process in the organisation. For us, there was no change in working style and working environment.” We felt just the name of the organisation (from the Civil Aviation Department to Civil Aviation Academy) was changed, but everything was same.
-The above response was quite controversial and explained a different picture totally. The respondent didn’t feel any change and hence, not recorded any technological, structural, cultural and functional advancement in the organisation. Through the response, the change controversy is depicted. The possibility has risen that the occurrence of change process would not be handled properly. Another response has explained in continuation.
R-09, KRP-MAC described:
“CAAN has its own acts and rules for technological, cultural, structural and functional changes.”
-The respondent has explained that the CAAN has its own rules but the limited implication is not fulfilling the criteria.
In addition, the same respondent added to the comments.
“In the context of a country like there is manipulation, and the process and procedures are implemented on the mutual benefits of external and internal factors.”
Summarising all the impact of the change management about structural, technological, functional, cultural and change of regulation. It has evaluated that the change management has not developed a serious impact on the CAAN organisation initially. Although the CAAN management has explained the positives of change process but the employees had no key understanding of the change management. Moreover, the change process is quantified in assessing impact of change, which has not clearly developed a picture of change management.
In contrast, the rules and regulations were attributed to the change process and the outcome of the change in the organisation. However, the researcher aimed to draw the main change factors related to technology, culture, structure, and function of the organisation. The first theme of present research has explored a factor of autonomous body and division of the authority into two regulatory bodies.
It can be considered as the structural change of the CAAN management, and the change of rules and regulations can be considered as the main factor for the impact of change, which can be implemented for positive change process.
In addition, the occurrence of change process is improvised to the many other options in the organisation. In respective of the CAAN management, there are a variety of measures to be taken alongside change process. Cameron and Green, (2012) suggested the behavior of the competitors and the current state of the market may persuade the organisations to bring out the change in an organisation. They further have added organisations from subject to change through four basic factors, which are environment, diversification, technology and the people. The environment included the social, political and legal activities, which affect the operation of the organisations. Diversification comprises the business output that is aimed to meet the demands of the customer and responds to the competition in the industry. Technology encloses the not only how the business is conducted but also the mechanization of the existing practices. The CAAN, as well as other public-sector organisation in Nepal, can be subjected to some extent affected by these influences. Hence, the change is not associated with only the process of change, but it also associates the different procedures, which are devised in the organisation from a higher level to lower level (Hekkert, Suurs, Negro, et al, 2007).
As per above sub-theme, skilled labor is an enduring asset of an organisation. In this regard, the organisation must follow the changing rule aligning with the human resource by pledging their needs (Mansell, Brough, and Cole, 2006).
Thus, CAAN must attempt to meet the basics principles of the organisation and bears the change, which can unite the employees, needs with organisational goals (Nadler and Shaw 2005).
The results obtained from the semi-structured interviews are discussed and presented in this chapter to understand the views of various employees on the process of change management implemented at CAAN. The focus of the chapter remain on presenting the opinion, experience and perception of employees in relation to their understanding of change management, the actual process of change that was implemented at CAAN, the involvement of employees in the process of change and the impact of such change management on performance of employees and the organization as a whole. The next chapter will take these results forward to present a discussion while benchmarking the results with the literature review and identifying the achieving of research objectives defined at the initial stage of the research work.
Chapter 5: Discussion
In the last chapter we discussed about the views and opinion of respondents in relation to various interview questions related to the changes introduced and implementation and management of such changes at CAAN. It was revealed that there are some significant differences among the views and experience of people at senior position in the hierarchy like deputy director and corporate director and those at middle or lower levels like supervisor, manager, and workers at fire fighting department.
In continuation of the findings and analysis, the current chapter will present a discussion based on benchmarking the arguments presents in literature review to find answers to research questions. Here a discussion is presented under the key identified themes that were explained in the last chapter.
Recalling the research objectives:
The current research work started with a focus on achieving following objectives:
Now, we will discuss how each of these objectives is achieved while conducting the research work and the way literature review is connected with the results of the study.
5.1 Current change management of CAAN
The results about this particular theme explain that different employees at CAAN hold different perception and understanding about the process of change management. The employees at higher level in the hierarchy consider the process to be completely positive with proper implementation across the levels at CAAN. However, people at other levels or positions have raised some issues related to the procedure. In relation to reasons of change, a majority of respondents seems to be considering it a result of technological changes and the need to meet principles of ICAO. However, the factors of higher productivity and profitability are not mentioned or considered important at CAAN. There may be a lack of communication about the reasons to introduce a change in the organization to all working levels making it difficult for employees to understand the need of such changes.
In the previous literature, the understanding of change has discussed the effective organisational systems. According to various authors (Szamosi and Suxbury 2002; Bye, 2007; Woodham and Cameron, 2001; Jaros, 2010 and Nickolas, 2004) the change is a process, which is inevitable for the organisations and it must be done with the due process of time. The factor of change has taken a central position in operations of the business and evaluates their management regarding the changing perspective. It is hence, needed concerning the time frame, value of the system and identification of the situation. The authors also enunciate that the change has become an integral part of the life and is continually under process towards refinement (Szamosi and Suxbury, 2002). Also, the change encodes as inevitable whether the organisation is ready for it or not (Bye, 2007). In contrast, the change is an ambiguous term concerning the management literature (Stewart and Kringas, 2003). However, the change in management has considered as a crucial element (Woodham and Cameron, 2001). Stabilisation or management the change is attributed to the systematic and a planned process (Nikolas 2004). In this spectrum, it can bejustifiable that change needs to manage in a wider arena.
The researcher has classified the main theme Innovation and Inevitability into sub-themes such as necessity, novelty, strategic flexibility, adaptability, and autonomous function. Such classification was necessary to address wide range of factors identified through literature review. Several authors like Collins, 1998; George and Jones, 2002 and Anderson and Anderson, 2001 have highlighted these sub-themes resulting in innovation, experimentation and entrepreneurship that is necessary for the business organizations to survive and remain competitive in the globalized business environment. These factors elucidated as the set cores for an understanding of change in perspective of the organisational change. The researcher identified these factors as the major ones, which may lead to the influencing elements for the change process.
