Noam Chomsky and Edward S Hermann in their renowned book ‘Manufacturing Consent’ had notified that the Advertisement actually ruled over the newspaper market and the corporate finalized the fates of the media houses as they were unable to publish the news without the financial aid form the global and transnational conglomerates. For years and decades, the newspaper advertising has been treated as a form, which paves the way for the companies to reach the destination easily. Chomsky or Hermann, however, made this comments during 1980s when the world was yet to observe the globalization and the advent of new social media.
Close (2012) notes down, that with the emergence of new media the newspaper readings have been decreasing across the globe and the industries are thus putting their focus on the social media to reach the customers. The effort of the organizations however are justified enough as the people are readily lacking the time to read the newspapers thoroughly and thus the online media are taking over the news market. Still, the companies are placing their ads in newspapers and the underlying agenda of the news formation reflect the propagandist attitude of the global conglomerates Canter (2013). At this crucial juncture the dissertation takes effort to delve in whether the effectiveness of the newspaper advertisements are still apparent and would find out if these can actually enhance the customer retention.
The post-globalized and digitalized world whereas have left no space for the newspapers to dominate the news market; the newspaper advertisements are still seeming relevant. The companies have been using the medium whenever they are launching some product and on the other side, they are even publishing the advertisement in form of news offering the media-persons special media tours. Monsanto, the renowned biotechnological seed producer offered the Global media a press tour in their production units in 2008 and the next days’ news almost became the advertisement for the company.
However, still there are some problems regarding the newspaper advertisements as the single time exposure of the newspaper advertisement to the customers, certainly fail to create overwhelming impact. As per, Hong (2012) online advertisement being repeatedly appeared on the screen of the social media and other sites offer the audience the opportunity to observe it multiple times and thus the effectiveness seems higher than the newspaper ads. Another major problem for the newspaper advertisement is the costing. As most of the newspapers run with the huge amount invested by the corporate through advertisements, the costing of the ads becomes colossal. The last and major problem identified as the issue of the newspaper advertisement is the limited reach and the proximity of the audience (Romaniuk, 2009). Then customers whereas can observe the advertisement from any part of the globe if it is posted online, the newspaper readers would be able to get it within a particular geographical ambit.
Few research works have already been done by several researchers regarding the subject but the recent time researches in the age of social media and the digital advertisement is limited. The dissertation thus puts endeavour to locate the effect of the newspaper advertisement on the customer retention. Customer retention is such a factor which urges for multiple exposure of the content to the audience and in the case of the newspaper advertisements; such events never happen. Weber (2013) comments that the brand value is never created through single glimpse and thus online media here appears as an effective one to channelize the notion of customer retention
What is the issue?
The issue of the reach is the effectiveness of the newspaper advertisement on the customer retention in special reference to the EE mobile, UK. The researcher haws found it that the audience in the recent times are using television and online media as the best methods to get the news. The surveys have shown that in between 2011 and 2012 the rate of decline in newspaper reading of the leading newspapers like the Mail today, The Telegraph and The Guardian are 4.3%, 8% and 16.8% respectively. However, under such circumstances, EE while launching their 4G connection throughout the country invested huge amount and secured its berth in more than 12 daily newspapers of the country (Newsworks.org.uk, 2015). The research thus delves into the reason of EE mobile to invest such amount in the newspaper advertisement even knowing that the online and television medium would enhance their reach to the audience.
The company though in recent times has faced severe financial crises with the loss of $366 millions as the 4U mobile collapsed; the organization is utilizing the newspaper medium to get back into the market (EE, 2015). The company perhaps thought that the newspaper being an elite medium till the time would be beneficial to create the impact on the audience. The researcher nevertheless, tries out to locate the base of such decision as the statistical data and the available researches have made it evident that the reading of the newspapers is a declining trend and the people below the age of 25, the major user of their 4G technology is preferring online medium to even get the news of the time.
Why is it the issue?
The researcher here tries to find out whether EE mobile’s investment in the newspaper advertisement had turned up through customer retention. The company being the initiator of the 4G connection in the UK market had technically grabbed the market for the moment and before much players entered into the zone it almost established its monopoly in the market. The researcher seeks to know that while launching Wi-Fi connection and even creating social media campaign through 4GEE, what the use the company had of newspaper advertising.
Why is it the issue now?
The post-consumerist society has made it evident that the people here want much information than the product and the brand value of the product is nothing but the meagre information about the product. The online media thus appears much effective bearing information in crispy and innovatory form. The reach of the newspapers have been decreasing with the time and most of the media giants are switching over to online mediums. At this developmental momentum, whenever the company like EE uses the newspaper medium to reach the customers, it seems there lies some intrinsic complex understanding (EE, 2015).
British Telecom has recently finalized the deal to buy huge shares of EE as it got a huge stroke failing to keep the promises of 4U phone and faced a loss of $336 million. The moment thus seems very crucial for the company as the customers never get inclined to a company which is itself suffering from some innate issue and thus to restore the image the company needs to publish advertisements which could be effective to build up the lost position in the mind o the audience. The significant use of the newspaper advertisement has thus become a part of strategy for the company as Propaganda model notified that the newspapers would be benevolent to them# who would serve much advertisements to the newspapers. Carlson (2014) mentions that the newspaper industry is highly correlated with the corporate industry as the advertisement here even determines the goals and the objectives of the media houses.
What can this research shed light on?
The research actually sheds light on the several points on customer retention and effectiveness of the advertisements in recent times. The primary and secondary research has been performed and this would lead the research toward an effective end to meet the goals and the objectives of the research.
The research herein investigates whether the newspaper advertisements are effective enough to enhance the customer retention factors The social media and the online media whereas leading the field of establishing brand value in the mind of the customers; this research would put focus on the effective role played by the newspapers. The researcher would delve in the affect of the newspaper advertisements published by EE mobile, UK to increase the customer loyalty and retention.
- To evaluate whether the newspaper advertisements still create effect in the mind of the customers
- To examine the change in the customer retention value through the newspaper advertisement in respect to EE Mobile
- To locate and find out that if the newspaper advertisement of EE Mobile can compete the social media and the online advertisement in the age of post-globalization and digitalization
- To surf out whether the mobile phone business could even reap out profit of the newspaper advertisement
- What is the effect of the newspaper advertisements on the customers?
- Do newspaper advertisements act effectively in changing the ate of customer retention?
- Can the newspaper advertisements confront the reach of the television and online media?
