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Smart Reading Model and Student’s Achievement in English reading: UAE Case Study

 Chapter One: Introduction

1.1 Introduction

In the UAE, students start learning English in Grade 1 of primary school. By the end of Grade 6, they are expected to be able to read, write, and speak the language fluently. However, many students struggle with reading comprehension, due to a lack of effective reading instruction. In order to improve student outcomes, it is important to investigate new and innovative approaches to teaching reading. Such approaches should take into account the unique needs of learners in the UAE context. It should also be based on solid research evidence.

Smart reading model can be defined as an approach that uses computer-based scaffolding to support student learning (National Research Council., 2000). In the context of reading instruction, this might involve providing students with online texts that are accompanied by tools to help them with vocabulary, comprehension, and other reading skills. Compared to traditional approaches to reading instruction, smart reading has the potential to provide a more individualized and differentiated learning experience for students (McDermott & Gormley, 2016). There is evidence that smart reading can have a positive impact on student achievement (Kim et al., 2019). However, much of this research has been conducted in Western contexts. There is a need for more research on smart reading in other contexts, such as the UAE. The current study aims to address this need by investigating the effects of a smart reading model on student achievement in English reading in the UAE.

The smart reading model is an approach that has shown promise in improving student outcomes in other contexts. Kim et al. (2018) found that the use of computer-based scaffolding in problem-based learning improved student outcomes in STEM disciplines. They suggest that the model could also be applied to other subjects, including reading, as it can help students to develop critical thinking and problem-solving skills. In a study by Belland et al. (2017), it was found that computer-based scaffolding can help students to identify relevant information, understand text structure, and make inferences. However, there is a lack of research on the use of this approach in reading instruction in the UAE. Given the high importance placed on English proficiency in the UAE, as well as the widespread use of technology in education, it is important to investigate the potential of the smart reading model in this context.

This study will investigate the effects of the smart reading model on student outcomes in English reading in selected primary school in the UAE. A control group of students will receive instruction using traditional methods, while the experimental group will receive instruction using the smart reading model. According to Rutberg and Bouikidis (2018), control and experimental groups are necessary to determine the efficacy of the new approach. For example, if the experimental group outperforms the control group, this would suggest that the smart reading model is an effective approach for teaching reading in the UAE context. However, if the two groups perform equally well, or if the experimental group performs worse than the control group, this would suggest that the smart reading model is not an effective approach for teaching reading in the UAE context.

This study will use a quantitative research design, as this will allow for the measurement of student outcomes in a reliable and valid way (Adams et al.,  2014). Data will be collected using standardized reading tests, as well as teacher observations. The data will be analyzed using descriptive statistics and inferential statistics. This study will contribute to the existing body of research on the use of smart reading instruction, as well as to our understanding of how this approach can be used effectively in the UAE context.

1.2 Background of the Study 

The UAE is a country that places a high importance on English proficiency. Students in the UAE are required to take an English test as part of their application to university (Wanphet & Tantawy, 2018). In addition, many jobs in the UAE require English proficiency (Siemund et al., 2021). As a result, there is a high demand for English instruction in the UAE. Many students in the UAE attend private schools, where English is the medium of instruction (MOI) (Mouhanna, 2016). They also have access to a variety of technology-based resources, such as online learning platforms and apps.

Despite the high demand for English instruction in the UAE, there is a lack of research on effective approaches to teaching English in this context. This is likely due to the fact that the UAE is a relatively young country, and English instruction is a relatively new phenomenon in the UAE. However, given the importance of English proficiency in the UAE, it is important to investigate effective approaches to teaching English in this context. One approach that has shown promise for teaching reading is the smart reading model. This model was first developed by Carrell and Eisterhold (1983). It is a computer-based approach that uses scaffolding to help students identify relevant information, understand text structure, and make inferences.

The smart reading model has been found to be an effective approach for teaching reading in a variety of contexts (such as American English, British English, Chinese students learning English as a second language) (Dhanarajan, 1995). During the pandemic, the use of technology for instruction has become even more important, as many students are learning remotely. For example, the smart reading model was found to be an effective approach for teaching reading to Chinese students learning English as a second language via a remote learning platform (Alsulami, 2016). It is important to investigate the effectiveness of this approach in the UAE context, as it has the potential to be a valuable resource for English teachers in the UAE.

