This section of the research analyses the background to the study, statement of the problem, the research objectives, research questions, scope of the study, definitions of some key terms, the conceptual frame work among others.
- Back ground to the study
Corruption is a form of dishonest or unethical conduct by a person entrusted with a position of authority, often to acquire personal benefit. Corruption may include many activities including bribery and embezzlement, though it may also involve practices that are legal in many countries. Government, or ‘political’, corruption occurs when an office-holder or other governmental employee acts in an official capacity for personal gain.
Stephen D. Morris, a professor of politics, writes that political corruption is the illegitimate use of public power to benefit a private interest.
Uganda has a variety of government bodies focused on eradicating corruption, including the Anti-Corruption Court, a specialized tribunal within the Ugandan judiciary; the office of the Inspectorate of Government (IG, led by the Inspector General of Government, the IGG), an office mandated by the Ugandan constitution to fight corruption; the Auditor General; and Parliament’s Public Accounts Committee, among others. But while these institutions have ably prosecuted low-level corruption for small amounts of money, thus far they have been largely ineffective in curbing grand scale corruption or pushing prosecutions and convictions in an equitable and apolitical manner that would be more likely to ensure accountability of the highest-ranking members of government.
Economist Ian Seniordefines corruption as an action to (a) secretly provide (b) a good or a service to a third party (c) so that he or she can influence certain actions which (d) benefit the corrupt, a third party, or both (e) in which the corrupt agent has authority. Kaufmann, from the World Bank, extends the concept to include ‘legal corruption’ in which power is abused within the confines of the law — as those with power often have the ability to make laws for their protection.
Corruption exists everywhere. The causes might differ, however, whether corruption results from a need, a culture or simply from an opportunity too tempting not to exploit, it influences the way we deal with it – or don’t deal with it.
In many countries, corruption is every were and daily life is riddled with situations in the gray zone between legal and illegal. Many people accept petty corruption as a fact of life. But what should you accept in your own organization?
Corruption can occur on different scales. There is corruption that occurs as small favors between a small number of people (petty corruption), corruption that affects the government on a large scale (grand corruption), and corruption that is so prevalent that it is part of the everyday structure of society, including corruption as one of the symptoms of organized crime.
Petty corruption occurs at a smaller scale and takes place at the implementation end of public services when public officials meet the public. For example in many small places such as registration offices, police stations and many other private and government sectors.
Grand corruption is defined as corruption occurring at the highest levels of government in a way that requires significant subversion of the political, legal and economic systems. Such corruption is commonly found in countries with authoritarian or dictatorial governments but also in those without adequate policing of corruption. The government system in many countries is divided into the legislative, executive and judiciary branches in an attempt to provide independent services that are less subject to grand corruption due to their independence from one another.
Systemic corruption (or endemic corruption) is corruption which is primarily due to the weaknesses of an organization or process. It can be contrasted with individual officials or agents who act corruptly within the system.
Factors which encourage systemic corruption include conflicting incentives, discretionary powers; monopolistic powers; lack of transparency; low pay; and a culture of impunity. Specific acts of corruption include “bribery, extortion, and embezzlement” in a system where “corruption becomes the rule rather than the exception.” Scholars distinguish between centralized and decentralized systemic corruption, depending on which level of state or government corruption takes place; in countries such as the Post-Soviet states both types occur. Some scholars argue that there is a negative duty of western governments to protect against systematic corruption of underdeveloped governments. n
Public sector corruption includes corruption of the political process and of government agencies such as the police as well as corruption in processes of allocating public funds for contracts, grants, and hiring. Recent research by the World Bank suggests that who makes policy decisions (elected officials or bureaucrats) can be critical in determining the level of corruption because of the incentives different policy-makers face.
Political corruption is the abuse of public power, office, or resources by elected government officials for personal gain, by extortion, soliciting or offering bribes. It can also take the form of office holders maintaining themselves in office by purchasing votes by enacting laws which use taxpayers’ money. Evidence suggests that corruption can have political consequences- with citizens being asked for bribes becoming less likely to identify with their country or region.
Police corruption is a specific form of police misconduct designed to obtain financial benefits, other personal gain, and/or career advancement for a police officer or officers in exchange for not pursuing, or selectively pursuing, an investigation or arrest. One common form of police corruption is soliciting and/or accepting bribes in exchange for not reporting organized drug or prostitution rings or other illegal activities.
Another example is police officers flouting the police code of conduct in order to secure convictions of suspects—for example, through the use of falsified evidence. More rarely, police officers may deliberately and systematically participate in organized crime themselves. In most major cities, there are internal affairs sections to investigate suspected police corruption or misconduct. Similar entities include the British Independent Police Complaints Commission.
Judicial corruption refers to corruption related misconduct of judges, through receiving or giving bribes, improper sentencing of convicted criminals, bias in the hearing and judgment of arguments and other such misconduct.