Concurrence of the factors among literature and research work
It has closely explained in the literature that the innovation and inevitability of the meaning of change is the core of the theme (Collins, 1998; Wilson, 1992; Cetron and Davies 2005 and George and Jones, 2002). Moreover, the researcher has involved in describing and aligning the factors with literary findings and research work. This alignment and benchmarking of literature review is undertaken in the following chapter. The investigation has made regarding the change factors, and that would be confirmed or contrasted from the respondents’ answers.
It evaluated from the findings that the changes occurred in CAAN management during last five years and in upcoming five years. The two key respondents, i.e. the Deputy Director General of CAAN and Retired Deputy Director General were clear about the past changes an about the future or upcoming changes up to some extent. The future changes mainly seem to focus on division of the organization in two parts to manage the growing air traffic and the possibility of such a division is reported by a majority of respondents. This clarifies that almost all the employees within the organization is aware of this upcoming change in future, however they did not reported any other expected organizational change in next five years. The researcher recorded the answers regarding functional, structural or technological changes.
More importantly, the actual challenges are faced during the change system. There are three phases of change that is pre-change, during change and post-change system. The main challenges occur during the change management system and thus, witness impediment for smooth process of change. The resistance of employees is considered as the major challenge because employees take it negatively due to the associated ambiguity with organisation. However, the public sector organisations are not much associated with profitability but still the risk of failure from change creates resistance.
Considering these three phases in relation to change management at CAAN, there is not much evidence of any direct communication with employees to explain them the need of bringing in some changes at the workplace. Employees were not allowed to participate in defining the process of implementing the change and decision-making related to the change management. Therefore, CAAN fails to meet the expectations during the pre-change stage.
In the second stage of during the change being implemented, there is not much of resistance from employees as they were satisfied with the financial benefits and expected future opportunities communicated by the management. However, the issues were related with ambiguity of the change implementation that made several employees to look for better opportunities in other organizations. Therefore, the fear of risk of failure due to change resulted in some resistance that came out in a different form where employees decided to leave the organization. Here again CAAN fails to implement the change in a successful manner as little efforts were made to explain employees their role in efficient implementation and adaption of the new processes.
Finally, the third stage, i.e. post change implementation is explained by higher level employees as being successful in improving the work processes but the supervisory level and working staff claims no change due to decision making power resting in hands of political parties or other authorities like President.
Being a public sector organization, CAAN seems to be hampered by its bureaucratic culture and strict control of political parties, government and trade unions. This scenario is common to public sector organizations affecting effectiveness of the change processes and management (Wardle, 2008).
5.2 Impact of change management on the performance of the employees
The process change and its impact are discussed in relation to the employees of the CAAN Management. For analysing the impact, it is crucial to assess the influencing factors. For better understanding the process of change, it is crucial display a broad picture that includes the portrayal of the management system. The change procedure is utilized for products, services, shuffling of the workforce, internal and external features of the organization (Avey et al., 2008). The changes have suffered several resistances that create issues in the path of the change management. Bolognese (2002) commented that resistance to change play a crucial role as it affects the interest of the change management. The resistance has been identified as the most significant element that affects the ability and the strength of the individual and result in the success and the failure in the change process (Alasadi and Askary, 2014; Andrews et al., 2008 and Bringselius, 2008). The business organizations adopted change with the aim to remain competitive in the market. However, the changes that have brought effective organizational change are quite rare. The low rate of success for the change is the residences to change, which affects the entire change management process. The findings of the literature review seem to be similar with findings of chapter 4. As per the findings of the literature review, the prime reason for the organizational change is to increase the level of productivity. Another prime objective is to increase the level of corporate brand.
The occurrence of change and their impacts on employees are identified and are made evident and the findings are evident in the interviews. The experience and the perception of the employees are made and the impact of changes is made in this case and other change drivers are also made evident in this case.
The change management in public sector has created impact on the innovation, change strategy implementation and involving the employees and the improvement of the performance of the employees. The study has been carried out with reference to Civil Aviation Authority. Andrews (2008) has mentioned that change management has created strategic flexibility and created adaptability as globalisation has created an impact on the business, market area and has resulted in increasing market area. The organization needs to develop idea and require the proper understanding of the effective decision-making and the effective elements in the organisation (Balogun et al., 2008).
Some of the investigations, which are made in this field, are the change occurrence process and is discussed in the different sub themes.
The views of a majority of respondents revealed that the basic understanding involves that obligation of representative upgrades according to assignment. Additionally, standards and controls are set to satisfy totally. The respondent holding a high position in the progression and being the representative chief general at the organization is by all accounts mindful of the different components in charge of progress administration at CAAN. On this point, he clarified that contribution of worldwide mastery is thought about to furnish representatives with new headways. Here chief general was dependable to bring a positive return for the up and coming change and to meet the target he remedied the administrative arrangement of CAAN while fortifying the methods in a joint effort with global aptitude.
These findings of the interview seem to be similar with the findings of the literature review. Oakland and Tanner (2007) mentioned that proper change management helps to increase the competencies of the employees and at the same time it creates opportunities for the employees in the organization. This is evident in this case as DS-RDD got promotion after the change management. Changes takes place due to large number of reasons like improper communication, dissatisfactions among the employees and others (Beckhard and Pritchard, 1992; Chinyerem et al., 2016 and Carnall and Todnem, 2015). Hence, the changes are made to lead the organization towards success and creating willingness among the employees to accept the change by influencing through the work related factors like employee relationship; knowledge, skills and demands would affect the performance of the employees.
As per the third research question, a majority of respondents mentioned that changes in CAAN have not been successful in an effective manner and this is particularly due to the fact that after the implementation of changes, the policies and the regulations are not developed effectively. This finding seemed to be similar with the findings of the literature review section that mentions that brining change in the organisation is a major threat and undertaking change would affect the leadership (Carnall and Todnem, 2015 and Chedi and Hetschko, 2014). As per the Kotter’s model of change, effective change management requires creation of effective vision of change and empowering of action and build on the change (Palmer and Dunford, 2008). All this requires development of effective strategies, policies and rules during and after the change management in the organization. However, in the given case, the absence of the effective policies and strategies that has affected the change management process. This has resulted in the confusion and hesitation among the employees. Change management requires proper motivation of the employees so that the change is smoothly and it helps the organization to fulfil the objectives.