1.3 Statement of the Problem

Students should be able to read proficiently by the end of second grade. They should be able to read and understand grade-level texts with ease and read aloud with fluency and expression. This is important because reading is a fundamental skill essential for success in school and life. In addition, English proficiency is important for students in the UAE, as it is required for many jobs and university applications. For example, most private-sector jobs in the UAE require English proficiency, as do many government jobs (Ibrahim & Barnawi, 2022). Most classes are taught in English at university, and students are expected to submit their assignments and take their exams in English. Therefore, students need to be proficient in English reading by the time they reach university.

There is a problem, however, in that many students are not proficient in reading by the end of second grade. According to a study by Endley (2016), twelve Arabic-speaking students at a major Gulf University used different reading strategies while reading English texts. They discovered that, although the individuals were already using repertoire techniques, they frequently failed to apply them effectively. They also found that about 58.3% of the participants belonged to the LPR (Lower Proficiency Reading) group, as they scored below 45% during a college pre-test session (Endley, 2016). This suggests that many students in the UAE are not proficient in reading by the time they join college

In addition, many students in the UAE are taught using a traditional instructional approach, which has been found to be ineffective for teaching reading (Arifani et al., 2020). In a study by Shana and Alwaely (2021), it was found that the traditional instructional approach used in schools in the UAE is ineffective for teaching science. In the study, a flipped classroom model was introduced and found to be more effective than the traditional instructional approach. The results of this research indicate that the flipped classroom method significantly influenced academic achievement. This agrees with numerous other studies, which found that students’ learning outcomes improved when they used a flipped-classroom approach (Eichler & Peeples, 2016; Gillispie, 2016). The situation is exacerbated by the fact that many students in the UAE come from low-income families and cannot afford private tutoring.

This study will investigate the effect of using a smart learning model on students’ achievement in English reading in selected primary schools in the UAE. The smart learning model will be compared to the traditional instructional approach to see which is more effective for teaching reading. The smart learning model is expected to be more effective, as it has been shown to be more effective than the traditional instructional approach in other studies (Peng et al., 2019). This study will contribute to the knowledge on effective teaching methods and help improve students’ reading outcomes in the UAE.

1.4 Theoretical Framework 

The theoretical framework for this study is based on the work of Vygotsky (1978). Vygotsky’s theory of cognitive development suggests that children learn best when they are actively involved in the learning process (Farris & Werderich, 2019). This is because they are able to construct their own knowledge by building on what they already know. In addition, Vygotsky’s theory suggests that children learn best when they are able to interact with others who are more knowledgeable than they are because they can learn from these individuals and internalize the new knowledge. The smart learning model is based on Vygotsky’s theory of cognitive development in two ways. First, it is active and engaging, as students are actively involved in the learning process. This way, they are able to construct their own knowledge by building on what they already know. Secondly, the smart learning model is based on social interaction, as students can interact with others who are more knowledgeable than they are. As a result, they can internalize new knowledge and apply it to their own lives.

Another theoretical framework that will be used in this study is Bandura’s (1977) social learning theory. Bandura’s theory suggests that children learn best when they are exposed to role models who exemplify the desired behavior. In addition, Bandura’s theory suggests that children learn best when they are able to see the consequences of their actions. According to Telaumbanua et al. (2022), the use of technology in the classroom can help students learn by providing them with role models and the opportunity to see the consequences of their actions. The smart learning model is based on Bandura’s social learning theory in two ways.

First, Bandura’s social learning theory suggests that children learn best when they are exposed to role models who exemplify the desired behavior. In the smart learning model, students are exposed to videos of native English speakers using the target language. These videos provide students with role models who exemplify the desired behavior. As a result, students can learn from these videos and internalize new knowledge. Secondly, Bandura’s social learning theory suggests that children learn best when they can see the consequences of their actions (Pound, 2017). In the smart learning model, students can see the results of their actions immediately after they perform them. For example, if a student makes a mistake, they will see the mistake and be able to correct it immediately. As a result, students can learn from mistakes and improve their language skills.

