Intervention Design in Psychology: Five Ecology Model Factors

Intervention Design



Ecology model consists of five chief factors which are intrapersonal or individual factors, interpersonal factors, organizational factors, community factors, and at last the policy factors. These factors altogether focus on attaining a higher level of behavioral changes towards health benefits (Reverdito, de Carvalho & de Barros Gonçalves, 2016). The assignment focuses on using the transtheoretical model for strategizing interventions for the development of behavioral changes among adolescents due to the increasing alcohol abuse incidents. In order to attain effective intervention towards the adolescents belongs to the age groups of 12 to 19 years, the three factors of the ecology model will be involved which as interpersonal/individual, community as well as policy level. The interventions will be focusing on the diffident levels of the ecology model and the correlation of the model with the transtheoretical model. In order to attain the effectiveness of the intervention, these factors of the ecology model will help in covering the stakeholder who has its role in promoting or demoting the incidents of alcohol abuse among adolescents. The interventions will be developed for the individual factors separately with the assistance of the transtheoretical model (Friman, Huck & Olsson, 2017). The intervention will include the various type of activities which has its effectiveness in changing behaviors of a community, policy as well as individuals towards the incident of alcohol consumption within the adolescents.



Adolescents belonging to the age group of 12-19 years are found to have a lack of interest in leaving alcohol consumption due to a lack of understanding and knowledge. The phase includes adolescents belonging to the age group of 12-19 years who are unaware and uneducated regarding the benefits and better outcomes of quitting alcohol consumption in their lives or the individuals who have witnessed failure while trying to leave their addiction (Eze et al., 2017). In order to develop effective intervention strategies for the adolescent’s population of Queensland, it will be necessary to analyze and assess the different factors such as the cultural and ethical background to the communities involved, the state of awareness and understanding regarding the issue, the policies and legal actions which are developed by the government against the alcohol abuse as well as the individuals understanding and consideration towards the effective intervention strategies.


In the next phase, the adolescents belonging to the age group of 12 to 9 will along with the community need to be engaged in the process of intervention enhancement and generating advocacy among them, advocacy can only be attained by the engagement of the effective stakeholders in the process. It will help them attain the desired information and knowledge regarding the benefits of leaving alcohol and the severity of alcohol consumption in order to attain more and more awareness among the population.


Intervention strategies based on the individual:

Intervention strategies for the adolescents will focus on the behavioral factors of the individual along with the surrounding environment which will help in attaining successful outcomes of these interventions. The aim of the intervention is to focus on the individual factors which affect the habit of alcohol consumption and the through of leaving the abuse within adolescents.

Intervention: The reason behind the development of the intervention Beneficial outcomes
Generating self or supportive awareness by the means of communication Lack of information and understanding regarding the benefits and better outcomes keeps them deprived of the awareness to leave or quit the consumption of alcohol. Also, it generates an urge to consume alcohol within adolescents. Thus, it becomes necessary for the to have understandable and comfortable communication with others to gains understand regarding the demerits of alcohol abuse and the benefits of quitting (Mak & Iacovou, 2019). Children often generate awareness and a sense of understanding reading alcohol abuse and its outcomes when they witness their family members or peers suffering from severe health disparities which have been risking their lives such as renal failure, cognitive heart disease as well as cancer (Lushin, 2017).

Adolescent belonging to the age group of 12-19 years will discuss with the parents, other family members, their guides or teachers, and communicate with their friends regarding the better outcomes and benefits of leaving alcohol abuse. Youngsters often found surfing the internet and social networking sites in order to attain more and more information regarding the available facilities and programs that has its aim towards helping victims of alcohol addiction (Winters et al., 2018).




Peer support Witnessing failure in academics, losing friends, witnessing family breakdowns as well as losing the ability to succeed in their lives often generates the habit of alcohol abuse within the adolescents. Also, there are several difficulties adolescent witnesses while undergoing the process of leaving alcohol one of which is a lack of confidence and strength to leave the addiction and the craving for alcohol (Patwardhan et al., 2017). Thus, it becomes necessary for the adolescent to attain better support and care from the family and friends in order to attain recovery from the condition of alcohol addiction.


