Education as Empowering Mechanism among Minority in Malaysia

Education as Empowering Mechanism among Minority in Malaysia


The racial identity policies affecting Malay-Muslims, Indian and Chinese in the three dominant ethnic groups have developed in social inequalities and norms in the different social, academic and economic aspects. In response, these social systems have created a strongly polarized and ethicized Malaysian education and learning environment. Here we will analyze the aspects in which Colonial power background, Malaysian government initiatives, current multicultural dynamics and modernization, in relation to the inter- and intra-dynamics of the three main races of Malay Muslims, Chinese and Indians, are carried out throughout the Malaysian schooling and public school system. In comparison to federal policies such as the 1970 Economic Development Policy (NEP), 1990 National Development Plan (NDP), 2001 New Vision Policy (NVP), and the National Education Policy, practices of social isolation and integration within the education and schooling system. Here we also see the manners in which the various types of Malaysian schools are ethnicised. These educational institutions differ in terms of funding from the state, support for ethnic communities, assets and long term education options. These school systems are also effectively used in the political and economic composition of these ethnic groups in contemporary Malaysia by the authorities and the ethnic communities.

The financial and cultural disparity between communities in Malaysia is an outcome of both the more than 150-year-old British historical rule and contemporary ethnic diplomacy. During these British colonial times, a predominantly Malay community was converted into a multicultural society with Malays, Chinese and Indians as the three major ethnic groups. By 1957, just before Malaysia achieved freedom from Britain, 49.8% of the people were Malays, 37.2% were Chinese and 11.3% were Indians.


Each racial minority has its respective system of education. Malay schools teach and use the Malay language in existing Malay schools, while Indians use the Tamil language in existing Indian schools, and Chinese students study in formed Chinese schools, using Mandarin as their mother tongue. A less productive way of fostering inclusion and shared student – centered learning is the educational system that separates students according to their primary language and ethnic differences. This causes the engagement of students to revolve only within groups of similar cultural groups. The significance of ethnic orientation differs if individuals importance in the context of resources, socioeconomic status and social relations is relative to other trends, for example. In addition, personal and social actions about increasingly global norms have created a new move that has no clear connection with indigenous norms, thus diminishing the apprehension among the ethnic groups about the boundaries. In addition to making a difference in the allocation of jobs according to various races in the economic sector, each category or race belongs to their respective faith, culture and language. In other words, a multicultural society is a human composite in which a country’s diverse races combine, but do not join in a practical way. The World War 2 took Malaysia’s schooling system to another different extreme. Significant questions have been raised about the former education system that created racial violence in Malaya.

Ethnic borders apply to the social contact trend that can increase and perpetuate the self-identification of outsiders among the members of the group as a certification of the difference between ethnic groups. Social and spatial features are aligned with racial borders. In ethnic groups, cultural components are often correlated with social structures that indicate variations between cultural traditions and beliefs. Geographical components are related to the edge of the world and the place of origin of an ethnic group, such as the refugees at the place of origin and the rest of the population. For example, for a racial community in a community, the class of newcomers is still often considered by the majority of the country as strangers. The social space where contact takes place between ethnic groups reveals the social distinctions between these segments of the population. The ethnic variation becomes apparent when there is close agreement between immigrant communities arising from exclusion, which then contributes to prejudiced assumptions among immigrant communities. Ethno cultural boundaries show that people from the significant number ethnic groups generally make friends with those of the same racial community, whereas students from the minority generally make friends with colleagues from different ethnicities.

Ethnic boundaries often do not show an applicant’s willingness to choose mates in an analogous racial group; they can also result to those other contexts, such as prioritizing gender-like intimacy, combined with a strong similarity between socio – demographic variables in a group. The size of an indigenous limit is defined by the ethnicity of the ethnic group and the social difference between ethnicities. In order to ensure that the ethnic borders are minimized, the atmosphere of Malaysian society composed of various ethnic compositions requires a strong social exchange pattern, which can be realized in a multi-religious environment in particular. However, students in the multiethnic setting at the primary education level can pump up the ethnic barrier between them.

In my research I have found the following conclusions based on my experience and interaction among different Malay’s individuals. Ethnic borders are impaired by white identity. According to the particular characteristics of a cultural minority, racial heritage may be identified by a person as self or peer acceptance. The family has a strong impact on the production of the personality of an infant. Analysis into the different ethnic communities in the USA has shown that due to the area of one’s place of stay, ethnic identity is formed or heavily affected. The development of ethnic identity happens during one’s adolescence by socialization interactions, which are highly impacted by the ethnic group. Cultural heritage are ethnic characteristics that elongate ethnic heritage to define an ethnic group’s boundaries. Language is more linked to ethnic roles with specific attributes, while society contains both relative and absolute ethnic resources. Immigrant identification is based on the experience at an interpersonal basis that can improve as a consequence of one’s understanding and opinion of other citizen. A community of people’s cultural identity involves subjective representations or emblems from a historical context that differs from one ethnic group to another. The language is between these markers. In the context of fostering racial identity, language is a key element. The main elements of ethnic identity creation are culture and language. Ethnic identification among school pupils is split into three steps, which is the period of integration in which a student can conform to the prevailing group’s identity. This is the phase of adventure in which students seek their actual self. The student may submerge or oppose the prevailing culture during this phase. When the authenticity of an ethnic group is acknowledged, the accomplishment phase occurs. Racial awareness allows the knowledge of an individual about his own race and the majority group to result in a correlation with the stronger racial community. One of the variables impacting the ethnic boundaries is ethnic culture. The concept of culture is complex and goes beyond ethnic boundaries. Culture is considered to be a system involving beliefs, values, standards, practises, signs and concepts. One of the main variables shaping the ethnic boundaries and later the pattern of social contact is language. Language acts as an agent of social conditioning that encourages one to embrace an ethnic community’s culture. Language is a major instrument in one’s life for correspondence. One may interact with others by language to share their desires, thoughts, beliefs, perceptions, opinions, expertise, to collect data, to learn new things, to truly comprehend others and much more.


The key variables shaping the pattern of social contact are the reading survey and ethnic boundary analysis. The ethnic borders and the variables that allow ethnic boundaries to occur are explored in this article overall. Theories about the connection and contact between human beings are often clarified in which researchers use these theories as guides to perform experiments and studies on the racial boundaries between students of various ethnic groups in SK, SJKC and SJKT colleges. Racial barrier studies can also allow practitioners explore the pattern of social contact between themselves, whether it is in the way of participation in one, two or three ways. This research model aims to illustrate that ethnic divisions are related and influence the pattern of social exchange. Thin ethnic borders signify a successful pattern of social contact, thereby creating cohesion between participants of various ethnic groups. In culturally diverse colleges, scholars have learned that students prefer to see self.

Racial minorities, for example, can identify specific areas of the campus as their territories. The classrooms also magnify already ingrained prejudices and prejudice as educators isolate students into honors’, normal, and remedial classes that establish racially or culturally homogenous communities. Even if racial or cultural origins no longer control as a base for social bonding, they can begin to create people feel different and part of a culture. Cultural group involvement may also disallow social events representatives of such classes, or may restrict their prominence. This will contribute to racial and cultural tensions, which only within classroom can serve to build another feeling of belonging. When students feel isolated, the opportunity for tension grows when students experience gains from participation of racial and cultural communities, feeling like they relate to a community of trusted peers. Correspondingly, in order to concentrate on scholars, schools must make sure to avoid religious / gender conflicts.