1.5 Conceptual Framework 

The study’s independent variable is “The type of instructional approach used (smart learning vs. traditional).” This variable is the one that the researcher will manipulate. The study’s dependent variable is “The level of English proficiency of the students.” The researcher will measure this variable to see how it is affected by the type of instructional approach used. The two moderating variables are “The age of the students” and “The gender of the students.” These variables will be included in the study to see if they affect the relationship between the type of instructional approach used and the students’ English proficiency level. It is important to include these moderating variables because they have been found to affect the relationship between the type of instructional approach used and the level of English proficiency of the students in previous studies (Portillo et al., 2020; Farashahi & Tajeddin, 2018). Figure 1 shows the relationship between the study’s variables.

Figure 1

Conceptual Model

I am proposing to use the smart reading model as an instructional method to improve students’ achievement in English reading. The theory that underpins the relationship between the independent and dependent variables is the social learning theory. According to this theory, children learn best when they are exposed to role models who exemplify the desired behavior (Telaumbanua et al., 2022). In the context of this study, the smart reading model will serve as a role model for the students in the experimental group. The social learning theory predicts that the experimental group students will outperform the control group students on the post-test because they will have been exposed to a more effective instructional method. Another theory that could be used to explain the relationship between the independent and dependent variables is the self-efficacy theory. This theory suggests that people’s beliefs about their ability to perform a task affect their performance on that task (Afzal et al., 2019). In this study, the self-efficacy theory predicts that the experimental group students will outperform the control group students on the post-test because they will believe that they can read English texts after being exposed to the smart reading model.

The moderating effect of the age of the students will be included in the study to see if it significantly affects the relationship between the type of instructional approach used and the student’s English proficiency level. This will be done by dividing the sample into two groups: students who are between the ages of 6 and 8 years old and students who are 7 years and below and 8 years and above. If the study results show a significant difference in the mean scores of the two groups, then age will be considered a moderating variable. The moderating effect of the gender of the students will also be included in the study to see if it significantly affects the relationship between the type of instructional approach used and the student’s English proficiency level. This will be done by dividing the sample into two groups: male and female students. If the study results show a significant difference in the mean scores of the two groups, then gender will be considered a moderating variable.

1.6 Purpose and Objectives of the Study

The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of smart reading model on students’ achievement in English reading in selected primary school in the UAE. The objectives of this study are to:

  • To compare the smart reading model with traditional instruction methods in terms of student outcomes in English reading.
  • To identify the benefits and limitations of using the smart reading model in teaching English reading.
  • To make recommendations for improving the smart reading model and for its use in teaching English reading in the UAE.

1.7 Research Questions

The following research questions will be addressed in this study:

  1. What is the effect of smart reading model on students’ achievement in English reading in selected primary school in the UAE?
  2. What are the benefits and limitations of using the smart reading model in teaching English reading?
  3. What recommendations can be made for improving the smart reading model and for its use in teaching English reading in the UAE?

1.8 Null Hypotheses

  • Ho1: There is no significant difference between the smart reading model and traditional instruction methods in terms of student outcomes in English reading.
  • Ho2: There is no significant difference between the benefits of using the smart reading model in teaching English reading.
  • Ho3: There is no significant difference between the limitations of using the smart reading model in teaching English reading.

1.9 Significance of the Study 

 

The findings of this study will be significant in several ways. First, the results will contribute to the body of knowledge on effective instructional methods for teaching English reading. This is important because there is currently a lack of research on the use of the smart reading model in teaching English reading. Second, the findings will be used to make recommendations for improving the smart reading model and for its use in teaching English reading in the UAE. This is important because there is currently no research on the use of the smart reading model in teaching English reading in the UAE. Finally, the findings will provide insights into the moderating effect of age and gender on the relationship between the type of instructional approach used and the student’s English proficiency level. This is important because there is currently no research on the moderating effect of these variables on the relationship between the type of instructional approach used and the student’s English proficiency level.