The adolescent will attain the desired confidence and strength which is required to attain the process of quitting alcohol consumption. The family will provide the appropriate care and support that will be required during the rehabilitation peer and build confidence and self-esteem which will help the child sustain the pain and suffering (Woods-Jaeger et al., 2016).
A counseling session within academic settings There are certain situations where the child or the adolescent is not in a state to attain any support from the family or friend and does not consist of enough facility to attain understanding and knowledge regarding the benefits of leaving alcohol consumption (Edem et al., 2019). Thus, involving academic settings such as schools, institutions for the delivery of counseling sessions to every student studying in the setting. Every student studying in the school or institution in a community will attain a counseling session that will guide them and make them understand the benefit and better development outcomes they will attain after the process of leaving the consumption of alcohol (Burlaka, 2017). Also, it will provide them with detailed information explaining the demerits of the habit. It will ensure that a greater number of adolescents attain the session and generates awareness and confidence to quit the habit of alcohol consumption.
Involvement in extracurricular activities such as sports, arts as well as music. Immense pressure and stress from the academics and family for the attaining better success in life often drags these adolescents towards alcohol consumption and leaving academic. The involvement of extracurricular activities in school and involving the children with additional activities at home often keep their mind away from stress and pressure of studies. It helps them calm their mind and focus on positive things (Nair et al., 2016). The involvement of these adolescents who are witnessing a serious habit of consumption of alcohol will attain mind satisfying activities which will help them distract their mind from the craving of alcohol use. Also, those who are one the state of depression, stress, and pressure will attain a therapy by the means of sports, music, and arts and will provide safety to these individuals from attaining the habit of alcohol abuse.
Assessment of high-risk alcohol consumers and rehabilitation centers admission. Adolescents who have passed their limit of consumption and are in a state of higher health risk due to the habit of substance abuse may end up costing their lives and also creates difficult situations for the family. They often get attracted to bad companies and criminal activities which creates the risk of health conditions and even destruction of the future. Thus, it will necessary to assess the high-risk individuals and admitting them to the local rehabilitation center to provide them professional supervision and treatment. It will reduce the risk of attaining worse outcome pout of these adolescents and helps them attain a well-organized and professionalized rehabilitation through the addiction of alcohol. It will help them overcome their addiction and promote a healthy and safe future.
Decreasing the availability of alcohol to the individual There are situations where the families have a habit of consuming alcohol and these adolescents retain their availability of alcohol form their own houses. Also, there are certain cases where the child learns the habit of alcohol consumption from some of the family members itself. Decreasing the availability of alcohol within the home setting reduces the chance of alcohol consumption among the children as they will not be able to attain alcohol. Also, it needs to be made sure that no family member or elder drinks in front of the child in order to deliver a bad example which might develop into a severe condition in the future (Siwale & Siziya, 2019).
Proper diet and routine Often lack of children involved with substance abuse or alcohol abuse contains a deprived diet. They are often found to be skipping the meal and develop bad health and physic. Thus, it becomes necessary to provide them with a healthy diet and routine which will provide them with appropriate energy and health (Salam et al., 2016). Proper diet and healthy routine ill help them retain the level of energy the losses due to the regular consumption of alcohol. It will help them fight against the feeling of the need for alcohol and also will keep them away from any health care difficulties related to the consumption of alcohol.

Intervention strategies based on the community:

In order to attain a successful installation of effective intervention and attain a successful outcome, it will be necessary to involve the community and the stakeholders of the community. They have a major role in helping and promoting the effectiveness of alcohol quitting behavior in adolescents of their locality. The objective of the intervention strategies to promote effectiveness among the communities to enhance the process of leaving alcohol among adolescents.

Interventions The reason behind the development of the intervention Beneficial outcomes
Involvement of the local healthcare agencies to promote community awareness and involvement Lack of community involvement and healthcare support makes it tough for the agencies or intervention to perform to its extent. It suppresses the effectiveness s of the intervention. With the support of the health care agencies and community members, will help in attaining a greater number of participants in promoting better healthcare outcomes among these adolescent living in the community (Feinstein, Dyar & London, 2017). The adolescents living in the community will be successfully brought to the process of rehabilitation from alcohol abuse with the help of the community members. The health care agencies will promote a community level awareness related to their health benefits and development after quitting alcohol consumption.
Promoting local education and training centers towards the decrease of alcohol abuse Lack of education as well as awareness and proper training related to the process of alcohol quitting intervention always generates a barrier with the intervention and the success rate. The community needs to be educated and trained first to attain the desired outcomes. Without proper knowledge and understanding. Communities will not provide their support and consideration. Training and educational camps will be health among the communities which involves all the families and the members of the communities to attain the knowledge. It will guide them regarding the intervention strategies as well as the step that needs to be attained in order to decrease the rate of alcohol abuse among their young children and save them from health care difficulties (De La Rosa et al., 2018).
Involvement of community heads to decrease the sale of alcohol to children below the age of 18 The major reason which tends to fail the success of the intervention along with promotes alcohol consumption among adolescents is the not restricted sale of alcohol to these young individuals. They are free to buy alcohol from the local shops without any restrictions. It will be necessary to block their purchase or availability of alcohol. Promoting strict rules of law against the sale of alcohol to the adolescent will decrease the rate of availability of alcohol in the community and will ultimately decrease the rate of alcohol consumption within these vulnerable individuals.
Promoting therapy sessions and meditation sessions with a rewarding facility. It is important to encourage adolescents to initiate the process of quitting alcohol consumption. Lack of encouragement keeps them deprived of the feeling and needfulness to quit the consumption of alcohol. Thus, involving community mediation and therapy session along with the initiation of rewards will drag the attention of these vulnerable populations. Therapy and meditation will provide these individuals with a soothing environment and increase their ability to concentrate and forget the urge of alcohol. Rewards incentives delivery to those who will not consume alcohol for a certain period of time will enhance more and more recovery among these individuals (Liddle et al., 2018). It will increase the number of participants in the sessions.
Compensation initiation on the access to alcohol There are certain incidents where the shops are found to illegally sell or provide access to alcohol to younger children. It makes it easy for the children to buy alcohol without acknowledgment of any elder. Thus, it will be necessary to promote compensation to those who are caught selling or buying alcohol beyond the rule of the community. It will develop a fear of punishment or compensation among adolescents as well as the seller. The availably of alcohol beyond the rule will be blocked and it will require to involve the health care agencies and law enforcement. There needs to be the development of stick rules against the defaulters so that there is no longer availability of alcohol to the suspectable individual.