Governmental corruption of judiciary is broadly known in many transitional and developing countries because the budget is almost completely controlled by the executive. The latter undermines the separation of powers, as it creates a critical financial dependence of the judiciary. The proper national wealth distribution including the government spending on the judiciary is subject of the constitutional economics.
It is important to distinguish between the two methods of corruption of the judiciary: the government (through budget planning and various privileges), and the private. Judicial corruption can be difficult to completely eradicate, even in developed countries. Corruption in judiciary also involves the government in power using judicial arm of government to oppress the opposition parties in the detriments of the state.
Corruption in Uganda is widespread and seen as one of the greatest obstacles to the country’s economic development as well as to the provision of quality public services. Corruption-related challenges in the country stem from a weak separation between the public and private spheres, leading to extensive clientelistic practices and patronage, as well as widespread political corruption. Such corruption challenges are exacerbated by weak law enforcement, which fuels a culture of impunity, particularly with regards to high-ranking officials involved in corruption schemes. Corruption affects a wide range of sectors and government institutions, including procurement, police, and the defense, education and health sectors.
As an aid dependent country, Uganda needs a sound public financial management system, to ensure donors’ funds are spent wisely and leakages are avoided. In spite of reforms, there is still room to improve the level of transparency and accountability of the country’s public financial management system still. .
The Ugandan government has acknowledged that corruption is one of the main challenges facing the country. But recent developments have raise questions on the government’s political will to address it. Several reforms, laws and new institutions to fight corruption have been established. However, in spite of recent investigations and corruption trials, an effective enforcement of the laws in place is still lacking.
Corruption-related challenges in the country are a result of a lack of separation between the public and private spheres, leading to extensive clientelistic practices and patronage, as well as widespread political corruption. Such corruption challenges are exacerbated by weak law enforcement, which fuels a culture of impunity, particularly with regards to high-ranking officials involved in corruption cases.
In recent years, the government of Uganda has been vocal about fighting corruption in the country. A series of laws and policies aimed at reducing corruption and its pervasive effects have been established, but the lack of implementation and enforcement of these rules and policies have raised doubts about the seriousness of the government efforts as well as of its political will to actually change the situation in the country.
A new National Anti-Corruption Strategy (NACS) was launched in 2008. This strategy is a ‘five-year plan designed to make a significant impact on building the quality of accountability and reducing corruption levels in Uganda’. It focuses not only on government structure and systems, but also on people and on rebuilding a culture of integrity (Directorate of Ethics and Integrity, 2008).
Other measures taken by the government include the new Anti-Corruption Act in 2009, the 2007 declaration signed by Ugandan, Kenyan and Tanzanian anticorruption authorities to deny safe haven to corrupt persons and investment in illicit funds (World Bank, 2011), and the establishment of specialized anticorruption court within the judiciary
However, there exist some legal provisions that define corruption criminal in Uganda; they are both international and national legislations as seen below;
International conventions, Uganda has been a signatory of the United Nations Convention against Corruption (UNCAC) as well as of the African Union Convention on Preventing and Combating Corruption since 2004, but it still has to improve its legal framework (and its implementation) in order to be fully compliant with both conventions.
National legislation Overall, Uganda’s anti-corruption legal framework is assessed as strong, but the country is still lacking effective implementation and enforcement of the rules in place (Global Corruption Report, 2011; Inspectorate of Government. 2011). Criminal responsibility for corruption is provided for in both the Penal Code Act and the Anti-corruption Act of 2009. The latter defines corruption as “soliciting and acceptance of anything by a public official, diversion of public funds, as well as fraudulent acquisition and concealment of property”. Those guilty of bribing public officials, diversion of public funds, influence peddling, or nepotism will be liable on conviction to a term not exceeding ten years. The Act regulates corruption in both the public and private sector (Conference of the States Parties to the United Nations Convention against Corruption, 2011).
The Leadership Code Act (2002), the Anti-Corruption Act (2009) and the Code of conduct and ethics of the Ugandan Public service regulate conflict of interest, as related prohibitions such the acceptance of gifts and hospitality. The Inspectorate of Government is responsible for overseeing the code (World Bank, 2011). The President, Ministers, members of the Parliament, judges, and civil servants, and their spouses, must comply with asset disclosure requirements, in accordance with the Leadership Code Act. Declarations should be filled upon taking office, annually, and upon leaving office, and should include information on assets, liabilities, and income items. These declarations are made publicly available, but not always timely (World Bank, 2011).
The Office of the Inspectorate of Government (IGG) was established in 1986, and since 1995it has the mandate to fight corruption in the country. The office’s mandate is further regulated by the Inspectorate of Government Act of 2002. According to the act, the Office of the Inspectorate plays a critical role to ensure a more effective and efficient public administration, and therefore, should work closely with other government agencies and NGOs to promote the rule of law and ethics among public officials.