1.10 Limitations of the Study 

             There are several limitations to this study. First, the study is limited to a single country, the UAE. This means that the findings may not be generalizable to other countries. Second, the study is limited to a single type of instructional approach, the smart reading model. This means that the findings may not be generalizable to other instructional approaches. Finally, the study is limited to a single type of outcome measure, English reading proficiency. This means that the findings may not be generalizable to other outcome measures.

1.11 Operational Definition

  • Smart reading model: A smart reading model is an instructional approach that uses technology to provide individualized instruction to students (Peng et al., 2019). This approach is designed to meet the needs of each individual student and to provide a customized learning experience.
  • Traditional instruction: Traditional instruction is an instructional approach that relies on lectures, textbooks, and class discussions to provide information to students (Safapour et al., 2019). This approach is designed to provide a general overview of the material to be learned and does not provide a customized learning experience.
  • English reading proficiency: English reading proficiency is the ability to read and understand English texts (Syakur & Azis, 2020).

1.12 Summary

This study will investigate the effects of the smart reading model on student outcomes in English reading in selected primary school in the UAE. A control group of students will receive instruction using traditional methods, while the experimental group will receive instruction using the smart reading model. The findings of this study will be used to make recommendations for improving the smart reading model and for its use in teaching English reading in the UAE.

Chapter Two: Literature Review

2.1 Introduction

This chapter reviews the literature on the smart reading model, traditional instruction, English reading proficiency, main construct of the proposed module, related theories, related models, related existing modules, and past empirical studies.

2.2 Instructional Materials

Instructional materials used in teaching is one of the important things in learning process because it can stimulate students’ motivation, provide information and knowledge to them, give practice so that they can apply what they have learned into the real life. In order to make the learning process more interesting, interactive and effective, teacher needs to select and design the appropriate instructional materials. Desyandri et al. (2019) state that the use of integrated thematic teaching materials can provide an overview for students so that they can easily understand the material being studied. In addition, the use of integrated thematic teaching materials can also save time and costs for teachers in preparing teaching materials. The smart reading model is an instructional approach that uses technology to provide individualized instruction to students (Peng et al. 2019).This approach is designed to meet the needs of each individual student and to provide a customized learning experience. Thus, as Desyandri et al. (2019) state that the use of appropriate instructional materials is important in the learning process, the smart reading model is an instructional approach that can provide an effective and efficient learning experience for students.

Technology is not only changing the way we live, but also the way we learn. In the 21st century, technology has become an essential part of our lives. It has changed the way we communicate, work, and even learn. Technology has also had a significant impact on education. The use of technology in education has become more prevalent, and it has had a positive impact on the learning process. Xu et al. (2019) state that the use of technology in education can improve the quality of instruction and make the learning process more efficient and effective. In addition, the use of technology can provide a more personalized learning experience for students.          The smart reading model is an instructional approach that uses technology to provide individualized instruction to students. In this approach, students use tablet computers to access digital reading materials and receive real-time feedback on their reading. Xu et al. (2019) add that 5G network technology will play an important role in smart campuses, and they state that this technology will improve the quality of instruction and make the learning process more efficient and effective. Among the many benefits of 5G technology, one of the most significant is its ability to provide a more personalized learning experience for students. In the smart reading model, students use tablet computers to access digital reading materials and receive real-time feedback on their reading. This approach allows for a more personalized learning experience because each student can receive individualized instruction based on their reading level and needs.

Bajaj and Sharma (2018) found that the use of smart learning model with the artificial intelligence-based determination of learning styles could improve student outcomes. The researchers discovered that a smart learning approach might be beneficial in the future in making adaptive instruction readily accessible to a wide audience of students, from varied cultural, eLearning, traditional, and geographies educational backgrounds. Similarly, Muhid et al. (2020) examined the effect of metacognitive strategies on primary students’ reading comprehension achievement in an EFL context. The study found that metacognitive strategies have a significant effect on reading comprehension achievement. The study recommends that metacognitive strategies should be implemented in EFL reading instruction to improve student outcomes. It is important to note that both of these studies were conducted in different contexts with different populations of students. However, both studies found that specific instructional approaches can improve student outcomes in reading.