When the respondents in the interview were asked about the roles and the responsibilities during the change management, UM-AC, RS-FC, KBT-RFFD as well as CAAN-E mentioned that there was no such roles and responsibilities duties but after the change in the organization several responsibilities came over them and this create negative impact on the performance of the organization and affected the change in an effective manner. CAAN-E mentioned that he was the traffic controller and he was not actively involved in the process of change management process. He mentioned that the higher level of the management undertook all the responsibilities.
Some of the respondents mentioned that all the decision related to change management was undertaken by the high-levelled employees and did not involve any officer level employees. They also highlighted the issue that they were not involved in the change management process. Moreover, they were no provided with any scope to put forward their ideas, which again implies the gaping of the communication. There were respondents who explained how during change management the employees were provided with two opportunities in which either they had to stay with the government or accept the new change management; but they were not the part of the decision-making. The change management in CAAN completely disregarded the different established change management model.
The data of obtained from the interview helped to analyse basic strategies of the change management. The two respondents mentioned about the strategies that were adopted during the change management in CAAN. They seem to provide a positive outlook of the strategies that were undertaken during the change management in CAAN. However, the last seven respondents clearly identified the fact that during the change management process, the employee engagement was limited that effected the performance of the employees as it created confusion and hampered the development process of the organization. Only the higher management in CAAN was responsible for the change and the rest were completely ignored.
The higher management were given the chance and has the power to undertake decisions and they can solve the problems and the issues effectively. This has resulted to the overlooking of the problem and the created barriers in the process of the change management process. The evaluation of the responses has made it evident that the employees who were working in the higher level of the organization possess a positive view of the change management in CAAN. The employees who are working at the lower level had negative view of change management. In the literature review section it has been evident that the process of change management is quite complex. Carter et al. (2012) mentioned that change management is crucial for the organization to survive in the market. However, the sauces of the change management strategies require the participation of the employees (Burnes, 2004; Bolognese, 2002 and Doppelt, 2017). The changes in CAAN took place due to the instability of the government. However, lack of the ineffective strategies and lack of employee engagement affected the performance of the employees.
Some other factors, which were discussed under this process, were the impact of the change. The impact of change can be evaluated after considering different versions and the factors of the organization. The maintenance of the culture CAAN has become quite important as Nepal has vibrant culture. The structural change in the organization affected the flexibility. With special reference to CAAN a leading fictional change and it was divided between the regulatory bodies.
The responses obtained from the respondents in the interview have provided elaborated idea about the impact that the changes have created. The first respondents RP-DDG mentioned that for bringing structural changes in the organization, it is important to hire the qualified and the professional employees but in case of CAAN n such strategies or planning are made. For analysing the process, no such parameters are made. The second respondents mentioned that DS-RDD for undertaking the decisions. New acts are being introduced as a recent changes in CAAN. From the second response it can be mentioned that impact of the change management in CAAN can be evaluated with the skilled human resource, rules and regulations in the form of the act. The new demands of the skills and the qualification are fulfilled as a result of the effective change management.
The results discussed in last chapter explained that as a result of the change in CAAN, different employees left the job and also some employees knocked the doors for the promotion. This evaluation provided a clear view of the absence of the policies and the strategies in CAAN that has resulted in the confusion among the employees within the organization.
The negative impact of change on the management of the organization was also evident in the words of the next respondents. A majority of respondents mentioned about the unnecessary need of waiting for the budget provided by the government. They also highlighted the absence of the systematic process that CAAN failed to bring for developing the organizational culture. In the literature review section, Kotter (2007) commented bringing changes in the organization goes through a vulnerable period. Change management include the transitional period that include managing with the resistance to change. Buss and Kuyvenhofen (2011) identified the fact that the process of change management should be made in systematic manner by utilizing the proper resources and arrange the proper change and increase the productivity of the organization. The success of the change management is done involving the costs and creates benefit for the time and the costs.
The results also highlighted the need of communication and meeting for bringing any change in the organization. This response provides an overview about the rules and the regulation in CAAN. The improper understanding about the change has affected the change in the organization and has created hindrance in the process of change. The evaluation of the responses helped to evaluate the fact that no changes take place impact and the involvement of the individuals. Effective communication is essential in this case as it help to convey the objectives and the strategies that are implemented within the organization (Ford and Ford, 2009; Doolin, 2003; Jaros, 2010 and Lockwood and Koch, 2016). All the employees need to be involved in the hanged process otherwise changes made in isolation meet with failure. Then there were respondents mentioning that the organization has limited manpower that has altered the body and has changed the structure of the organization. Results also revealed that before the change, CAAN has limited good employees but after the change CAAN has 70 first class employees for every department. The present change has generated positive response for the human resource of the organization. As per the respondents, change management has helped too filter the human resource of the organization. CAAN has been able to select the best employees for the organization. They also explained that the change management has resulted in the segregation of the department and selection of the best employees for every department.
However, there were some contradictory and strategy responses even, like a respondent mentioned that the change created neither positive nor negative impact, as there were no changes in the working structure of the organization.
He mentioned that only the name of the organisation was changed and not any other aspects of the organization. This response showed a controversy from the responses that were made by the other respondents. Another respondent mentioned that CAAN possesses their own rules and regulations that created structural change. The response made it evident that CAAN has personal rules but they have created limited impact on fulfilling the criteria.
The above evaluation has made it evident that change management in CAAN did not create any significant benefit on the organization in the first stage. The rules and the regulation of CAAN and the policies and procedures being followed at the organization have made it difficult to bring much of the positive changes that are visible to employees after the implementation of change management.
The third section, which was discussed under this topic, was the other change drivers. Based on this theme, the corporate department, the investigating committee and the maintaining of the transparency in the organization has become quite crucial. The first respondents mentioned about the need of creation of awareness so that the effective changes can be made. The second respondents mentioned about the limited interference of the government. The government was an important stakeholder of CAAN but that does not mean they should be ultimate decision-makers. He also mentioned about the importance of maintaining an accident investigation body in the foreign countries. The fifth respondents mentioned about the division of the department and the importance of reducing the negative impact of the trade unions on the working of the organization.
From the evaluation of the above opinions of the respondents it can be mentioned that changes in the organization has taken place through numerous different choices. In individual of the CAAN administration, there is an assortment of measures to be taken nearby change process.