The 2010 Whistleblowers Protection Act provides for mechanisms encouraging individuals to blow the whistle on corruption cases. The act includes monetary incentives for whistleblowers and also guarantees their protection. The Inspectorate of Government has established a hotline where individuals can report corruption anonymously.
The Access to Information Act, enacted in 2005, provides every citizen the right to access information, with the exception of information that is likely to threaten the country’s security or sovereignty (World Bank, 2011). However, although the act was enacted in 2005, regulations necessary to operationalize the act were only adopted in 2011 (Freedom info, 2011).
- Statement of the problem.
Corruption in Uganda is characterized by grand scale theft of public funds and petty corruption involving public officials at all levels of society as well as wide spread political patronage systems. All this retard development of the society as funds meant for development are with held and misplaced for personal interests. Roads, hospitals, social services among other development avenues are delayed or terminated because of corruption. Many people have come to refer to corruption as a political cancer that has eaten the government and it looks like it has no cure as ordinary Ugandans are left suffering after money among other social services are swindled, mismanaged and stolen by a few individuals.
All this giving reference to the area of study in this case, land grabbing among others monopolize this issue hence becoming a point of interest to the public that holds leaders accountable.
It’s therefore upon such a back ground, that this study sets to examine the roles of mass media in curbing corruption in Jinja municipality West, Jinja district using New vision as the case study.
1.3 General objective:
To analyze the significant roles of mass media especially news papers in curbing corruption in Jinja municipality west
1.4 Specific objectives
- To examine the role of mass media in curbing corruption Jinja municipality West.
- To examine the trend and the level of corruption in Jinja municipality West
- To identify and analyze the major causes of corruption in Jinja Municipality west.
- To explore policy options for curbing corruption in Uganda.
- What are the roles of mass media in curbing corruption Jinja municipality West?.
- What is the trend and the level of corruption in Jinja municipality West?
- What are the major causes of corruption in Jinja Municipality west?
- What are the policy options for curbing corruption in Uganda?
- What are the possible solutions to the problem?
1.6 Scope of the study
The scope of the study is shows the limitations of the study in terms of the time, content, and content to be covered. This was included to describe:
1.6.1 Geographical scope
The study was undertaken from Jinja municipality West, this is part of the municipality of Jinja and found in Jinja district in Busoga sub region in Eastern Uganda. The area has almost two divisions that’s Mpumudde-Kimaka division and Jinja central West.
1.6.2 Time scope
This study used a period of two (2) months in analyzing the concept of corruption in Jinja Municipality West, Jinja district.
1.6.3 Content scope
The study based on a number of documents defining corruption in Uganda as a whole and jinja municipality West which is the focal point in this regard holding the leaders accountable and the delivery of services.
- Significance of the study.
The study deemed significant to different groups of people, among these included the journalists, activists who care about the tax payer’s money, the government, researchers and opinion leaders in the following ways.
Journalists will base on the findings of this study to cover scenes of corruption since they are trained to be the watch dogs who should hold leaders accountable at all times, journalists will still bring the corrupt officials to light for the public to assess them.
Activists acting under different umbrellas and coalitions defending the rights of all citizens to social services like medical care, shelter, security, and transport among others will base on the findings of this study to acknowledge the need to fight against this vice that leaves every one suffering with development left in suspense.
Other researchers will use this study to establish more areas of interest to research about since corruption is a sensitive issue that calls for great attention.
- Definition of key terms
Corruption: is a form of dishonest or unethical conduct by a person entrusted with
Swindle : in general usage is synonymous with cheating or fraud, in chess the term does not imply that the swindler has done anything
Embezzlement: Embezzlement is misappropriation when the funds involved have been lawfully entrusted with authority to do public work.
Bribery: is the act of giving money, goods or other forms of recompense to a recipient in exchange for an alteration of their behavior (to the benefit/interest of the giver) that the recipient would otherwise not alter
Mass media: refers to any means or technology used to communicate a message to large groups of people.
- Conceptual frame work
|Corruption Bribery Existing legislationsPaying of taxesBudget allocations|
|The mass media Accountability Service deliveryMedia as the watch dogInfrastructure|
Independent variable Dependent variable
|The audienceThe governmentOpinion leadersNGOs and activists|
This chapter presents a review of related literature on the variables under investigation. It gives information from various sources like textbooks, journals, news papers, internet, and reports from public dialogues and debates concerning youth unemployment and other material related to the topic of study.
The review explored the contribution of other researchers and the existing research gaps. Literature was reviewed basing on the study.
Below are some theories that try to explain the role that the mass media plays in promoting women emancipation.
Agenda setting theory
Agenda setting is giving priorities to alternative policy issues while as early communication studies had shown a mixed pictures about the ability of media to influence opinion on a given issue, Cohen (1963) and others showed that the media had much greater capacity to influence which issues were perceived as important.