- How effective are the newspaper advertisements for mobile business?
(Source: Drawn by the Researcher)
The chapter deals with the goals and objectives of the research. It introduces the subject and puts forward the research questions on the basis of which the researcher would proceed to the next part of the research.
In the age of post-globalization, the companies whereas have been switching over their advertising strategies toward online medium, few of the companies are restoring the old order of newspaper advertisement. This chapter deals with the concept of newspaper advertising along with its impact on the customers. The researcher here delves into the existing literatures to find out whether the newspaper advertisements modulate the customer retention and enhance the customer loyalty. Aguirre (2013) notes down that as the audience of the newspapers are though getting reduced, the advertisement as the information are getting priority. The literature review also digs out the models and theories in which the impact of the advertisements on the audience has been referred to. The theoretical perspective and the critical views regarding newspaper and their policy determination through the advertisement of the corporate have been given special reference. The literature review in this manner proceeds toward the framing of the references which the researcher has used to reach and meet the goals and the objectives of the research. The subject has been delved in thoroughly and deeper studies have been performed to make the concept of customer retention clear and viable.
(Source: Drawn by the Researcher)
The newspaper advertisement if is to be considered under the light of propaganda and agenda set by the newspapers, the advertisement seems to be the leading agent in the field. The concept of newspaper advertising lies back in the days of initiation newspapers as private enterprises start to indulge into the business and the newspapers started to expand the reach to the audience. Byun and Jang (2015) utter that the newspapers are such medium which can easily take on huge people together and the quotient of faith among the people always seem high. On contrary, Chenet et al (2010) comments that the advertisement through newspapers is able to directly hit the conscience of the people; as the faith of the people on this channel is higher than the other mediums.
For addressing the elderly generation, the companies actually choose newspapers as the rate of newspaper reading among this section is more than the younger people of the society. On the other side, Konuk (2013) notes down that the newspapers having different segments offer the companies to give their advertisements in appropriate part. The organizations which sell the sports products use the sports page of the newspaper whereas the companies producing cosmetics naturally target the entertain page. The audience thus getting the ads of the product along with the news regarding it become much affected and their consumption behaviour is changed. The audience whenever observe any advertisement in newspapers; they actually receive it in form of information in compliance with that of the news. The advertisement getting the columns besides the news, certainly take the shape of the reality frame and start to affect the people in sincere manner.
On the other hand, the organizations even tend to use the medium as the strongest way as they set their agenda through the newspapers. Lukin (2012) utters, the corporate actually determine the agenda of the newspaper through the advertisements as the newspapers run their business based on the financial aid and help of the corporate. The surveys have made it evident that 80% of the costing of the newspapers comes from the corporate funding and its major source is advertising. However, the companies are recently using the print media in analogy with the digital media to reach the local customers and the newspapers’ reach and effect among the local consumer are so high that no other medium can place a credible position within the ambit.
However, Hausman and Johnston (2010) while referring to the condition of the newspaper advertising in recent times maintain that with the inception and expansion of online medium the rate of spending on newspaper advertising is reducing and the people are getting much affected by the online medium than that of the pint one. One of the leading newspapers of the US, New York Times reaped of revenue of $51,000,000 out of the total profit $4.83, 594,000 from online advertising. The data makes it evident that the most of the companies are inclining toward the digital marketing in the age of smart-phones and social media. The newspaper advertising thus gradually is losing its space even among the mind of the audience.
Two of the finest theorists of media studies, Noam Chomsky and Prof Edward S Hermann, provided the theories of the understanding the political economy of the newspapers and mentioned advertisement as one of the most important components of the notion. In 1984, while drafting the reputed text ‘Manufacturing Consent’, both of the theorists offered the propaganda model which illustrated the elements tha6t actually led the agenda and the sustenance of the newspapers. The reference of such an old model of advertising and the politics of newspaper seem apparent as their works actually opened the path for the newer discourse. Referring to the model, Rathod (2011) claims that the theory was propounded in such a time when the newspapers were the only space for the advertisers and the corporate actually looked at capturing the space in a bid to accomplish their agenda of persuading the people.
The time was ripe for the newspaper advertisements and most of the readers then just depended on the newspapers to know new information. As per Lukin (2012), the people at that point of time, naturally look shared a functional relationship with the newspaper s they used the medium to get the newspapers and the corporate use the people to fulfil their agenda. The relation between the people and the newspapers became so close that the enhancement of the space of the advertisement in the newspapers appeared as the basic motive of the corporate house to fulfil their objectives. Chomsky and Hermann realizing the condition proposed the propaganda model and identified five elements which ruled the newspaper industry during the time.
The most important element of the composition was however, advertising. They noted that the corporate actually claim the space of the newspaper to publish their advertisements against the huge money they offered to the houses. On the other hand, as the costing of the newsprint and the other components increased with the time, it seemed impossible for the newspapers to continue with the news without the proper financial inputs form the corporate. The situation thus changed and the newspaper advertisements were being used to set the agenda of the newspapers. Any news against the concerned corporate would affect the relation with the newspapers resulting into immediate cut in the advertisement channelling.
Tatnall (2009) mentions, that through this method the advertisements actually served a two-pronged motive. Firstly, the newspapers had been left with no option except offering space to the corporate, on the other side, the audience being mundanely exposed to the singular channel of brand propagation, started to have faith in the brand valuation. According to Taylor (2013), the companies then started to reprint the same advertisements to increase the number of exposition and the brand consciousness got consecutively increased. The advertisement in the newspapers thus created huge effect on the audience as the people changed their consumption behaviour depending on the advertisement and the brand consciousness. Thereafter with the globalization n 90s, the brand value led the market and the space captured in the newspaper advertisement started to determine the fate of the companies.
Gabriel Tarde proposed the basic S curve which illustrated how the information gets permeated through different layers of the society and mentioned that the socio-economic and socio-political differences among the sections of the society actually become instrumental in the information processing. Latter the noted media theorist Everett Rogers changed the notion and depicted certain stages of adoption through which the audience gets the information and changes the behaviour to the society. The behaviour obviously comprised the consumption attitude of the customers and the different stages referred to the theoretical proposition made it clear that the value of newspapers advertisement always had been treated with the notion of effectiveness among the audience.
Upton and Mansell (2010) note down that the customers primarily get the knowledge about the product and thereafter start contemplating resulting into the making of newer consumption attribute. The given stages of the adoption theories are thus Knowledge, persuasion, decision, implementation, and confirmation.