Cameron and Green (2012) recommended the conduct of the contenders and the present condition of the market may convince the associations to draw out the adjustment in an association.
As per the discussion on the themes of the outcome of the change in the organization, the responses in the interview has made it evident there were certain shortcomings in the process of bringing change. The responses that are obtained in the interview are effective in terms of obtaining the idea about the outcome of change in the organization and the ways in which the changes are accepted among the management of the organization. One of the respondents in the interview has made it evident revenue is generated in CAAN with the help of the organization that enable the organisation to manage the financial requirements. Development of the process of communication, directing information and creating a fruitful outcome has helped to develop a culture in the organization. The change process is developed in the crucial stage of the organization and needs to be stabilised in an effective manner to create best outcome for the organization.
5.3 Elements that are responsible for effective change management in Civil Aviation Authority Nepal
The successful change management require effective elements that lead the organization to success. Employee involvement is a significant element that creates motivation among the employees and leads them towards success. This aspect has been discussed in the literature review section and in addition uncovered from the meeting transcripts discussing need of legitimate correspondence and inclusion of representatives in basic leadership related with change administration (Moran and Brightman, 2001 and Lockwood and Koch, 2016). The comprehension of progress includes in depicting of the expansive picture with respect to the administration framework (Sirkin et al., 2005; Terrell, 2015 and Stewart and Kringas, 2003). There are sure purposes behind the grinding of the workers, which can be cooked and overseen appropriately through astuteness of higher administration.
This section helped to analyse certain change elements and they are concern of the employees, personal attribute of the employees, offering motivation to the employees and making comparison of the change element. The first theme, which is discussed in relation to the research objective, is the concern of the employees.
The first element that affects change element in the organization includes the concern of the employees. The concern of the employees includes the process of attribute that result in the success and the failure of the organization. The most important things that are related to are ambiguity, communication barrier and imposition and the disengagement of the employees. As per the opinion of the respondents, all the employees of the organization were not involved in the process of the change management. The high level employees were involved in the change management process. In the literature review section it has been seen that communication and engagement of the employees are essential that helps to attain an equilibrium position and create a shift in the process and help to overcome the challenge in the internal and the external environment (Sadler, 2007; Schilling and Steensma, 2001; Sirkin et al., 2005 and Terrell, 2015). Effective strategies are essential that help to fulfil the objectives of the organization.
From the responses, it has been seen that the lack of the participation of the employees has affected the entire change management process. CAAN allowed limited interaction between the employees but the result was not successful as there was much confusion about the reason and objective of the change. The meetings created pressure on the employees and it was meant only for imposing the decision on them. As per Kotter’s model, creation of vision and share of information are crucial and it helps the organization to bring out the change quite successfully. The difference in the opinion of the responses clearly reflected the ambiguity. The most important fact in this case involved is that the higher-level employees mentioned about their involvement in the change management process while the lower level employees clearly mentioned that they were not even asked to put forward their opinion or wishes for the researches. The lack of communication between the management and the involvement of the employees hampered the change process to a great extent (Terrell, 2015). Moreover, the evaluation of the data in chapter 4 made it evident that the improper explanation of the changes have created fear in the minds of the employees and have met them entered a dark stage and has given rise to the resistance to change.
The second theme, which is to be analysed in this segment, is the personal attributes that deals with job security, unawareness and the resistance of change. The success of change in the organization often depends on the changes, which are accepted by the organization. However, in this case, the lack of the communicating has affected the performance of the employees and created a negative impact on the personal attributes of the employees. The rigidity of the trade unions affected the recruitment process. Moreover, a large number of the employees stayed CAAN and the rest stayed with government. The intervention of the political parties made the situation even grimmer. The typical communication channel in CAAN has imposed limitations on the supervisors and the subordinates. The lack of upward communication in the organization has affected the performance and has given rise to concerns on a regular basis.
The motivational factor is yet another important thing which is evaluated in this case. During the time of change, limited motivation was provided to the employees that created confusion within the organization. In CAAN, the management of the organization has planned to retain the present employees after the change were implemented in the organization. Offering incentives and the remuneration would provide the motivation (Sirkin et al., 2005). This would help to provide job satisfaction and would increase the efficiency of the employees and lead the organization towards success (Radnor and McGuire, 2004; Poole, 2000 and Stewart and Kringas, 2003).
The overall findings and the analysis has helped to categorise the following points which are listed below:
5.4 Recommendation based on findings
It is found that in Civil Aviation Authority Nepal, a number of issues related to change management have been found. It is evident that the management is unable to manage the employee motivation and commitment toward the change. There is a lack of employee engagement, lack of effective communication and training that lead to ineffective change management within the firm. Some employees left the organisation and some went to the court claiming for their promotion and pay increase. Based on these issues, the following recommendations seem to be appropriate for CAAN:
Increase employee engagement– Employee engagement is necessary for reducing employee resistance to change and gain their support and dedication to the successful implementation of the change. Increased employee engagement will provide more ideas to CAAN to make the change fruitful, as employees are the people, who directly communicate with the customers and hence, are more aware of their demands and requirements. Therefore, taking opinions from the employees can help to plan changes in a superior way that in turn, improves organisational productivity and sales.
Providing adequate employee training– For making the change management process effective, CAAN must provide necessary training to the employees, so that they do not resist the change rather help in making the change active. Employee feel afraid of change, as they feel they can be dismissed or be unable to work with the new system and hence, they resist the change that is harmful to organisational productivity. Therefore, CAAN requires arranging training session pertaining to the change organisational or operational changes it wants to implement for improving employee motivation and morale. When the workforce feels confident about their knowledge and skill of performing tasks within a new system, they embrace the change more positively. For example, if the firm wants to install the new technological device, it must train the staff regarding its use, so that proper usage and application can be ensured. It will help the company to reduce employee turnover and retain the valuable employees for life.
Conducting effective and regular communication–
lack of communication leads to a lack of employee motivation, morale and
commitment toward fulfilling organisational goals. When CAAN plans for a change
that is necessary for the firm to perform competently, must involve its
employees in the planning process through regular meetings or conferences.