Media influences both public and policy agenda. The theory explains this correlation as the result of media: ‘Media gate keeping’
This is the controlled and selective system for emphasising certain stories over others, and for allowing some issues to be discussed in the news while others are not,
The agenda setting theory describes along powerful influence of the media. The ability to tell us what issues are important. As far as 1922, communication scholar Wilter Liponnanwas concerned about the media’s power to present images to the public, MCcombs and Shaw investigated the United State of America’s presidential campaign in 1968, 1972 and 1976.
In investigating the agenda setting functions of the mass media, they attempted to issues the actual content of the media message used during the campaign. Mc Comb and Shaw concluded that mass media exerted a significant influence on voters considered to be the major issues of the campaign.
Therefore we are right to day that media has a monopoly over information. It has got the power to make minor issues important and important issues minor.
Media can lift somebody from obscurity to prominent.
People also take what they see in the media as a gospel truth. So mass media can curb youth unemployment.
Social responsibility theory
Virulent critics of the free press theory Wibur Schurum, Siebert and Theodre patterson in their book four theories of press, they stated “pure libertarianism is antiquated, outdated and obsolete”. The advocated for the need for its replacement by the social responsibility theory.
This theory can be said to have been initiated in the United States by the commission of the freedom of press. In 1949, the commission found that the free market approach to press freedom had only increased of a single class and was not serving the interests of the lesser mortals or less privileged classes in society.
The emergency of radio, Tv, and films suggested the need for some means of accountability thus the theory advocated for some obligation on the part of the media to society.
A judicial mix of self regulation and state regulation and high professional standards were imperative.
Social responsibility thus becomes the modern variation in which the duty to one’s conscience was the primary basis of the right of free expression.
Mass media should be socially responsible to society. This is by making sure that issues pertaining the public and it affect the smooth running of the affairs of the country. (Corruption) are made priority.
Mass media have the duty to publish victims who are engaged in corruption scandals in this area of study and those public officials outside the study area.
Further more, in relation to Shannon weaver communication theory (1948) of effective communication. It makes radio to be the most effective form of communication. The theory deals with various concepts like information source, transmitter, noise, channel, message, receiver, information destination, encode and decode. The theory is briefly defined below.
Sender: the originator of the message or the information source selects the desired message.
Encoder: The transmitter which converts the message into signals.
This model is specially designed to develop the effective communication between sender and receiver. Also they find factors which affecting the communication process called “Noise”. At first the model was developed to improve the Technical communication. Later it’s widely applied in the field of Communication.
The model deals with various concepts like Information source, transmitter, Noise, channel, message, receiver, channel, information destination, encode and decode.
Sender : The originator of message or the information source selects desire message
Encoder : The transmitter which converts the message into signals. The sender’s messages converted into signals like waves or Binary data which is compactable to transmit the messages through cables or satellites. For example: In telephone the voice is converted into wave signals and it transmits through cables
Decoder : The reception place of the signal which converts signals into message. A reverse process of encode.The receiver converts those binary data or waves into message which is comfortable and understandable for receiver. Otherwise receiver can’t receive the exact message and it will affect the effective communication between sender and receiver
Receiver : The destination of the message from sender. Based on the decoded message the receiver gives their feed back to sender. If the message distracted by noise it will affect the communication flow between sender and receiver
Noise: The messages are transferred from encoder to decoder through channel. During this process the messages may distracted or affected by physical noise like horn sounds, thunder and crowd noise or encoded signals may distract in the channel during the transmission process which affect the communication flow or the receiver may not receive the correct message. The model is clearly deals with external noises only which affect the messages or signals from external sources. For example: If there is any problems occur in network which directly affect the mobile phone communication or distract the messages.
The hypodermic needle theory of communication.
This theory suggests that the media has direct and powerful influence on audiences. It suggests a media message is injected directly into the brain of a passive homogenous audience. The theory further suggests that media texts are closed and audiences are influenced the same way. It continues to influence the mainstream discourse about the influence of the mass media. People believe that the mass media can have a powerful people and parents continue to worry about the effect of television and violent video games.
Micheal Salwan and Dan stacks 1940.
Sampford, Charles, Arthur Shacklock, Carmel Connors, and Fredrick Galtung (2006),
Measuring Corruption, London: Ashgate.
As a contribution to research on measuring corruption as being critical to the design of successful anti-corruption policies, this book examines methods to measure corruption, including the Transparency International’s Corruption Perception Index and Bribery Perception Index. The limits and functions of the corruption indices and other measurement tools are discussed. The book discusses the indices reliability, and whether regular surveys can measure changes in corrupt behavior. The authors also give an overview and evaluate the methodologies used in different countries.