2.3 Assessment Tools

Different studies all examine different aspects of smart technology in relation to assessment tools. Tiwari and Abraham (2020) look at the role of ontologies in smart healthcare, Desolda et al. (2017) explore how end users can customize smart environments to their needs, and Erdem (2017) looks at how assistive technologies can be used to support students with special needs. All three studies highlight the importance of smart technology in assessment and its potential to improve outcomes for students. Tiwari and Abraham (2020) found that ontologies play a key role in smart healthcare and can improve patient outcomes. This is an important finding as it highlights the potential of smart technology to not just improve assessment tools, but also to improve patient care. However, the study also found that there is a lack of standardization in the use of ontologies, which could lead to potential problems in the future, which highlights the importance of further research in this area. Desolda et al. (2017) looked at how smart environments can be customized to the needs of individual users. This finding shows how smart technology can be used to empower individuals and improve their quality of life. Erdem (2017) looked at how assistive technologies can be used to support students with special needs. This study found that assistive technologies can have a positive effect on student outcomes and that they can be used to support a wide range of needs. This study highlights the potential of smart technology to improve the lives of students with special needs. All three studies show the potential of smart technology to improve assessment tools and student outcomes. However, further research is needed in order to fully understand the impact of smart technology on assessment and to develop standardized protocols for its use.

2.4 Classroom management

Classroom management is a critical aspect of teaching and learning. Mahmudi et al. (2019) found that classroom management is important for Arabic learning in elementary schools. They also found that classroom management can be improved by using multiple intelligences, which highlights the potential of smart technology to improve classroom management. Alawani and Singh (2017) found that smart mobile technology can be used for the professional development of in-service teachers. As such, smart technology has the potential to improve classroom management by providing teachers with the tools they need to be successful. Al Hajri et al. (2019) found that fully automated classroom attendance systems can improve classroom management. This study highlights the potential of smart technology to improve attendance and reduce teacher workload. Smart technology has the potential to improve classroom management. However, further research is needed to fully understand how to best utilize smart technology for this purpose. While smart technology has the potential to improve classroom management, it is important to note that this technology should be used in conjunction with other classroom management strategies. For example, Mahmudi et al. (2019) found that classroom management could be improved by using multiple intelligences. As such, smart technology should be used in conjunction with other classroom management strategies to create a well-rounded approach.

2.5 Theories Related To Smart Learning and English Proficiency

Theories related to smart learning, such as Vygotsky’s socio-cultural theory of cognitive development and Bandura’s social learning theory, provide a useful framework for understanding how students learn. These theories suggest that students learn best when they are actively engaged in the learning process and when they have access to role models who can serve as examples of successful second language learners. Vygotsky’s theory of cognitive development and Bandura’s social learning theory are two such theories. Vygotsky’s theory of cognitive development, according to Pathan et al. (2018), proposes that learning is a social process and that children learn through their interactions with more knowledgeable others. It is through these interactions that children internalize new knowledge and skills, thus expanding their cognitive abilities. Bandura’s social learning theory, on the other hand, proposes that people learn by observing and imitating others (Ahn et al., 2020). This theory is particularly relevant in the context of education, as it suggests that students can learn by observing and imitating the behavior of their teachers and other role models.

Literature on the theories related to smart learning and English proficiency is reviewed and evaluated. Pathan et al. (2018) provide a critical review of Vygotsky’s socio-cultural theory in second language acquisition. They conclude that the theory is relevant and useful in understanding how children learn a second language. Erbil (2020) reviews the flipped classroom and cooperative learning method within the context of Vygotsky theory and find that both methods are effective in promoting student learning. This is in line with Ahn et al. (2020), who found that social learning theory can be used to unpack the impact of role models on students’ outcomes in education. However, Deming and Johnson (2021) caution that more research is needed to fully understand the potential of social learning theory in deafblind support groups. Overall, the application of Vygotsky’s and Bandura’s theories appear to hold promise in promoting smart learning and English proficiency among students. More research is needed to fully understand the potential of smart learning in promoting student achievement in English reading. However, the existing literature provides a useful starting point for understanding how smart learning can be used to promote student achievement in English reading.