Intervention strategies based on policies:

Policies developed by the health care agencies and the government of the sates need to drag their focus on the incident of alcohol consumption among these adolescents. The aim of the intervention strategy to involve the policies developed by the government of Queensland to the increasing cases of alcohol abuse among these younger generations. It will involve certain policies such as The National Drug Strategy 2017–2026, and National Alcohol Strategy 2018–2026 which are in the process of development, and have their focuses on the prevention and decrease of alcohol ill-use (Praeger et al., 2019).

Intervention The reason behind the development of the intervention Beneficial outcomes
Initiation of adolescent alcohol abuse sector within the policies There are still lacking strict rules and punishments against the consumption of alcohol by this younger generation who are below the age of 18. It provides a free environment for these individuals to buy and drink alcohol. Thus, it will be necessary to initiate specific laws and policies which have its aim specifically towards the condition of alcohol abuse in adolescents. It will benefit the community as well as the family to take legal actions and intervention against the children who are attaining alcohol abuse in their daily lives. Also, it will help them overcome their habit of drinking to retain their normal and healthy lifestyle.
Strict rules against the availability of alcohol to restricted age group The policies do not have to aby strict punishment or cation against the seller who provides access to the individual below the age of 18. It provides them easy access to alcohol when they are not able to attain it form the home. Thus, no local communities, as well as the families, are able to take proper action against these sellers. Strict rules and policies for these incidents of alcohol selling to these younger individuals will make the rate of alcohol abuse and availability restricted. It will provide legal support to the communities and families who are seeking bits of help against these alcohol buyers and consumers.
Limiting the sale of alcohol per week There are nor bars or limits set for the purchase of alcohol in the local shops which is one of the reasons behind the free and enormous access to alcohol by any susceptible group in a community (Davies & Allen, 2017). There needs to be a limit or bar developed for the purchase of alcohol which will help in balancing the rate of alcohol issues in the communities. The limitation in the purchase and setting bare based on the weekly purchase will decrease the availability and purchase of alcohol by the suppliers who are illegally providing or selling alcohol to the adolescent in the regions of Queensland. It will make it difficult for these providers to purchase alcohol beyond the limit and will help in decreasing the rate of alcohol abuse among this younger generation (Nagar & El shahat Hamed, 2018).



In order to attain effective outcomes, it will be necessary for the communities and the legal agencies to collaborate and take the intervention into action in their communities and regions. It will be necessary to analyze and assess the effectiveness of the intervention strategies in the selected population. The action takes place only when the intervention has developed effective outcomes within a population and generated a greater number of volunteers and percipients within a community.


The intervention needs to be maintained d within a community only by assessing that the outcome has been effective within a selected period of time. It needs to be effective within the selected population in the designated period of time with an increase in the number of participants and supporters. It needs to be managed that there are no complications or severe outcomes within the selected population which might lead to the relapse of the difficulties within these selected populations.


In order to conclude, it can be stated that these intervention strategies are well organized focused on the ecology factors which are individual, community as well as the policy which altogether serve in attained behavioral change. These interventions have its effectiveness towards initiating and attaining effective outcomes and health befits within the adolescents who have been witnessing incidents of alcohol abuse and addiction. The intervention has been developed focusing on the ecology model of behaviors and has its effects on the individuals, communities as well as the policies which have their association with the incident of alcohol abuse among these adolescents.