McLinden, Gerard (2005), “Integrity in Customs,” in Luc de Wulf and Jose Sokol,
Customs Modernization Handbook, The World Bank, pp. 67-89. This article gives an overview of the theory of corruption and its operational peculiarities in customs. He re-interprets Klitgaard’s framework on anti-corruption strategies and activities by tailoring it to customs. Based on the ten principles of the Arusha Declaration he presents best practices for the reform process. The author concludes by encouraging a whole-of-government approach to tackle corruption and suggests that any anti-corruption strategy should address both motive and opportunity.
A related argument links corruption to ethnic polarization. In deeply divided societies, the demand for corrupt services may be higher at any given price. For one thing, generalized trust is likely to be lower. Members of ethnic groups may feel that demanding favors from co-ethnics in office is the only effective way to obtain government services. At the same time, the supply of corrupt services may be increased by the social leverage that ethnic leaders have over officials of their ethnicity: fear of social ostracism may make them reluctant to refuse their co-ethnics’ demands. Various scholars have argued that competition between different ethnic groups within the same state has at times fostered patronage politics and bureaucratic predation. Easterly and Levine find a relationship between ethnic fragmentation and growth-retarding public policies (Easterly and Levine 1997).
Both the demand for and the supply of corrupt services may be greater in less developed societies. Social mores regarding corruption are often thought to vary with the level of economic development. In “traditional” societies, such transactions may not be clearly stigmatized, reducing the danger for those on both sides of the corrupt exchange. Public and private spheres tend to be less sharply delineated. According to Gunnar Myrdal, in underdeveloped countries “a bribe to a person holding a public position is not clearly differentiated from the ‘gifts,’ tributes, and other burdens sanctioned in traditional, pre-capitalist society or the special obligations attached to a favor given at any social level.” (Myrdal 1970, p.237; see also Ekpo 1979)
Various conjectures link the supply of corrupt services to characteristics of countries’political systems and state structure. Democracy is sometimes thought to increase the cost to officials of corrupt transactions, reducing the supply. The institutions of a free society—free press, secondary associations, etc—may make exposure more likely, as may the practice of electoral politics. Particular legal systems may also offer private businesses greater protections from predatory officials. La Porta et al. have argued that the nature of a country’s legal traditions— common law vs. French-style civil law—influences the quality of state protection and enforcement of private property rights (La Porta et al. 1997b). Such legal traditions may also affect the supply of corruption.
In a fairly crude sense, the size of the state may influence the supply of corrupt public services. Some have suggested a simple positive relationship between state size and corruption or rent-seeking (Tanzi 1994, Buchanan 1980). The greater the share of GDP redistributed by government, the greater the spoils for corrupt allocation. Similarly, the more officials there are in public office, the more potential bribees available. However, the potential cost to office-holders of exposure will depend on the internal rules and ethos of the bureaucracy. The more meritocratic is recruitment and the greater the extent to which bureaucracies offer predictable and rewarding long- term careers, the greater may be a bureaucracy’s internal discipline and the greater the incentive for staff to avoid possible dismissal (Rauch and Evans 1997).
Industrial organization arguments suggest that the internal structure of the state may also
influence the supply of corrupt services. When bureaucracies are more decentralized, with less
internal discipline, bureaucrats may compete to extract maximal rents (Shleifer and Vishny 1993). In more decentralized or federal states, the burden of corrruption may thus be greater. According to James Q. Wilson, one cause of corruption in the US system is “the need to exchange favors to overcome decentralized authority” (Wilson 1970, p.304). Another political scientist argues that “decentralized political systems are More corruptible, because the potential corrupter needs to influence only a segment of the government, and because in a fragmented system there are fewer centralized forces and agencies to enforce honesty.”A number of economists have also suggested that corruption will be more widespread at the local level, perhaps because of the greater intimacy and frequency of interactions between private individuals and local officials (Tanzi 1995, Prud’homme 1995). According to Heywood, in Spain “the creation of new regional administrations during the 1980s offered extensive opportunities for the development of a new spoils system, operated by the party in power” (Heywood 1996, p.130).On the other hand, some have argued that competition between sub jurisdictions with greater autonomy may reduce corruption and the checks and balances of a federal system may limit the center’s ability to conceal malfeasance (Weingast 1995). Susan Rose Ackerman suggests that: “A federal structure in which each level has its own police force can reduce the vulnerability of any one law enforcement agency” (Rose-Ackerman 1994, p.27). The danger that additional levels of regulatory authority in the state may lead to a greater total burden of regulation and corruption may thus be offset by the beneficial consequences of competition between jurisdictions at lower levels. Political systems differ not just in the nature of political institutions or governing regimes but also in how often these change. Two arguments trace differences in the supply of corruption to the degree of political instability—with opposite implications. Some authors argue that by shortening the time horizons of those in power, political instability inclines them to make money fast and crudely rather than to moderate their current appetites for the sake of future earnings. Wars, civil wars, revolutions, and other occasions on which legal and social order is weakened are often times of rampant abuse of power. Prevailing disorder may also reduce the danger of being detected and punished.