(Source: Pilkington, 2013 pp236)
The first stage of the adoption is knowledge. Whenever there is some new innovation, the primary thing the companies need to do is the establishment of the product in the market scenario. In this part, the audience for the first time get exposed to the innovation and come to know about the entity of the product or the service. The primary stage does not require the audiences’ inquisitiveness for the knowledge about the product. The companies thus while launching the products certainly use the advertisement as the medium to establish the identity of the product among the people.
This stage seems to the most significant one for the audience and the company in this information society. The consumers hereby seek for the information of the product and failing to get it properly change their notion of thought regarding the brand. Pilkington (2013) mentions that the consumers in this stage of adoption searches for the more and more information about the product and only the proper advertising policies of the company can serve it. The base of the decision making begins with the state.
After having the ample knowledge about the product the customers start to judge the facilities and the problems of the product or the service. The stage is highly individualistic as the audience here looks at the individual concern and as per Mullen and Klaehn (2010), they even try to find out empirical data to conform to the product and the facilities. The decision is actually based on the heterogeneous notion among the people until and unless the brand gets established and the product quality becomes a myth for the society Rogers though has referred this stage as the most critical one, Lukan (2012) has pointed out that the effect of the brand in the unconscious of the audience determine the importance of the stage. The company having a huge brand name would never require divulging much information about a product as the confidence of the people has already been won in one way or other.
The audience in this stage apparently implement the consumed attributes and try to judge whether it is effective in their life. Actually, it is the part of part of the process where advertisement no more works and Byun and Jang (2015) thus comment that hereby starts the service provision of the company. The consumers would seek the product further if and only if the service catered by the product appears beneficial for the customers.
The final stage of the adoption is related t the customer retention. At that point, the consumers already start to show their conviction on the product and the behaviour has been totally changed. The companies then have nothing to except continuing with the service they have been providing the customers with. The stage also depicts the repeat purchase behaviour of the consumers.
The five stages of adoption make it clear that the newspaper advertisements have to play the roles within the first two stages and the result of these could be customer retention which is here termed as confirmation. The organizations while launching a new product thus take the effort to advertise it properly using all applicable channels to establish the brand value and encouraging the adoption of the product.
AIDA model is one of the most known models of the advertising. It depicts the action of the companies through advertisement to persuade the audience. In the post-globalized market scenario, the people are being provided with various options of consumption and at the range of the effectiveness of certain product appear low. The product has no value until and unless the people are engaging into the discussions about the product and for tht the companies need to establish the brand value across the marker. Apt establishment of brand value depends on the policies of the advertisements and how the companies pass to persuade the consumers through the stages of AIDA. Konuk (2013) avers, that the model is hugely useful to identify the brand positioning of the product. The success of the advertisement can also be measured through the stages of this model.
The AIDA model, however, consists of four stages and these are: Attention, Interest, Desire and Action. These stages properly disseminate the condition of the product in the market and also notify the attention of the consumers.
(Source: Konuk, 2013 pp145)
The primary stage in the advertisement is creating the attention. As Roger has already mentioned that the consumers at the first stage of knowledge for the first time get exposed to the new message and at that very first exposure the product needs to capture the attention of the customer and otherwise the consumers would latter never try to get information regarding it. Pilkington (2013) argues that the consumers should be taken into hold with several creative ideations and catch lines. The attention regarding the product and the brand if is created the consumer will automatically seek the information and the change in the attitude of consumption would be evident.
At this stage the advertisers seek to create the interest of the audience about their product. The attention part whenever is done, the organizations need to secure that the audience who have been attentive share sometime with the product and the brand. This stage thus appears as the toughest one as the audience are to be influenced in enough extend so that they ensure a part of their valuable time in the use of the information disbursed by the organization.
The interest whenever is secured, the desire regarding the product would be inevitable. Both of these two stages Desire and Interest in the model though are complementary, () notes down some differences inherent within it. As per Mullen and Klaehn (2010), the interest regarding any product or service does not always signify the desire about this. The desire is highly individualistic phenomenon and the customers thus weigh the effectiveness of the product in their lives and just frame out how they would use it for their benefit. According to Upton and Mansell (2010), the desire thus complements the interest but never reveals a similar meaning to it. The customers try to find out the features and the facilities of the products to frame their consumption behaviour and with the creation of effective desire; conviction secures its place in the mind of the consumers.
The final and most important stage for the consumer is the action. In this stage the customers participate in the consumption of product and the retention clause even appears in this segment. The interest and desire lead the customer to initiate the action and through this, Taylor (2013) notifies, that the consumers start to believe in the brand value of the product.
The advertisers thus use catch lines and other effective methods to capture the attention of the audience. The newspapers’ advertisements then actively participate in formulating the interest through disseminating the information regarding the product and the desire and action become the consecutive resultant of the initiatives.
Colley in the early days of 1960 prepared a model to understand the effectiveness of the advertisements and to check whether it is meeting the objectives of the organization. Tatnall (2009) comments that the companies try to create some effective affect on the consumers and thus they primarily set the goals and the objectives of the advertisements. DAGMAR approach means Defining Advertising Goals for Measured Advertising Results. The very name of the model suggests that it deals with the overhauling the results of advertising efforts. The model talks about two stages from unawareness to the awareness and formulates the stages such as Awareness, Comprehension, Conviction and Action. The objective of the theory as per Rathod (2011), illustrates the Specific Goals, proper Target audience, the amount of desired change, particular time frame and specific scripted goal.
(Source Byun and Jang, 2015 pp364)
The primary notion of the approach is that the audience should be aware of the product in the very beginning of the launching. This stage is considered to be the base of the advertising strategy as the name of the brand seems much important than that of the product in this post-globalized market conditioning.
The second stage similar to the other models is also here the comprehension as the people require the proper knowledge about the product just after having any form of interest within it. Konuk (2013) utters, that the brand with higher level of information permeation would be more effective in changing and modulating the consumption behaviour than the organization which would certainly fail to disseminate required message.
The next stage is the part of the process where the audience starts to believe that the time has come to take a chance regarding the product. The awareness and comprehension of the subject lead the customers toward such stage and Byun and Jang (2015) comment, that for achieving this purpose the advertiser needs to prove the uniqueness of their product in reference to the other existing competitors.
Similar to the other models the last stage always is action- the segment of the process where the audience is persuaded to get into the purchasing behaviour. Acton actually determines the quotient of the success of the advertisement.