Effective communication is the key to strengthen the relationship between
employers and employees. Formal, informal both types of communication is
requires and have to be done regularly for identifying employee concerns, their
viewpoints about the change, their fear and queries about the change. Regular
communication through email, texting, video calling, and meetings can help into
resolve all these problems and to gain employee support toward the change. Not
communicating with the staff can make them distracted from the change process,
make them feel unvalued and under confident. For making employees happy and
satisfied, management must develop and maintain an inclusive communication
channel including social media for managing a proper interaction with the
employees, understanding their training needs and providing them with training
Chapter 6: Conclusion and Recommendations
Change is widespread in a dynamic organisation that is effective for any organisation in developing products and services based on the need of customers so that competitive advantage can be effectively achieved. Therefore, organisational change is one of the most crucial parts of any organisation. However, it is observed from the discussion of the above mentioned part that implementation of reform is not smooth because implementation of change always creates some resistance from the employees who resist change for so many reasons such as fear of job losses, ineffective knowledge regarding the new technology or fear in working in a new job environment. However, in the public sector organisation, there is not any fear regarding the fear of job losses, but there is fear regarding the change in responsibilities or change in the habit in the organisation regarding the work practices.
This study mainly focuses on the two different things such as identify the proper change in the organisation to obtain better result along with a better change management process in the CAAN. The information that has been collected from the nine employees of CAAN clearly shows the fact that changes is a most essential part for their organisation because in this present era various international airlines have entered in aviation market that offers world-class facilities to their customers. Therefore, for achieving success in the market, it is highly necessary for CAAN in implementing a correct change is that they can improve their services.
However, only the implementation of reform cannot create a higher level of success for the organisation because after implementing the change, if it is seen that employees are showing a higher degree of resistance, then the whole process of change can be destroyed. In that case, it is essential in effectively handling the entire process of change so that it can create a lesser level of resistance from the organisation. Along with that, the involvement of employees in the change management process always creates effective management of change. This is because it can help employees in identifying the necessity of implementing technological as well as management change in CAAN that helps them in preparing them in accepting change.
This chapter is associated with presenting a valid conclusion by showing that whether findings and discussion have achieved the objective or not. Along with that, this section is also related to demonstrating the importance of different change management theory and then develops a new approach with the help of which change can be more effectively implemented in CAAN. It is observed that CAAN is currently facing various issues that are creating large obstruction of the implementation of reform. It is noted that the organisation do not have a proper policy for the application of change and they have implemented change suddenly that has created huge issues for the organisation because they have faced massive resistance from the staff. Along with that, it is also observed that CAAN does not involve their lower level staff in the change process that creates higher level resistance from the lower level staff that not only produces a higher degree of strength during the implementation of change but it also creates ineffective organisational output.
For this reason, the organisation needs to implement some specific change management model with the help of which change can be implemented in the organisation. This section effectively creates a useful change implementation model by which CAAN can implement successful change and achieve competitive advantage. Moreover, this section also sheds light on a different limitation faced by the researcher to conduct the research. Along with that this, section also describes the future scope of study for this particular research so that this research can be completed.
6.1 Contribution to the theories:
For the implementation of change in an organisation, different change management theories are mandatory because it shows a path by which change can be effectively implemented. Change management theories show some logical steps with the help of which changes can be performed in any organisation with more efficiency (Clarke, 2018). However, before applying any change management model, it is essential for CAAN to identify why they need a change in their organisation, after that, they need to select the change management model. This is because different change management model guides any organisation to implement change based on their requirements.
Among different change management model, Lewin change management model is useful that mainly suggest that difference is a move from one fixed state to other with the help of various stages of activities and then move into another state that is set in nature (Cameron & Green, 2015). Therefore, according to the model, for achieving a successful implementation of change, it is highly essential to get stability or accept the difference in the culture of the organisation after the application of reform so that the transition can be successful (Worley & Mohrman, 2014). For the implementation of improvement according to the Lewin change model, when the resisting forces of any change exceed the driving troops, then changes need to b implemented in the organisation. After that, the change needs to be performed and then it is necessary for involving the difference as the culture of the organisation (Clarke, 2018).
By implementing the Stance and Dunphy model in their organisation, CAAN can identify the approach that can help them in maintaining the strategic alignment with the business environment. Along with that, this model is also effective for CAAN in understanding the type of transformation process that can help them in implementing the technological along with management change process with more efficiency (Cameron & Green, 2015).
Along with that, Kotter change management model takes the change from the open perspectives, and it views the move as per the bottom-up approaches. This model clearly shows the various ways by which the resistance from the employees can be reduced. It is observed that for the implementation of a successful change, it is essential in developing proper vision to implement change and then it is necessary to communicate the idea with the employees and other possible stakeholders so that they can understand the necessity of change and helps their organisation in implementing the difference with more efficiency (Clarke, 2018). This theory also shows the fact that how empowering the action of an employee can achieve the successful change in the organisation. Therefore, it can be said that this model clearly shows the fact regarding how change can be managed in CAAN to secure better output from the shift.
Kotter change model has demonstrated the fact how change can be effectively achieved by implementing the whole process of change in short-term basis so that a better result can be secured from the shift (Al-Haddad & Kotnour, 2015). Kotter has described some logical steps that conclusively show that how planned change can be effectively implemented and managed in the organisation (Doppelt, 2017). Along with that, Kotter change management model also describes the importance of incorporating the new approach on the culture of the organisation so that the employees of the organisation can work in the changed environment (Cameron & Green, 2015). As CAAN needs to implement the technology as well as management change to secure better organisational result so, after the implementation of reform, they need to work in the changed environment and support their employees to adopt the change more effectively. Along with that, for the application of change more successfully, CAAN needs to develop some short-term goal such as identifying the technical need and then implementing technology in the step-by-step process.
Anderson and Anderson’s change management model is also useful that mainly shows that there are mostly three different types of change that are transitional, developmental as well as transformational change (Hayes, 2018). Among these three types of change, CAAN needs to implement the transformational change so that they can change the technology in the organisation and secure a better development in the organisation. Therefore, this model is useful for CAAN in understand what kind of change they need to be implemented in their organisation to secure a better organisational result. After that, for the implementation of reform and managing stress after the application of change, CAAN need to follow the change mentioned above management model.