Others have suggested an opposite conjecture: too much stability enables officials to reach long-term, relatively secure corrupt bargains with private partners. Wars, invasions, major political change, and turnovers of government may actually sweep away the debris of accumulated deals (Olson 1982).
Some commentators saw in the longevity of the Japanese LDP and Italian Christian Democrats an explanation for the corruption scandals that weakened them in the 1990s. Britain, which has avoided invasion and occupation since 1066, experienced a flowering of corruption in the 18th Century .More recently, Barbara Geddes has argued that when a new party comes to power it will have greater incentives to reform the corrupt practices of its predecessor (Geddes1997, p.12).
By contrast, political institutions that support continuity and avoid political alternation may increase corruption. According to David Hine, “the existence of broad forms of consociational power-sharing (whether at national level, or between different tiers of government)” features among the causes of political corruption in contemporary Europe (Hine 1996, p.141).
Finally, some argue that whatever the nature of political institutions, it is the policies actually adopted by those in power that determine the extent of corruption. In economies with extensive state regulation, greater opportunities for venality exist. The supply of rents for officials to allocate will be higher than in more liberal settings. Economies that is open to foreign competition will see such rents eroded, reducing the value of restrictions on domestic production. According to Ades and Di Tella, countries that are more open to foreign trade tend to be less corrupt (Ades and Di Tella 1996).
“Corruption has become embedded in the survival of the regime. It is a regime that depends on making everybody a client. And because of that, they go around paying everybody—civil society, politicians, voters, religious leaders.”
Augustin Ruzindana, first Inspector General of Government, May 22, 2013
“You will point out corruption, but whether something happens depends on how well-connected they are politically. If they’re deemed important to the establishment, then nothing will be done.”
David Makumbi, Ombudsman Affairs Director, Inspectorate of Government, May 24, 2013
Roles of mass media in curbing corruption
The he roots of corruption are grounded in a country’s social and cultural history, political and economic development, bureaucratic traditions and policies. To generalize, it tends to flourish when institutions are weak and economic policies distort the marketplace.1 Corruption distorts economic and social development, by engendering wrong choices and by encouraging competition in bribery rather than in the quality and price of goods and services and, all too often, it means that the world’s poorest must pay for the corruption of their own officials and of multinationals’ agents. Moreover, available evidence shows that if corruption is not contained, it will grow. Once a pattern of successful bribes is institutionalized, corrupt officials have an incentive to demand larger bribes, engendering a “culture” of illegality that in turn breeds market inefficiency.
In other words, the extent of corruption depends on the amount of monopoly power and discretionary power that an official exercises. Monopoly power is large in highly regulated economies, whereas discretionary power is often large in developing countries and transition economies where administrative rules and regulations are often poorly defined and which are plagued by a weak rule of law. And finally, accountability may also be weak, either as a result of poorly defined ethical standards of public service, weak administrative and financial systems and ineffective watchdog agencies. Successful strategies to curb corruption will have to simultaneously seek to reduce an official’s monopoly power (e.g. by market-oriented reforms), his/ her discretionary power (e.g. by administrative reforms) and enhance his/her accountability (e.g., through watchdog agencies). Such strategies comprise a system of checks and balances, designed to manage conflicts of interest in the public sector and limit situations in which conflicts of interest arise or have a negative impact on the common good. They embody a comprehensive view of reform, addressing corruption in the public sector through government processes (leadership codes, organizational change) and through civil society participation (the democratic process, private sector, media). A complementary schema, focusing on knowledge and data as a prerequisite for anti-corruption.
The Media as a Tool Against Corruption: Tangible vs. Intangible EffectsThe media can act as a force against corruption in ways that are both tangible and intangible. The tangible, readily identifiable, ways in which the
news media perform this function include those in which some sort of visible outcome can be attributed to a particular news story or series of stories for instance, the launching of investigation by authorities, the scrapping of a law or policy that fosters a climate ripe with opportunities for corruption, the impeachment or forced resignation of a crooked politician, the firing of an official, the launching of judicial proceedings, the issuing of public recommendations by a watchdog body, and so on. effects, by contrast, can be characterized as those checks on corruption which arise from the broader social climate of enhanced political pluralism, enlivened public debate and a heightened sense of accountability among politicians, public bodies and institutions that are inevitably the by-product of a hard-hitting, independent news media.
The tangible ways in which journalism serves as an impediment to corruption. The tangible ways in which journalism can serve to curb corruption can take a variety of forms. Most spectacular among them is when corrupt bureaucrats or public office-holders are impeached, prosecuted or forced to resign after their misdeeds are exposed to public light. However, journalism also acts directly to curb corruption in other, less spectacular but, arguably, equally important ways. Reporting, for example, may prompt public bodies to launch formal investigations into allegations of corruption. Furthermore, news accounts disseminate the findings of public anti-corruption bodies, thus reinforcing the legitimacy of these bodies and reducing the ease with which interested parties who hold power can meddle in their work. Conversely, when journalism exposes flaws and even corruption within the various bodies of the state (the courts, police and anti-corruption task forces) corruption is put on check. Furthermore, if the resulting public pressure leads to a reform of those bodies, the long-term effectiveness and potential of the media to act as a counterweight against corruption is strengthened.