2.6 The Existing Module  

The smart reading model is a new and innovative way of teaching reading that has been gaining popularity in recent years. The model is based on the use of technology to provide students with a more interactive and engaging learning experience. Several studies have been conducted to examine different modules and their effectiveness in terms of enhancing student achievement. The majority of the studies touch on the importance of using technology in the classroom, and how it can create a more interactive and engaging learning environment. However, there has been little research done on the effect of the smart reading model on student achievement. Raimundo and Rosário (2021) is one of the few studies that specifically looks at the effect of this model on student achievement. They reviewed literature on the use of blockchain technology in higher education and found that the majority of the studies were positive in their assessment of the technology. However, the study did not specifically look at the effect of the smart reading model on student achievement. The study by Geng et al. (2021) is also one of the few studies that looks at the use of technology in education but does not specifically focus on the smart reading model. They looked at the use of virtual reality in education and found that it has potential to create a more immersive and engaging learning experience. On their study on MOOC platform Li (2019) found that the use of technology can help create a more interactive and engaging learning environment. They in particular looked at the effect of learners’ background and social network position and found that the use of technology can help to create a more level playing field for all learners. The study by Öztürk and Çakıroğlu (2021) found that the use of flipped learning can help to develop language skills and promote a more self-regulated learning environment. The majority of the studies that review different modules and their effectiveness are positive in their assessment of the technology. However, there has been little research done on the effect of the smart reading model on student achievement, a gap that the present study seeks to fill.

2.7 Past Empirical  Studies

Several empirical studies have investigated different aspects of using technology in education, but do not specifically focus on the smart reading model. The study by Tan (2019) looks at the learning attitudes of college students towards English e-tutoring websites and how this affects site sustainability. The study found that students have positive attitudes towards e-tutoring websites and that this contributes to site sustainability. This study shows that students are willing to use such websites and that they can be a sustainable source of learning. A more recent study by Alshurideh et al. (2021) looks at the use of smart mobile examination platforms by universities’ postgraduate students during the COVID-19 pandemic. The researchers discovered that people in the age group 18–29 years were considerably interested in utilizing mobile examination platforms, which may assist them in adopting new assessments(Alshurideh et al., 2021). The study also found that the main reasons for not using the platforms were a lack of awareness and technical difficulties. Another study, by Alblooshi and Hamid (2019), investigates the unified theory of acceptance and use of technology in e-learning adoption in higher education institutions in the UAE. The study found that there is a need for more awareness of e-learning and its benefits, as well as more support from institutions, for e-learning to be more widely adopted. This study highlights the importance of marketing and awareness of new technologies, such as the smart reading model, in order to increase adoption rates.

The study by Wang et al. (2021) looks at the role of leadership and human resources capacities in the implementation of smart education. The study found that both leadership and human resources are important for the successful implementation of smart education. This study shows that the smart reading model is likely to be more successful if there is strong leadership and support from human resources. A final study, by Kornpitack and Sawmong (2020), looks at the use of online English learning platforms by Thai students. The study found that students were interested in using such platforms, but that there were some technical difficulties. This study highlights the importance of making sure that the smart reading model is accessible and easy to use to encourage adoption. Overall, the empirical evidence shows that there is a need for more awareness of the smart reading model and its benefits, as well as more support from institutions, for the model to be more widely adopted. Additionally, it is important to make sure that the model is accessible and easy to use, to encourage adoption.

2.8 Summary 

A review of the literature showed that there has been little research done on the effect of the smart reading model on student achievement. Additionally, the literature review showed that there is a need for more awareness of the smart reading model and its benefits, as well as more support from institutions, for the model to be more widely adopted. Additionally, it is important to make sure that the model is accessible and easy to use, to encourage adoption. Other important factors that need to be considered in the implementation of the smart reading model are leadership and human resources capacities. Taken together, these findings suggest that the smart reading model has the potential to improve student achievement in English reading, but that there are some challenges that need to be addressed for it to be widely adopted.