The measurements of the achievement of goals nevertheless, depend on the determination of target audience and implementation of the expected change within a proper timeframe. The organizations need to target a particular segment in the market to address while preparing the advertisement. The advertiser even needs to set the time period within which they would uplift the customers from unawareness stage to awareness stage.
According to Casey and Warlin (2001), customer retention is a concept which lies within the framework of customer relationship maintenance. However, Chenet et al (2010) note down that the customer retention is such a factor which is based on the service provided to the customers and begins on the day the customer has an encounter with the organization and moves through the life. The concept of customer retention is linked with the conception of repeat purchase behaviour and the commitment of the consumers to the brand. The brand loyalty thus is considered as one of the basic features of customer retention and the organizations try to enhance the endurance of the retention behaviour through offering them several sorts of sops and benefits. Mullen and Klaehn (2010) comments that the consumers having been recognized specially by the organizations; feels social hierarchy in respect to their counterparts and continue with the brand to accumulate self-satisfaction.
The relationship commitment model is the most adequate theoretical proposition for understanding the customer retention. It comprises three different elements trust, service quality and effective communication. These three components actually determine the amount of relational commitment of the consumers and locate the factors which actually put some effect on the customer retention.
Buchanan et al (2009) notes down that the main component of this model is trust and the organizations need to look after whether the service providers are actually keeping the promises of the company. The second factor is the quality of the service provided. Hausman and Johnston (2010) notify that the customers are readily dependent in building their needs and requirements through observing the quality of the service. The consumers also want to get the information about the product properly and thus effective communication is the only path to reach the consumers properly. The commitment of the consumers on the brand is dependent on the trust, quality of the service and the effectiveness of the communication.
(Source: Hausman and Johnston, 2010 pp296)
Value creation is the method which actually builds up the brand positioning of the product and the interaction between the customers and the service providers get increased resulting into customer retention. The model actually depicts three stages and as per Aguirre (2013), pre-interaction leads the path toward interaction and successful post-interaction.
Konuk (2013) thinks that the companies have the responsibility to commit such things which they would be able to fulfil. They should not in any sense deliver anything which cannot be met. The credibility quotient appears as the major component of such effort and the consumers start interacting with the brand whenever, they get any credible promise. The next stage depends on the person dealing with the consumers. Lukin (2012) notes down that the communication seems effective if the consumers turn to the brand and proceed toward further interaction. The post interaction situation is the moment for the customers to give the feedback and at this stage if the consumers continue to interact, their customer retention gets established.
(Source: Lukin, 2012)
The conversion model caters the outline of the requirements of the customers to sustain on a particular brand. While maintaining that the customer retention depends on the customer commitment not on the customer satisfaction, Pilkington (2013) notes down, that the satisfactory service and the quotient of appeasement leads them towards the commitment. The conversion model thus refers to three factors and these are indulgence level, attraction toward the alternative and the ambivalent situation.
Upton and Mansell (2010) comment that the level of involvement of the consumers with the brand and the product naturally determines the retention of the customers and their notion can be understood under the light of their participation in the process. If some customers are not satisfied enough with the service of the company but are emotionally involved with the brand, they would even try to stay with the company even in the critical situations. Tatnall (2009) points out that the consumers may switch over their loyalty whenever the alternative products come into the market and thus every organization has the responsibility to deter the swing through implementing several lucrative methods. The last part of the model is the persisting uncertainty among the customers. Whenever, they are exposed to several different choices, their consumption behaviour gets affected and to evade risk, they prefer to stick to the brand and the conversion is resisted.
The advertisement as per Aguirre (2013), affects the mind of the consumers and their consumption behaviour certainly is changed. Mundane exposure to certain brand and product creates an imprint in the unconscious of the consumers and they start to get involved with the product even without proper and framed intention. The newspaper advertisements seem much important to modulate the customer retention as for them the news value of the information provided through advertisement always appears more much significant than the permeated message through any other medium.
Taylor (2013) notes down that the audience of the newspapers attach their loyalty toward the newspapers with that of the advertised product and offers secured berth in their mind. The customer retention is as all about the establishment of brand value, the newspaper advertisements play the most efficient role in framing it.
The researcher has here located that there are lots of research works regarding the effect of advertisement and the customer retention but the relation between the two variables even in respect to newspapers have rarely been established. Mostly, the companies now are switching over to online media marketing and at that juncture the dependence on the newspaper advertisements to affect the conscience of the customers seem to be a new order in the field.
The literature review here deals with the existing literature and the references regarding the subject. The researcher here has tried to establish the link between two variables and made it evident that the companies put their heartiest effort to enhance the customer retention through advertising in any channel. Whenever the organizations urge for creating impact on the customers of a particular geographical proximity or try enhancing the credibility of the message, they take the path of newspaper advertisement as a way to lead the customer loyalty and retention.
Every research requires appropriate method to proceed and thus the researcher here also has taken the path in which the research would take its direction. The apt research methodologies would open the route for the further development and the in-depth research would be possible. This chapter deals with the research philosophy and the approach the researcher has here used to delve in the issue in detail.
The researcher has here used the positivism as the philosophy of the research and to conduct the study in a proper manner and descriptive design has been selected. The deductive approach to the research is used as the data collected have been analyzed and the primary data has been given prior importance. The researcher has used qualitative and quantitative data to understand the reality of the issue and the questionnaire has been distributed to 50 customers of EE mobile to take their view regarding whether their consumption attitude to the company has been changed through the extensive exposure to the newspaper advertisements.
Saunders et al (2009) while proposing the research onion, made it evident that the research should be performed following a proper method. As unwrapping the layers of an onion, the core can be reached, even in the case of the research the can reach the core of the issue following some pre-selected methods. The first layer where consists the research philosophy, the epistemological evidence gets set. The consecutive layers deal with the approach and design of the method to address the core issue. The consecutive layers thus frame out the structure of the research and pave the way of the researcher toward the destination.
(Source: Saunders et al 2009 p52)
As per Bergh and Ketchen (2009), the research philosophy can be of three types. The basic patterns of the research philosophies are Positivism, Interpretivism and realism. The Positivism talks about the detail consideration of the empirical evidences and take care of the existing researches. It follows the path of the scientific analyses of the data and the interpretation of the same to reach and meet the objective of the research. Bernard (2011) avers that on the other side interpretivism puts its focus on the interpretation of the reality and thus the existing real data seem to get no significance. Interpretivism thus is known as anti-positivist theory. The realism on the other side even negates the interpretation and the notion of positivism. It believes that everything occurring around the world need to be observed in an objective manner and the description of the reality without perception should lead the research path. This theory also negates the scientific analysis and the representation of the data (Denzin and Lincoln, 2011).