When public officials lose their jobs because they have been found guilty of corruption, a variety of related deterrents to corruption—such as public humiliation, loss of prestige, social standing and income, among others—are simultaneously reinforced. Furthermore, the political turbulence that follows the ouster of high public officers helps increase the standards of public accountability, thereby providing another deterrent to major corruption by others in the future.
Reinforcing the work and legitimacy of the State’s anti-corruption bodies. Sometimes, too, journalists’ stories can play a critical role in reinforcing the effectiveness of public anti-corruption bodies—even when the stories in question are not, strictly speaking, investigative reports that reveal wrongdoing of some kind. Simply reporting in a regular, detailed way on the work and findings of these bodies can reinforce public scrutiny of them and, hence, the independence of such bodies from vested interests within the power structure that might otherwise be tempted to interfere in their work. Journalists and the news media, it must be stated, often have a symbiotic relationship with the official bodies that investigate or prosecute corrupt officials. Journalists’ immediate interests are served by their work in that they provide reporters and their outlets with strong, dramatic stories to pursue and publish. The interests of the anti-corruption bodies are equally served because reporting on their activities builds public support for their work—and, hence, reinforces their legitimacy—creating a climate that may make politicians who are the subject of their inquiries less inclined to meddle in or undermine their operations. Another beneficial side effect of the publicity that journalists bring to the work of such bodies is that it may encourage witnesses to wrong doing to step forward and testify about what they know.
Strengthening anti-corruption bodies by Exposing their flaws Still, there are limits to this kind of cooperation. There is always a danger, of course, that journalists may become too close to the official anti-corruption bodies that have the potential to provide them with a steady flow of punchy, dramatic stories. The potentially
Problematic nature of such relationships is evident when one considers that these very bodies can themselves turn out to be corrupt, or tainted by corruption. No public body—or private entity, for that matter—can be immune from corruption, after all. With this in mind, it is crucial for journalists to maintain a healthy spirit of independence with respect to police, prosecutors, the courts and other public bodies charged with rooting out, prosecuting and issuing rulings on corruption cases. Ultimately, when journalism maintains its independence and casts its critical gaze on these bodies themselves from time to time, it can serve to expose weaknesses within them and, ultimately, to reinforce their effectiveness in curbing corruption.
Helping to shape public opinion hostile to “sleaze” in government. Even when reporting on outright corruption or other questionable behaviour by public figures does not lead directly to indictments, prosecutions or impeachments, it can still help shape public hostility to such activities that can ultimately lead to electoral defeat for individual politicians or, indeed, for entire governments.
Pressure for changes to laws and regulations that create a climate favourable to corruption
Investigative journalism can also curb corruption by identifying flaws or weaknesses in laws and regulations that create a climate favorable to corruption. In so doing authorities are prompted to change, or consider changing, those laws and regulations. Such pressure for changes to laws can come in the form of specific recommendations from a media outlet
This section describes various methods used in the study process such as research design, area of study, source of information, population of study, sampling, research instruments, validity and reliability and administration of instrument, date management and management.
- Research Design
The researcher used descriptive research design that was used in both qualitative and quantitative in measure. This type of design is preferred because it is dependable in obtaining information from the respondent. This design is good at drawing people’s views, attitudes and opinion as naturally as possible. The design was conducted as across section survey, were respondents surveyed at the same time.
- AREA OF STUDY
The study area was conducted in Jinja Municipality East, Jinja district. The research chose this area of study because it is characterised with cases of unemployment, idol and disorderly and the population of the area is quite big as it is a hub for all people who migrate from the nearby.
- STUDY POPULATION
The study population comprised of some selected opinion leaders, religious leaders, employees, authorities, political analysts, some youths who are the subject matter in this topic of youth unemployment among others who deemed so important and could provide the necessary information for this study.
- SAMPLING TECHNIQUES.
The researcher applied simple random sampling to the selected respondents. The researcher used this technique because bias is eliminated and sampling error can be estimated. This technique also gives possible chances to the entire responsible respondent to be included into the desired respondent are independent of one another. The researcher also applied purposive sampling to the selected respondent being move appropriate on a small universe and can be able to get key information related to the study.
- RESEARCH INSTRUMENT S
The study used various research instruments for data collection. This included interviewers guide and the questionnaire. Documentary analysis and personal observational instrument for data collection.