6.2 Contribution to practices:
The above description has shown the fact that for the implementation of a successful change, it is always important to select a better change management process because every kind of change involves a resistance from the staff. From the case study, it has been observed that CAAN need to implement a change in the technology to facilitate more autonomy, adaptability along with the strategic flexibility so that they need to apply a useful technique in the organisation. For this reason, the employees can resist the change because it can generate instability in the organisation. For this purposes, it is highly essential to take some steps in reducing the resistance from employees. Along with that, it is seen that an effective policy regarding an employee is missing in the organisation. Therefore, for the creation of an active organisation a change, along with the development of a better employee, various motivational strategies need to be implemented in the organisation. Therefore, for the successful implementation of change in CAAN, they need to apply the below-mentioned change management practice.
Identifying the need for change:
For the implementation of a successful transition, it is highly essential for any organisation in determining the necessity of change by conducting an internal audit. Therefore, CAAN needs to do an internal environmental review of their organisation after observing an ineffective organisational result in their organisation. Identifying the need for change is useful for CAAN because it is highly useful to identify various threats that are present in the organisation. Along with that, it is also helpful in distinguishing the different opportunities that are present in the organisation. After the identification of change, CAAN needs to implement some effective strategy so that the threat to their organisation can be minimised.
Developing a vision for change:
For the implementation of a successful transition, the first thing that CAAN needs to do is preparing a bright idea for change. The idea for change needs to be formed in the way so that it can reflect the change related need. This vision must include a value for the implementation of reform, strategy to execute the image and then it needs to be added a summary of the application of change.
Involving employees in implementing change:
After developing the vision, it is necessary for the higher level management of CAAN in producing different types of role that need to be played to implement the change with efficiencies. After that, the organisation need to conduct a detailed audit of the employees to understand their capabilities so that proper role can be allocated to the employees based on their talents for successfully implementing the change.
Developing an interactive policy for change:
After this, CAAN needs to establish an effective system regarding implementation and management change so that the entire process to implement change can occur in that way. Better change management and control policies need to be performed for the minimisation of the risks while implementing change. CAAN need to achieve their change implementation and control policies by considering the need of their employees so that the systems need to include a practical training related strategy after implementing change and offering of different types of rewards for their employees.
Communicating the vision with employees belonging from every level:
After developing the vision, it is necessary for the higher-level management of CAAN in delivering the idea, and policies with the employees belonging from a different level. The previous change management process of CAAN was failed because they had a lesser degree of focuses on communicating their vision with the lower level of employees. Therefore, in their new change management process, CAAN need to demonstrate the necessity of technical and management related change and strategy of change with the lower level of employees o that they can understand the necessity of change and can be prepared for facing a change. This strategy reduces the resistance from employees.
Empowering the employees:
After communicating the vision and policies with the employees, it is highly essential to allow the employees that mean CAAN need to take some change related idea from the employees. Along with that, they need to involve their employees in the change management process so that the resistance regarding change implementation can be reduced.
After developing strategies to reduce the initial resistance from the employees of the organisation the difference need to be performed in the organisation so that huge opposition related issues can be resolved in the organisation.
Removing obstacles through effective strategy:
Despite implementing some initial level of a plan to reduce change, different others issues can be created in the organisation that need to be resolved in the organisation so that change can produce the intended result. After the implementation of change in CAAN, the issues that they can face are mainly related to the unproductive knowledge regarding the new technologies that can create an ineffective result. In that consequence, it is essential for the organisation in offering practical training and development opportunity to the employees to make them compete with the new technology so that they can generate a useful result. Other obstacles that can be created after the implementation of change are mainly related to loss of motivation to work with the new technology. Therefore, to increase the motivational level among the organisation, it is necessary for CAAN in implementing some useful motivational technique such as offering either monetary or non-monetary rewards to the staff so that they can be motivated to work in the organisation. Recognising the capabilities of employees among a set of employees increases the motivational level. Offering promotion and some incentives also increase the motivation of the employees to work with the new technology.
Accepting the change in the culture:
After the implementation of change efficiently and make the change long-term, it is necessary for taking the difference in the culture so that it can be involved with the everyday activities of the organisation and create a better organisational result. For the implementation of change in the culture of the organisation, CAAN needs to involve their leaders so that they can provide adequate and continuous support to the employees so that they can secure a useful organisational result.
For increasing efficiencies in any research, it is necessary for developing a future scope of studies because a thesis is incomplete without the future scope of investigations. It is observed that the present research paper has been conducted on CAAN; therefore, there is a proper scope that the research can be done on other public organisations where the level of competition is not present. Thus, in that case, there is a scope to research a public sector that has the monopoly in the market. In that consequence, this research can be conducted so that the change management process can be adequately understood in that section. Along with that, there is also a useful scope that the research can be conducted on the private sector. This research has been undertaken to understand the consequences of change and the process of managing change in a public organisation so that private organisation can be used here to identify the difference.
The difference is more common in a private organisation to satisfy the need of customers because the level of competition is higher in the case of the private sector organisation so that there is a greater scope. On the other hand, the researcher has used a good set of information from different researches and represents valid information. Therefore, there is a proper scope that the future researcher can use the data from this present research and use it as one of the secondary sources of data. After that, the future research can use the data to fulfil their research related need. It is seen that the current study has been conducted on the management of change in the public sector organisation. Therefore, there is a valid scope in expanding the research on different particular change management strategies such as change leadership or another related topic that is related to change management process.
6.4 Recognised limitation:
For the conduction of this entire research study, the involvement of enormous time and money is required. For collecting data regarding employees of CAAN and the reason behind issues faced by them due to change implementation, enormous time is needed. Involvement of time is also required to collect secondary information and gaining in-depth understanding regarding the research topic. However, it has been observed that the researcher has some shortage of time due to the pressure of other research or subjects that can create issues for a researcher in completing this research by taking a long time. Along with that, the research paper also needs to be completed within a particular time that creates issues to get in-depth understanding regarding the research. Along with that, the researcher has also faced problems related to the money.
Due to a shorter amount of cash, the researcher has encountered issues in buying several books to collect secondary data or interviewing more number of employees of CAAN so that their perception regarding the change can be implemented and different factors can be evaluated that can reduce the resistance from them after the implementation of reform. Moreover, the researcher has collected the secondary data regarding this particular topic from different resources that are published in nature; therefore, there are vast possibilities that the information is out-dated. The researcher has collected the data from the higher-level management of CAAN; thus, for the conduction of the interview, the researcher has faced issues to gain the permission for interviewing them.