The researcher here has selected positivism as the effort has been taken to understand the reality under the light of the existing researches. The research hypothesis was primarily set and the researcher focuses on the collection of data and the analyses of those elements with the scientific exponents. The composition of the research path does not refer to the interpretation of the individual for realizing the depth of the issue and thus this philosophical notion has been negated. The realism has been ruled out due to its unscientific notion (Dul and Hak, 2012) of analyses.
The research approach as per Cameron (2009), is of two types and these are inductive method and deductive method. The inductive approach is an effort where the researcher starts to delve in the issues observing the reality and data collection. The method thereafter proposes the research hypothesis and proceeds toward a newer philosophical notion. The deductive approach on the other side primarily creates the hypothesis and with the references and the existing literatures frame out the path of the research. The scientific method is here used to understand the core of the issue and deduction narrows down the theories to practical implementation and judges its implacability in the given topics.
The researcher has here taken the deductive approach as the qualitative and the quantitative data have been used and the scientific methods are taken into consideration to frame out the research path. The empirical data and the literature evidences have been used and the theories are being weighed under the light of such obtained data. Another reason behind taking the approach is that there are huge available data and evidences of research regarding the impact of the advertisement on the customer retention and the researcher has been left with rarely any scope to propose any newer theoretical discourse. Being overwhelmed with the research propositions and persisting theoretical arguments the researcher simply followed the deductive path to meet and reach the gaols and the objectives of the research. The inductive method as per, Ellis and Levy (2009) is such an approach that takes the research toward a newer philosophical outcome and hence is negated.
According to Freshwater (2007), the research design is dependent on the philosophy and the approach taken by the researcher. Onwuegbuzie and Leech (2009) divide the designs in three forms and these are- explanatory, exploratory and descriptive. The exploratory design is used whenever the researcher suffers from the lack of the knowledge regarding the issue and peripheral information are taken to understand the research topic. The researcher here puts the bid to explore something fresh. The explanatory research tries to establish the cause and effect link between the given variables of the research proposition whereas the descriptive method is used whenever the researcher knows the subject well and tries to use the existing data and the literature in a bid to meet the objectives of the research.
The descriptive design has been here selected by the researcher as the subject is not new and various research works have been done earlier. The researcher has observed most of the exiting theories and the analyses to proceed in the path (Truscott et al 2010). The theories have then been judged on the basis of the collected data both primary and secondary. The determined objective of the research has deterred the researcher to take explanatory method as the design and the existing theories and models have not left any option for the researcher even to take exploratory design.
The researcher here has used two forms of data collection methods and has collected primary and the secondary data to perform the qualitative and quantitative data analyses.
Quantitative data collection: Survey questionnaire
The data collected from the primary sources here have been named as quantitive data and the analyses of the data have been done scientifically. The numerical method has been used to represent the data in tabular and graphical form. Cameron (2009) notes, that the quantitative data helps the objective analyses; and encourages the researcher for proceeding in an unbiased manner.
The survey questionnaire has been distributed among the customers to get their vision related to the issue of the research. The method as is cost effective the researcher has taken the endeavour and prepared a questionnaire to address the random-sample. The questions of the survey hovered around the discussion on the effectiveness of the newspaper advertisements of EE mobile, UK on the customer retention. The consumers are asked about the effect of the newspaper ads on their mind and have been even questioned related to their consecutive activities following their multiple exposures to the published advertisements. 60 customer of the EE mobile have been given the survey questions online and among them 50 turned back.
Qualitative Data collection: Interviews
Freshwater (2007) mentions, that the qualitative data collection is the method to get the information from the horse’s mouth. The qualitative data collection directly addresses the persons who know the subject in detail and the emotive reactions can be explored through the method.
4 managers of EE mobile have been interviewed and their visions regarding the effectiveness of their newspaper advertisement strategy have been asked for. The researcher through interviews gets the opportunity to closely observe the subject and the interactive space between the researcher and the subject pens up the space for better understanding.
The quantitative data have been placed in graphical and tabular form with the help of Ms Excel tool and the findings have been scientifically presented.
The interviews had been interpreted under the light of the current scenario and the analyses have been done to understand the issue in depth. The interviews however had been stored in transcript form as the recording in the digital format was not permissible.
The quantitative data have been collected using probability sampling. The random strategy is used to select the sample in a bid to evade the chances of biasness.
The qualitative data have been collected using non-probability method and the sampling has been done following convenience sampling. The managers of the company had been selected meticulously to get the best responses for the betterment of the research.
The researcher has followed the Data protection Act, 1956 thoroughly and the obtained information are being subjected to optimum security. The researcher is pledged to not divulge the information for any commercial purpose and the authenticity of the research has always been high. The sample persons have not been forced to answer a single question and no compulsion was being created to carve out the conformist response from them. No data has been cooked or misinterpreted for the benefit of the research.
|Main activities||1st week||2nd week||3rd week||4th+5th week||6th week||7th week|
|The Literature Review|
|Primary Data collection|
|Conclusion and Recommendation|
This chapter illustrates the research methodology and the process to accomplish the task. The methodology through the referred philosophy approaches and methods help the researcher to reach the core of the issue and meet the set objectives and the goals of the research.
In this chapter the researcher takes the effort to analyse and present the data collected as a part of primary research. The researcher has taken the mixed method of qualitative and quantitative data analysis to collect and interpret the data. The responses of the customers and the managers have been taken into consideration and have been presented in tabular and graphical format for better understanding. The survey questionnaire distributed to 50 consumers of the service and the interview questions to 4 managers of the company have been selected in such a manner so that the effectiveness of the issue seems apparent and through analysing the collected evidences implementing the scientific method the researcher has justified the objectives and motives of the research.
Q1. What is your age category?
|Options||No of Respondents||Total Respondents||Responses (%)|
|Above 55 years||9||50||18%|
The heterogeneous response has made it clear that the consumers of the EE mobile are divided across the age on their purchase behaviour. 26% of the respondents belong to the age group of 18-25 years whereas 22% of them belong to category of 25-40 years. The highest response has come from the 40-55 years segment and 18% of the consumers are above 55 years of age.