- The questionnaire
Self administered questions were used and filled by different respondents who included professional graphics designers, some students who had an idea about graphics among others. The instrumental was used because it simplified the activity of eliciting data from the respondents who could interpret the question at the same time; questionnaires are reliable instruments of gathering both qualitative and quantitative data. The questionnaires contained both close and open ended questions and this enabled the researcher to obtain detailed data in the time provided.
- Interview guides
In this tool, the researcher interviewed the selected respondents in the study especially those who had difficulties in reading and interpreting written questions. The interview guide generated an in depth information and enabled wide opinions to be collected from the respondent. The method is flexible in that it permits flexibility in questioning, and the validity of information can also be readily checked among others.
- Documentary analysis.
The study also used documents such as previous reports on the status of Youth unemployment in Jinja municipality East, analysis of the factors leading to this cause among other documents, these guided the study when it came to examining the Role of mass media in curbing unemployment in Jinja municipality East, jinja district. The researcher examined the documents for four days because it was convenient period for this activity.
- Personal observation.
The researcher further applied this method since it captures human conduct as it actually happens. This method can also be used as a tool of collecting information in situations where other methods other methods other than observation cannot prove to be useful and among other advantages. This method was good in moderating, analysing, comparing, and relating the gathered information. And Coolican, (1994), describes observation as a data collection method that may be seen as
either a technique or as an overall design. As a technique it is used within a traditional
experimental design especially in field experiments. This study used observation as an
overall design applying an observation schedule. As an overall design the researcher has
chosen to observe naturally occurring behavior and not to experiment with it, (Coolican,
1994). No independent variable is manipulated. However, due to limitations of time, observations were made on two schools only. These observations were considered not representative enough for the study and were therefore not included in the results.
The main advantages of observation are its directness, (Frankfort-Nachmias C. and Nachmias D. 2004). It enables researchers to study behavior as it occurs. They can simply watch as individuals act and speak. This in turn enables the investigator to collect data first hand, thereby preventing contamination of the factors standing between him/her and the object of research. Data collected by observation describes the observed phenomena as they occur in their natural settings.
An observation schedule was required by the researcher to make a physical visit to the
particular schools and make observations on a pre-selected actual sporting activity. However,
this was changed and done by the sports teacher using the checklist for both facilities and
- Procedure of data collection.
A letter of introduction was obtained from the faculty head from which the researcher belonged and it was to be taken to the local authorities of Jinja municipality East, 87.7 Baba fm seeking permission to conduct the study in the area.
- Validity and reliability of the instruments.
According to Borg and Gall (1996), validity is the degree to which a test measures what it is intended to measure. Mugenda O. and Mugenda (1999), further states that content validity allows, the test to measure intended domains of indicators or contents of a particular concept. Validity therefore has to do with how accurately the data obtained in the study represents the variable used in the study.
To enhance validity of the instruments, a pre-test or pilot study was conducted on a sampled population which consisted of schools within easy reach of the researcher but sharing the same characteristics as those targeted by the study. This was necessary in order to measure the clarity of the items and the language used in the instruments. According to Kothari, (2003), validity refers to the extent to which a test measures what the researcher actually wishes to measure. It is crucial and indicates the degree to which an instrument measures what it is supposed to measure. The completed pilot instruments had their items discussed with the respondents to determine the correctness in wording to ensure that they were free from misinterpretations. Further discussions were conducted with the supervisors on how to improve the quality of the instruments. Items found to be inadequate in measuring the variables were either discarded and deleted or modified to improve the quality of research instruments thus increasing validity.
Reliability refers to the degree to which a measure supplies consistent results, (Mugenda and Mugenda, 1999).The study focused on the data gathered from the research instruments. The
instruments had to go through serious modification to enable them gather as accurate data as
- Administration of the instrument.
There researcher personally delivered the questionnaires to the expected respondents, he also made arrangements of collecting them. For respondents with busy work schedules, the researcher requested for their email addresses and sent them the questionnaires.
In turn, he received back the questionnaires when they have been thoroughly answered as the respondents were given time and chance to research about the questions they were asked. The same dates of collecting the questionnaires were sometimes used to interview the rest of the respondents. The researcher ensured that the respondents were free to express themselves and answer the questions at their own ease.
In order to receive a valid data, the researcher asked one question at a time, listened to the answer from the respondents and recorded their opinions himself. This exercise gave an opportunity to observe the facial expressions, gestures and moods of the respondents.
- Data management
The researcher compiled the study responses according to the type of respondents. This arrangement enabled the researcher to analyze the results. He used descriptive methods to analyse and interpret the results. Descriptive methods were also used to summarise the data using tables, charts, graphs, statements and texts.
- Data analysis.
The researcher edited the returned questionnaire according to each respective station and interview guides. The data was accurately tabulated and converted into meaningful items that formed a basis for interpretation of the findings. The researcher analyzed the data for a period of 40 days because it was a convenient period for this exercise.
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