 

Chapter Three: Methodology

3.1 Introduction

This chapter discusses the methodology used in this study. The research design, research setting, data collection methods, and data analysis methods are all described in detail. Research design is the framework that guides the research, and includes the research questions, hypotheses, and methods (Casula et al., 2021). The research setting is the specific location where the research will be conducted. The data collection methods are the specific methods that will be used to collect data, and the data analysis methods are the specific methods that will be used to analyze the data (Stieglitz et al., 2018).

3.2 Research Design   

This study uses a quasi-experimental design with pre and post-tests. This design is used to compare the effect of two different treatments on a dependent variable, in this case, student achievement in English reading (Palviainen, 2022).  The pre-test is used to establish a baseline for student achievement, and the post-test is used to compare student achievement after the two different treatments have been applied. This design is considered to be more rigorous than a simple pre-test/post-test design, as it controls for extraneous variables and allows for causality to be established (DeCarlo et al., 2020). The research questions will be answered through comparisons of the scores on the pre and post-tests. The pre-test will be given to both the experimental and control groups before they start the instructional period. The post-test will be given to both groups after the instructional period. The experimental group will use the smart reading model, while the control group will use a conventional instructional method. The experimental group will be compared to the control group to see if there is a difference in their scores on the post-test. If there is a significant difference, then it can be concluded that the smart reading model is effective in improving student achievement.

The control group is important in this study because it allows for a comparison to be made between the two groups. The learning outcomes of the two groups can be compared to see if there is a difference. The outcome will be measured using the correctness and accuracy of the responses. The entire test will last for approximately one hour. The period between pre-test and post-test is eight weeks to ensure that the students have ample time to go through the instructional materials.

3.3 Population and Sample

The population for this study will be all of the students in the selected primary school, which has a total of 300 students. The sample for this study will be 60 students, with 30 in the experimental group and 30 in the control group. The students will be selected randomly from the school population. The sampling frame for this study will be the list of all students in the school. The essence of random sampling is that each member of the population has an equal chance of being selected for the sample (Zhao, 2021). The experimental and control groups will be assigned randomly to ensure that the groups are representative of the population. Furthermore, randomization will help to control for any variables that could potentially affect the results of the study (Carpenter et al., 2018).

3.4 Instrumentation

Instrumentation is important in any study to ensure that the data collected is accurate and reliable (Clark & Watson, 2019). The instrument that will be used in this study is a pre and post-test. This test will be used to measure the knowledge of the students after they have gone through the instructional materials. The pre-test of 40-60 questions will be administered to the students before they begin the instructional period. The post-test of 40-60 questions will be administered to the students after they have completed the instructional period. The purpose of the pre and post-test is to measure the knowledge of the students before and after they have gone through the instructional materials (Hikmawati et al., 2020). The pre and post-test will be scored by the researcher and the data will be analyzed to see if there is a significant difference between the scores of the two groups.

3.4.1 Pre and Post-Test

 

The pre and post-test will be used to measure the knowledge of the students before and after they have gone through the instructional materials. The effect of the module will be determined by the difference in scores on the pre and post-test. The pre and post-test will be identical, except for the order of the questions. The pre-test will be administered to the students before they begin the instructional period. The post-test will be administered to the students after they have completed the instructional period. The purpose of the pre and post-test is to measure the knowledge of the students before and after they have gone through the instructional materials.

3.4.2. Questionnaire

A questionnaire will be used to measure the attitude of the experimental group students regarding the module. The questionnaire will consist of 10 questions that will be answered on a scale of 1 to 5, with 1 being the lowest and 5 being the highest. The questionnaire will be administered to the experimental group after they have completed the instructional period.

3.4.3 Interview Protocol

 

 

An interview protocol will be used to interview the teacher who taught the module in the experimental group. The purpose of the interview is to get the teacher’s feedback on the module and to see if the module was effective in teaching the students. The interview protocol will consist of 10 questions that will be asked to the teacher. The interview will be conducted after the students have completed the instructional period.