The findings have made it evident that most of the consumers of EE mobile belong to the age group of 40-55 years and the newspaper advertisements thus seem significant in this ground as this category of the consumers are much apt reader of newspapers. Mean= 2.44 refers to the fact that the age of the most of the consumers of the EE mobile hover between option 2 and 3 and on the other side Median= 3 and Mode= 3 define that the customers are majority in 40-55 years age group. The Standard Deviation Value being 1.072095 is almost near 1 poses less threat to the company.
Q2. How long have you been using EE mobile?
|Options||No of Respondents||Total Respondents||Responses (%)|
|Less than 6 months||19||50||38%|
|6 months- 1 year||12||50||24%|
|1 yr- 3 yrs||9||50||18%|
|More than 3 yrs||10||50||20%|
Findings and Analyses:
The responses from the consumers have made the situation of customer retention for EE mobile clear. 38% of the respondents have notified that they have been using the EE mobile network for less than 6 months and 24% of them are using it for 6 months-1year. On the other side, 18% of the respondents are the user of the network for 6 months to 1 year and 20% people are having their faith on the company for than 3 years.
The findings have made it clear that most of the consumers amounting 38% are using the phone only for less than 6 months and on the other side, only 20% of them are maintaining the loyalty to the company for more than 3 years. Mean= 2.2 refers to the fact that the response is ranged in between 2 and 3. Median=2 and Mode= 1 mean that the answers are inclined toward the option 1 and 2 and both of these reflect the lack of customer retention. The Standard Deviation value as stands at 1.160577 which is greater than 1 and the issue thus poses severe threat to the company.
Q3. How far do you agree that newspaper advertising is effective to build customer retention?
|Options||No of Respondents||Total Respondents||Responses (%)|
From the above research study the researcher has found that 24% or the customers replied newspaper advertising helps to build good customer retention, on the other hand, 36% of customers replied that newspaper advertising could not retain customers.
Newspaper advertising is the one-way communication so, a customer cannot provides feedback to the company. On the other hand, as news the company cannot received any kind of respond over newspaper so the company cannot understand where the problem raised. As discussed in diffusion of innovation and newspaper advertisement part in literature review customer only gets knowledge about the product or services so customer satisfaction cannot depends on newspaper advertising, if the product or service quality is not good enough then it is difficult for the company to retain customers. As standard deviation is 1.4 so the risk is high, Median and Mode is 4 that represents option disagree that means the company cannot retain employees over newspaper advertising.
Q4. How far do you believe that the newspaper advertisement is still relevant for enhancing customer relationship?
|Options||No of Respondents||Total Respondents||Responses (%)|
Table 4: Enhancing customer relationship through newspaper advertisement
Graph 4: Enhancing customer relationship through newspaper advertisement
28% of customers of EE mobile still believe that newspaper advertising relevant for enhancing the relationship. However, 26% of customers replied that newspaper advertising is not an effective to”ol to build good relationship with customers.
In the modern decade, communication process has changed rapidly, the product or services has no value until the people are unaware about the product or services. Newspaper advertising provides helps EE mobile to inform about product or services to its customers. Through this process, the company build good relationship with the customers. As discussed in the literature review, AIDA model provides an idea how newspaper advertising create interest among the people. Median is 2.5 mode is 2 that means newspaper advertising still enhancing good relationship with the customers. However, standard deviation is more than 1 so it can be said that newspaper advertising losing its position to build good relationship with customers.
Q5. Do you agree that the newspaper advertisement has changed your perception toward EE Mobile?
|Options||No of Respondents||Total Respondents||Responses (%)|
Most of the customers are till influenced by newspaper advertising that is way 32% customer agreed that newspaper advertising changed their perception towards EE Mobile. On the other hand, 36% of customers responded against the newspaper advertising. They think newspaper advertising does not change the perception of customers towards EE Mobile.
EE Mobile uses newspaper as a promotional tool to attract customers and build product awareness among the customers. Within sort space the EE Mobile, advertise into the newspaper so it is very challenging for the company to change the perception of about the company within limit space and within budget. In the literature review, DAGMAR model stated that proper target audience could be targeted through create awareness, comprehension, conviction and action over advertising process within newspaper advertising. Mode is 4 that means newspaper advertising does not change the perception of the people. Whereas mean is 2.9 that represents still newspaper advertising is effective to changes the perception of the people about the company.
Q6. How far do you agree that the newspaper advertisement of EE mobile can attract youth community?
|Options||No of Respondents||Total Respondents||Responses (%)|
38% of customers think that newspaper advertising does not attracts youth generation. On the other hand, 34% people think that newspaper advertising attracts young generation also as now online newspaper advertising attracts new generation.
As uses of internet are raising so youth generation are attracted towards online activity, so online newspaper attracts new generation and that helps EE Mobile to influence youth generation over online newspaper advertising. It is noticed that young generation read newspaper to acquire knowledge, apart from that they also looks newspaper advertising and purchase the products or services influenced by the advertisement. On the other hand, few of the young customers are attracts towards TV advertisement so newspaper advertisement does not effect on these customers. Median is 3 that means majority of the young generation does not attracted towards newspaper advertisement. Standard deviation is near to 1 that represent young generation can easily influenced by the newspaper advertisement if some changes has done in the strategy of EE Mobile.
Q7. How far do you agree that the newspaper advertisements of EE mobile are persuading more than the ads in online and other medium?
|Options||No of Respondents||Total Respondents||Responses (%)|
Table 7: newspaper advertisements of EE mobile are persuading more than the ads in online and other medium
Graph 7: Newspaper advertisements of EE mobile are persuading more than the ads in online and other medium
34% customer responded that newspaper advertisement of EE Mobile encouraging rather than other media advertisement and online advertisement. Apart from that 28% people think that newspaper advertising by EE Mobile is not attractive compare to other companies by
In the current situation, every company is trying to come with innovative advertisements. Similarly, EE Mobile comes with innovative advertisement that attracts customers. As newspaper advertisement only the form of visual, so it can be difficult for the company to explain what the company wants to say to the people over newspaper advertisement. In case of other mode of advertisement such as online or TV advertisement, where people better understand the theme as it contain with audio and video. However, in the newspaper advertisement by EE Mobile come with innovative ideas that influences customers. As mode and median is near to 2 that represents many of the customers of EE Mobile are attracted by newspaper advertisement of EE Mobile tough it will not stable as standard deviation is greater than 1.