6.5 Concluding remarks:
Thus, from the discussion, it can be explicitly described that change is essential in any organisation because it helps any organisation in maintaining their operation as per the industry trend and it is also helpful in developing products and services based on the needed of customers. Therefore, an effective change is always useful for CAAN in gaining a competitive advantage by developing services as per the need of customers. This research has clearly shown what kind of change is necessary for the organisation and how the difference can be implemented to secure the optimum result. Therefore, from the discussion, it can be said that the research has been successful by the researcher because the findings and analysis part of the study has been satisfied in the survey because it adequately meets the objective of the study.
From the research, it has been observed that the objectives are identifying the current process of managing change, understanding the impact of the change management, different elements that can effectively implement change in CAAN and determine the most effective change management process in the organisation.
The subthemes related with change management challenge and employee problems clearly show the present change management process in the organisation. These sub-themes conclusively indicates the current change management process along with different types of challenges faced by the organisation along with the employees that have implemented a sufficient change in the organisation. Therefore, from the discussion, it can be said that the first objective of this research is satisfied. The literature review also sheds light to satisfy the goal by describing a change management process fulfilling the aim by demonstrating the trend of the change management process.
From the sub themes related to the impact of change, the effect of change can be observed that adequately satisfy the second objective that understands the effects of change. The literature review clearly show the process of change management and demonstrate how useful it is if any organisation follow an effective change management process.
From the sub-themes discussed in findings section various needs and reasons to implement change are clearly showing so that the third objective is adequately satisfied. In this section, it is observed that those sub-theme shown that the current change management process of CAAN by demonstrating the involvement of the right people in the right position. The sub-themes also clearly show the impact of the managing change in the organisation that they are expecting from a switch.
Therefore, it can be concluded that changes
are inevitable to success and stability of business even in the public sector
organizations. However, there is a need to make the change process more
transparent involving employee participation in decision making to make the
expected changes implemented in a smooth manner that can really bring some
improvement in employee performance and organizational effectiveness in
Alasadi, R., & Askary, S. (2014). Employee involvement and the barriers to organizational change. International Journal of Information, Business, andManagement, 6(1), 29-51.
Andrews, Jane. Cameron, Helen. Harris, Margaret. (2008) All change? Managers’ experience of organizational change in theory and practice. Journal of Organizational Change Management, 21(3)
Appelbaum, S., Iaconi, G., & Matousek, A. (2007). Positive and negative deviant workplace behaviors: Causes, impacts, and solutions. Corporate Governance, 7(5), 586-598
Avey, J., Wernsing, T. S., & Luthans, F. 2008. Can Positive Employees Help Positive Organizational Change? Impact of Psychological Capital and Emotions on Relevant Attitudes and Behaviors. The Journal of Applied Behavioral Science,44 (1): 48-70
Bringselius, L. D. 2008. Personnel resistance in public professional service mergers: The merging of two national audit organizations. Lund: Lund Institute of Economic Research
Blaxter, Hughes and Tight, (1996) How to Research, Buckingham: OUP
Bryman and Bell (2003) Business Research Methods, Oxford: Oxford University Press
Beckhard, R. & Pritchard, W. (1992). Changing the essence: The art of creating and leading fundamental change in organizations. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
BBC news (2001) Nepal Cancels Lauda air deal, BBC (online) assessed on 25th july, 2017. (https://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/south_asia/1446875.stm)
Balogun, J. and Hope Haily, V. (2004). Exploring Strategic Change, 2nd edition. London: Prentice Hall
Balogun, J. and Hope Hailey, V. (2008), Exploring Strategic Change, London: Prentice Hall
Bolognese, A.F. (2002). Employee resistance to organisational change. Newfoundations. (online), retrieved as on 11/06/2017 from: www.newfoundations.com.
Burnes, B. (2004) Managing Change: A Strategic Approach to Organisational Dynamics, 4th ed. Harlow: Prentice Hall
Chinyerem, A.G.; Oluwole, I.; Mayowa, A. and Samuel, E. (2016). Employees’ Attitudes towards Organizational Change and Its Effects on Employee Commitment. Innovation Management and Education Excellence Vision 2020: Regional Development to Global Economci Growth. (2) 1. Pp. 4569-4605.
Chedi, A. and Hetschko, C. (2014). The Magic of the New: How Job Changes Affect Job Satisfaction. IAAEU Discussion Paper Series in Economics. (5) 1. Pp. 1-39.
Carnall, C. A. and Todnem, R. (2015). Managing Change in Organizations. Springer
Cummings, T.G., & Worley, C.G. (2005). Organization Development and Change, 2nd Ed. New Age International. New Delhi.
Doolin, B. (2003). ‘Narratives of change: discourse, technology and organization’. Organization, 10 ( 4)
Doppelt, B. (2017). Leading change toward sustainability: A change-management guide for business, government and civil society. Routledge.
Fernandez, S., COMMENTATORS, H. G. R., CONNOR, P. E., THOMPSON, F., MIHM, J. C., & TSCHIRHART, M. (2012). Managing successful organizational change in the public sector. In Debating Public Administration (pp. 33-52). Routledge.
Fryer, K., Antony, J., & Ogden, S. (2009). Performance management in the public sector. International journal of public sector management, 22(6), 478-498.
Ford, JD & Ford, LW (2009), Resistance to change: A reexamination and extension‘, Research in Organizational Change and Development, vol. 17, 211–239.
French, Wendell and Bell H. Cecil, jr( 1999) Organization Development: Behavioral Science Interventions for Organization Improvement, NY: Prentice Hall
George, J. M., & Jones, G.. R. (2002). Understanding and Managing Organizational Behavior (3rd ed). New York: Pearson Education, Inc.
Ghauri and Gronhaug, (2005) Research methods in business studies –A practical guide. 3rd edition. London: Prentice Hall.
Glesne, C., (2015). Becoming qualitative researchers: An introduction. Pearson.
Goulding, C. (2002) Grounded theory: A Practical Guide for Management, Business and Market Researchers. London: Sage
Hakim (2000) Research Design, London: Routledge.
Hayes, J. (2010) The theory and practice of change management New York: Palgrave McMillan.
ILO (2017). Workers and Employers Organizations in Nepal. ILO.