3.5 Pilot Study

A pilot study will be conducted to test the instruments and to ensure that the data collected is accurate and reliable (Malmqvist et al., 2019). The pilot study will be conducted with a group of students who are not part of the study. The sample size for the pilot study will be 10 students. The instruments will be administered to the students and the data will be analyzed. Odd numbers will be used to validate the instruments and the target population. The results of the pilot study will be used to make changes to the instruments if necessary. The KR20 / Cronbach Alpha will be calculated by the researcher and the data will be analyzed to see if the instruments are reliable.

3.6 Module Development

Module development will be based on the principles of andragogy which is the art and science of helping adults learn (Tolstoy & Miloslavskaya, 2019). The module will be developed keeping in mind the needs of the students and the objectives of the study. The module will be divided into four parts, each part covering one week of instruction. The module will be designed to be used in a classroom setting with a teacher and a group of students. The module will be made up of instructional materials such as videos, lectures, and readings. The module will be designed to be used in an online setting with a group of students. The instructional materials will be made available to the students through a website or a learning management system. The module will be designed to be used in a blended setting with a group of students.

3.6.1 ADDIE model

The ADDIE model (analyze, design, develop, implement, and evaluate) will be used to develop the module (Widyastuti, 2019). The first step is to analyze the needs of the students and the objectives of the study. For example, the needs of the students might be to improve their reading comprehension skills. The objectives of the study might be to see if the smart reading model is effective in teaching students how to read. The second step is to design the module. This step involves designing the instructional materials and the activities that will be used in the module. The third step is to develop the module, involving creating the instructional materials and putting them all together in a cohesive format. Here, the materials are created, and the module is put together. The fourth step is to implement the module, which involves using the module with a group of students. The fifth step is to evaluate the module, which involves assessing how effective the module was in achieving its objectives. The essence of the ADDIE model is to create a module that is effective in achieving its objectives (Sahaat et al., 2020). This model will be used to develop the smart reading module in a manner that is systematic and effective.

3.6.2 Validation of the module 

Validation is the process of ensuring that the module is fit for its purpose (Putri et al., 2020). According to Thota et al. (2020), validation is important to ensure that the module is of high quality and effective in achieving its objectives. The module will be validated by a panel of experts. The panel of experts will consist of three reading specialists. The experts will be asked to review the module and provide their feedback. The experts will be asked to rate the module on a scale of 1 to 5, with 5 being the highest. The experts will also be asked to provide their comments on the module. After the panel of experts has reviewed the module, the researcher will make the necessary changes to the module.

3.7 Data Analysis

The data will be analyzed using the SPSS software. The data will be entered into the software and the means, standard deviations, and t-tests be computed. The means of the scores on the pre-test and post-test for both the experimental and control group will be computed. The standard deviations of the scores on the pre-test and post-test for both the experimental and control group will also be computed. The t-test will be used to compare the means of the scores on the pre-test and post-test for both the experimental and control group. The t-test will be used to determine if there is a significant difference between the two groups. Kalmogorov-Smirnoff and Shapiro-Wilk tests will be used to determine the normality of the data (Mishra et al., 2019; González-Estrada & Cosmes, 2019). If the data is not normally distributed, the non-parametric test will be used. On the other hand, if the data is normally distributed, the parametric test will be used. Descriptive statistics (frequency percentage, mean and standard deviation) and inferential statistics (mainly t-test) will be used to answer the research questions.

3.8 Summary

This chapter discusses the methodology of the study. The research design, sample, and data collection instruments are described. The procedures for data collection and data analysis are also discussed. It is important to note that the study will use the ADDIE model to develop the smart reading module. This model is systematic and effective in developing modules. It is also notable that the module will be validated by a panel of experts. After the panel of experts has reviewed the module, the researcher will make the necessary changes to the module. Overall, the study will use a systematic and effective methodology to develop and validate the smart reading module. Additionally, the study will use reliable and valid data collection instruments. Furthermore, the study will use appropriate data analysis techniques.

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