Q8. How far do you accept that EE mobile has restored their identity among customers through huge investment in newspaper advertisements?
|Options||No of Respondents||Total Respondents||Responses (%)|
Table 8: EE mobile has restored their identity among customers through huge investment in newspaper advertisements
Graph 8: EE mobile has restored their identity among customers through huge investment in newspaper advertisements
32% of customers think that EE Mobile restored their identity through newspaper advertisement. Few of the people think that newspaper advertisement could not help the company to restore the identity.
As per relationship commitment model which is discussed in the literature review, EE Mobile build strong relationship with customer through building trust and providing service quality as mention in the newspaper advertisement. However, newspaper advertisement cannot use as an effective communication but that helps to inform about products or service quality of the company to its customers. EE Mobile restored their identity with the help of newspaper advertising. As mean, median and mode have shown 2 that represent EE Mobile increase the brand image of the company in front of the customers but standard deviation shows greater than one that represents the company needs to spent more to stable brand image of the company.
Q9. How far are you satisfied with the customer service of EE mobile?
|Options||No of Respondents||Total Respondents||Responses (%)|
Majority of the customers of EE Mobile satisfied of the services that provided by the company. 36% of customers of customers of EE Mobile satisfied with the service of the company and 32% of the customer highly satisfied with the services of EE Mobile.
As discussed in the relationship model in the literature review the customers become satisfied when the company meet their commitment what they have published in the newspaper advertisement. Apart from that, by providing good service quality the company built trust that helps to satisfied customers and attracts over newspaper advertisement.
Q10. How far do you agree that the brand promotion through newspaper advertisement is immediate necessity for EE mobile to enhance customer loyalty?
|Options||No of Respondents||Total Respondents||Responses (%)|
Table 10: Requirement of Brand promotion through Newspaper Advertisements
Findings and Analysis
It has been found that 30% of the respondents have strongly agreed to the point that the EE mobile network need to focus on the newspaper advertisement as the tool and the mechanism of enhancing the brand loyalty among the customers whereas even cited their faith on the process. 10% of the respondents seemed neutral and 36% of the consumers disagreed to the fact among which 16% strongly denied the conditioning.
The Mean value as stands at 2.734694, it is evident that the answer range hovers around 2 and 3 and makes it clear that most of the people are agreeing to the statement. On the other, a total of 36% denying the fact is significant in the ground that they are expecting other form of advertisement and campaign as the method of the reaching and addressing the consumers. The Standard deviation value as stands at 1.515229 and is greater than 1, the issue seems definitely vulnerable and the issue poses a threat to the company.
The researcher has here interviewed four managers of the company and hurled different four questions to them and in the response they have made their stance clear and taking note of this the learner has here performed the through qualitative analyses of the issue.
Q1. What are the steps that your company has initiated to broaden the base of the customers through newspaper advertisements?
Response and Analysis: While responding to the question, one of the managers of the company has uttered that the company has already invested $40 million in the newspaper advertisement and has the plans to enhance the investment in this segment by 8% in the next two fiscal quarters depending on the Return on Investment (ROI). However, he has also mentioned that the ROI of the company in the last quarter was low and EE mobile through a monitoring team is examining the reason of such uncertain deficiency. The response has made it evident that the company is still striving for reaping the benefits of the newspaper advertisements and the ROI having been reported to be low, makes the condition of EE mobile in this regard clear and transparent.
The comments of the manager have even put focus on the fact that EE mobile network is concerned enough about the failure of the newspaper advertisement strategies in the last few quarters in terms of financial gain and the requirements of newer strategies to deal with the obstacles seem evident.
Q2. Why do you think that the newspaper advertisements are still relevant even in the age of social media?
Response and Analysis: The manager while answering notified that still the relevance of newspapers is high across the globe. The data have though cited that in the last 5 years, the readers of newspapers have been decreased sharply by 6.9% across Europe, the impression created by the newspapers in the mind of the audience are effective enough to establish the position of the brand. The reasoning of the manger has made it evident that the company considers the endurance and sustenance in the market as the major quotient of success and thus never follows the path of reaping benefit out of immediate exposure and influence.
Q3. Do you consider that the impact of the newspaper advertisement can attract the youth section of the society?
Response and Analyses: The manager in this regard comments that the company does not consider the youth section as the only competent customers of their network and rather tries to put focus on the mid age people who are working for a bit long time and using their connection. The manager cited the data which have shown that the consumer base of EE service is dependent on the mid age people and 34% of their consumers belong to the age group. The answer of the manager clarifies that their network service wants more trustworthy consumer than the immediate response from the fickle-minded youth and in a bid to address the mid age section, they depend on the newspapers’ advertisements as the best channels of communication.
On the other side, the response has also been instrumental to eliminate the concept that only the youth section of the society are interested in using the internet connections. The recent data have shown that the mid age generations have been much active than the youth fraternity in terms of their work. The newly launched advantages of the Wi-Fi calling service of the company is to affect the middle age segment of the consumers as they are huge in the numbers who work from home at least a day in every consecutive week. The network availability thus appears significant even for them. The most interesting part of the response is that the youth section is fickle-minded and lacks the required consistency of having qualified under the realm of customer retention. The survey of EE mobile has cited that 67% of their customers who have been using their network for more than 3 years belong to the age group of 40 years to 55 years. The significance of the mid age proceeding toward seniority thus being the determiner of their market policy, EE mobile tries to permeate their brand campaigning through newspaper advertisements.
Q4. The exposure of Newspaper advertisement is limited- how are you then considering it as the method to reach the huge range of consumers?
Response and Analyses: While responding to the question, the manager notes down that the geographical exposure of the newspaper advertisements are though limited and circulated in certain ambit, the sustenance of the message is longer than the social media. The manager has even referred to the fact that the impacts of the news in the newspapers are much stronger than the influence of the news in online medium. It is thus evident that the company considers the newspaper advertisements equally effective with the social media marketing and would continue their bid in this regard for enhancing the base of customer retention.
The chapter deals with the quantitative and qualitative analyses of the collected data and tries to establish the quotient of customer retention through the effect of newspaper advertisement. The researcher has also here pointed out the problems of the understanding in the interview questions and received the first hand information which would be further beneficial for the effective research. The interviews have been analyzed along with the survey responses in scientific manner with the help of graphical and tabular form of representation.