Jaros, S. (2010). “Commitment to Organizational Change: A Critical Review,” Journal of Change Management. 10 (1), 79108.
Karakas, F. (2010). Spirituality and performance in organizations: A literature review. Journal of business ethics, 94(1), 89-106.
Kotter, P. (2008) Power and Influence. 2nd edition. New York: Free Press
Kippenberger, T. (2000). Global economy possibly, but cultural diversity certainly. The Antidote, 5(2), 28-32
Lockwood, G. and Koch, R. (2016). Simplify: How the Best Businesses in the World Suceed. Hachette UK.
Lewin, K. (1947). Frontiers in group dynamics. Human Relations, 1 (1)
Machuki, V.N. & Aosa, E. (2011).The Influence of the External Business Environment on the Performance of Publicly Quoted Companies in Kenya. Prime Journals, vol 7, pp 205-218
Malhotra, N.K. (2007) Marketing research: an applied orientation, 6th ed. London: Pearson Education
Marshak, R. J., & Grant, D. (2008). Organizational discourse and new organization development practices. British Journal of Management, 19
Meaney, M. and Pung, C. (2008), “McKinsey global results: creating organizational transformations”, The McKinsey Quarterly, August, pp. 1-7
Moran, J. W. and Brightman, B. K. (2001) “Leading organizational change”, Career Development International, 6(2), pp. 111–118
Moseley, G.B. (2017). Managing Health Care Business Strategy. Jones and Bartlett Learning.
Nuttgens, M.; Gadatsch, A. and Kautz, K. (2016). Governance and Sustainability in Information Systems. Germany: Springer Science and Business Media
Pokhrel, J.C. (2011). Current situation of Nepalese Economy. Magazine of FNCCI. Kathmandu: Khulla Bazar Market
Palmer, I. & Dunford, R. (1996). Conflicting uses of metaphors: Reconceptualizing their use in the field of organizational change. Academy of Management Review, 21(3)
Pearce, J.A., & Robinson R.B. (2002).Strategic management: Strategy formulation, implementation and control. (8th ed.) Illinois: Irwin, Homewood
Peters, T., Waterman, R.,(1982), In Search of Excellence: Lessons from America‟s Best-Run Companies, New York: Harper & Row Publishers
Poole et al.,(2000). Organizational Change And Innovation Processes. Oxford. UK.
Radnor, Z., & McGuire, M. (2004). Performance management in the public sector: fact or fiction?. International Journal of Productivity and Performance Management, 53(3), 245-260.
Rieley, J. B. and Clarkson, I. (2001) “The impact of change on performance“, Journal of Change Management, 2(2), pp. 160–172.
Robson (2002) Real world research, 2nd ed. Oxford: Blackwell
Saunders et al, (2003), Research Methods for Business Students, England: Prentice hall.
Saunders et al, (2007) Research Methods for Business Students, 4th ed. England: FT Prentice Hall
Saunders et al, (2009), Research Methods for Business Students, 5th ed. England: Prentice hall.
Sadler, P. (1996). Managing change. London: Kogan Page Limited.
Schilling, M.A. and Steensma, H.K. (2001), “The use of modular organizational forms”, Academy of Management Journal, Vol. 44, pp. 1149-68.
Stewart, J. & Kringas, P. (2003). Change management-strategy and values in six agencies from the Australian public service. Public Administration Review, 63(6)
Sturdy and Grey (2003) ‘Beneath and Beyond Organizational Change Management: Exploring Alternatives, Organization; 2003(11)
Szamosi, L.T. & Duxbury, L. (2002). Development of a measure to assess organizational change. Journal of Organisational Change Management, 15 (2)
Sirkin, H.L.; Keenan, P. and Jackson, A. (2005). The Hard Side of Change Management. Harvard Business Review. October issue.
Teijlingen van, E., Rennie, A.M., Hundley, V., Graham, W. (2001), The importance of conducting and reporting pilot studies: the example of the Scottish Births Survey, Journal of Advanced Nursing 34: 289-295.
Terrell, K. (2015). Managing Organizational Change in Operational Change Initiatives. IMA
Van de Ven, A. H. and Poole, M. S. (1995) ‘Explaining development and change in organizations’, Academy of Management Review, 20
Van Dooren, W., Bouckaert, G., & Halligan, J. (2015). Performance management in the public sector. Routledge.
Verbeeten, F. H. (2008). Performance management practices in public sector organizations: Impact on performance. Accounting, Auditing & Accountability Journal, 21(3), 427-454.
Weiner, B. J. (2009). A theory of organizational readiness for change. Implementation science, 4(1), 67.
Whelan-Berry, K., & Somerville, K. (2010). Linking change drivers and the organizational change process: A review and synthesis. Journal of Change Management, 10(2), 175-193
Wegge, Jürgen, Klaus-Helmut Schmidt, Carole Parkes and Rolf van Dick (2010): “Taking a Sickie: Job Satisfaction and Job Involvement as Interactive Predictors of Absenteeism in a Public Organization”, Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 80, pp. 77 – 8
Wood, M.C. and Cunningham, J. (2003). Henry Ford: Critical Evaluations in Business and Management, Taylor and Francis
Yang, R. S., Zhuo, X. Z., & Yu, H. Y. (2009). Organization theory and management: cases, measurements, and industrial applications. Taipei: Yeh-Yeh
Yin (2003) Case study Research: Design and Method, 3rd ed. London: Sage
Students working on case studies or might need academic help, might find our custom Case Studies Writing Services helpful.
Also look at some of our business services
– Business Essay Writing Service
– Business Dissertation Writing Services
– Business Report Writing
– Business Assignment Help
– Business Planning Writing Service
– Business Assignment Writing Service
Here you can check some of our dissertation services:
– Dissertation Writing Services
– Write My Dissertation
– Buy Dissertation Online
– Dissertation Editing Services
– Custom Dissertation Writing Help Service
– Dissertation Proposal Services
– Dissertation Literature Review Writing
– Dissertation Consultation Services
– Dissertation Survey Help
How to place an order:
Select your academic level and the number of pages and pick a desired deadline
Then press “Order Now”
Add your instructions
Choose writer’s category
Make a payment
Get your paper before the deadline
Not Ready to pay? Try for free!free inquiry