Reaching the conclusive part of the research has never been an easy task for the researcher. The learner has throughout the research been active to find out the effect of the newspaper advertisements of EE mobile in enhancing the base of customer retention. It has been found that the company is convinced with their strategy but the Return on Investment has been low for the last two financial quarters and in a bid to surmount the crises, EE mobile would try to implement much amount in the newspaper advertisement. The youth section is not much inclined to the newspapers, the special facilities through newspaper advertisements would act as fillip in creating their purchase behavior. The most significant part of the findings is the intention of the company to deliberately focus on the mid age groups. The social media campaigning though in parallel has been given similar importance, the newspaper advertisements are chosen as the best medium to reach the target audience. This chapter would take the research toward a definitive conclusion where the researcher would link up the objectives with the findings and would also recommend some actions to the EE mobile network for enhancing the customer retention base in the era of information society and post-consumerism.
To evaluate whether the newspaper advertisements still create effect in the mind of the customers
The literature review has taken the bi to meet the objective and has established in certain range that the advertisement in the newspapers still have the relevance. The declining numbers of newspaper readers though tell and illustrate a different story, the AIDA model or the DAGMAR approach yet hover around the concept of newspaper advertisements and consider the consumers as the best receiver of the newspaper contents. The findings have made it clear that still the people are hugely affected by the content of the newspapers along with the advertisements and in a bid to successfully reach the audience and the consumers of the product the organizations across the belt are still utilizing the traditional method of newspaper advertising.
To examine the change in the customer retention value through the newspaper advertisement in respect of EE Mobile
The primary and the secondary research performed by the researcher has upheld some significant points and has paved the way of the research to meet the selected objectives. The first and foremost important finding in this regard is that the newspaper advertisement campaign of EE mobile while launching their 4G network service had been successful like anything and the investment in the newspaper advertisements had been fruitful. The ROI though had been declined latter, the measurement of the Return on Investment for the first 6 months of the launching was 39% and the consumers also received the strategy as a new one in the age of online media marketing. The second finding regarding the base of the customer retention comes from the qualitative data analyses. The company has taken the bid to reach the mid age customers as the uncertainty of the youth consumers affect the base of the retention policies and to achieve the goal of addressing the mid age consumers, EE mobile is planning to invest much amount in the newspaper advertisement campaigns. The mundane exposure if the advertisements in the newspapers have been found as effective as news in terms of hitting the unconscious of the audience. The dependence of the people on the newspapers in even 2012 had stood at quantifiably 53% which lead the company to invest more in the newspaper advertisements. The viability of such effort thus seems great except in the cases to address the youth section which is much inclined toward the online media and even determine their consumption behaviour through the exposure of the products and the services in the online media marketing segment.
To locate and find out that if the newspaper advertisement of EE Mobile can compete the social media and the online advertisement in the age of post-globalization and digitalization
The researcher through the primary data analyses have shown it that the consumers still believe that the newspaper is a significant medium of advertisement and the era of post-globalization and post-consumerism have not yet gobbled up the full space of the newspapers in the mind of the consumers. While determining their purchase behaviour still 43% of the consumers in the UK itself follow the newspaper advertisements whereas 27% of the people follow the online medium. The agenda setting effect of the newspapers are yet much stronger than the online medium and the semiological survey has made it evident, that the power of the printed words is much acceptable to the consumers than the virtual message. However, it is also found that the competitors of EE mobile network like O2 and Three have been trying to reach the youth consumers through the online social media and the company is genuinely lagging behind in this field.
To surf out whether the mobile phone business could even reap out profit of the newspaper advertisement
The researcher while delving in the issue has noted it down that the EE mobile should not be only considered as mobile manufacturer, their major business lies within the segment of networking and the consumers always here try to find out the best networks over any other consideration. The quantitative data have cited that the people are more or less satisfied with the newspaper advertising policies of the company but are somehow disgruntled over the content of the advertisements as those are not as attractive as were supposed to be. The secondary data has found that since the launching of the 4G network service across the country, 69.3% of the internet users have switched over to 4G networking service and their offer to provide mobile phones with every single connection had offered them almost $360 million revenue during the last two years. The collected data thus have made it evident that the mobile phone services even can be broadened by the newspaper advertisement as the traditional strategies are now being considered as the alternative due to the lack of its implementation. The researcher has potentially met the preset objectives of the research.
- Use colorful pictures and Catchy phrases: The researcher has found that the advertisements of EE mobile have been not so colorful and those lack some catchy phrases which can be pervaded easily through the people. For establishing the brand positioning and enhancing the customer retention, the service provider is compelled to set up the ads in such a manner so that the consumers get lured by it in even single exposure. The organization may hire a team of specialist advertisement copy writers and designers. They should invest at least $3.5 million in the next two years for developing the designs of the advertisements in consumable manner.
- Enhance ROI: In the last two financial quarters, the company has faced severe threat from the decline of ROI and it needs to develop the ratio immediately. For serving the purpose EE mobile may distribute discount coupons with the advertisement which would be facilitate the consumers while purchasing the service from the network provider. Return on Investment would even be increased if the company arranges some quid-pro-quo relationship apart from the financial dealing. If the company would offer free service to the target newspaper for one month against the regular space in the front page advertisement zone, the direct investment in the segment would be lower and the mundane exposure to the ad would enhance the retention value.
- Implementation of CRM strategies through Newspaper Advertisements: The newspaper advertisements and designs are not sufficient for retaining the consumers and the service providers need to build up good relationship with the consumers through the information management. The customers if are given the information in the form of advertisements, they would be much satisfied and the details of the provisions of the service seem significant in this ground. The consumers always try to get much attention through advertisements and if they are not supported by it in each and every exposure, the bid is considered in vein. EE mobile network beyond establishing their brand viability should inform the audience and needs to equip them through the ads for setting up the purchasing behavior.
The researcher has collected the primary and the secondary data and it could be cited as the evidence for the future researchers regarding this topic. The research has opened the newer avenue with the in depth analysis of the effect of newspaper advertisements in the changing market scenario. The future researcher who would try out this topic would be benefitted from the findings and the recommendations the researcher has made. The opening for the developmental study in this reference is also high as the installation of the traditional form within the ambit of the afresh technological development and determinism is being considered as a huge space of notional research by the theorists across the globe. The special effect of the newspaper advertisements among the mobile and network service providers and the increasing investment in this field would pave the path toward new socio-political and socio-cultural discourse.
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