Effect of Transformational Style of Leadership on the Success of a Project through Effective Communication a Case Study


The goal of this research is to determine the impact of transformational leadership on project success, both directly and indirectly (via good communication). There is a direct correlation between transformative leadership and project success. However, there has been a lack of investigation on how this link works. Efficacious communication may play a mediating role in the relationship between transformational leadership and project success, according to the findings of this study. Transformational leadership and project success are linked in part by good communication, according to this study. The theoretical and practical ramifications of this work are discussed in light of these findings. The empirical relationship between project success and transformative leadership will be established. However, less effort will be expended to comprehend the processes that underpin this link. This study will examine this topic and propose good communication as a possible explanation for the association between project success and transformative leadership. Data will be collected from 100 construction project managers in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, and analyzed using SPSS.


1.0 Introduction

This introduction chapter covers the research’s history, problem statement, research aims, research questions, study significance, study limits, and term definitions.

1.1 Background of the study

The ability to complete a project is known as project success. Effectiveness is linked to good time, budget, and success in this scenario. Project leadership and management skills, on the other hand, are critical to project success since the project manager has a direct impact on project accomplishment (Zaman et al., 2019). In today’s world, a project is deemed successful if it meets its deadlines, budget, and performance goals. Traditionally, project success has been defined as a project’s ability to meet all of its objectives within the budget and timeframe stated (Raziq et al., 2018). Similarly, project managers’ success is determined by their efficiency, or how well they employ limited resources to fulfill project objectives while focusing on building good connections with diverse stakeholder groups. Project leadership and managerial skills, project purpose, connection with customers and shareholders, and cost effectiveness are among the qualities that effect project performance (Podgórska & Pichlak, 2019).

In the past, projects were only judged successful if they met their time, budget, and performance goals. Nonetheless, according to (Maduka et al., 2018), there is still no agreement on what success includes and how project success should be judged. They recommend that different persons evaluate project success using various approaches and at different times. Furthermore, as time goes and circumstances change, project success indicators may shift. There is a lot of debate on the criterion used to judge success, according to (Eisenberg et al., 2019). For instance, even if a project is completed on schedule and on budget, it still is considered a failure if it fails to meet the company’s strategic goals.

Other viewpoints, on the other hand, claim that project manager has a substantial impact on the project’s success. A project-based organization fails at a substantial rate, according to (Paais & Pattiruhu, 2020), with many project failures attributed to a lack of effective leadership. In order to accomplish a project, a lack of good leadership abilities will demoralize project team members and, as a result, reduce their job efficiency. This remark is backed up by (Ghazinejad et al., 2018), who argue that a strong leader may use their abilities and knowledge to solve any issues that arise during the project. The project manager’s effective leadership style, understanding, and competency will have a direct effect on every phase of the construction cycle in this setting. Planning, implementation, able to monitor, supervision, and closure are the five key phases of a typical project. These five basic phases make up the path that leads from beginning to end (Afriyie et al., 2019). During the planning stages of a project, for example, the project manager monitors team members as well as other important stakeholders through public and private decision-making in order to accomplish agreed-upon goals and objectives.

Another factor that impacts whether a project succeeds or fails is project cooperation. (Mansaray, 2019) discovered that project manager leadership and teamwork were positively related to project success. The positive contributions of team members, which include decision-making and the execution of project tasks, aid in the achievement of the project’s aims and objectives. According to (Maqbool & Sudong, 2018), project leaders’ ability to interact with project team members and communicate the project vision and mission is a crucial element in project performance at each stage of the project’s life cycle. Members of the team cannot work effectively without the involvement of a competent leader who supervises the group, facilitates team member conflict resolution, and establishes the direction for the team to achieve the project objectives. The respect that project manager who serve as mentors earn from team members is a major motivator, as it allows them to put their demands ahead of their own. (Guinan et al., 2019).

One of the most crucial determinants of an organization’s successes and failures is its leadership. As a result, effective leadership and effective coordination between employees and management are responsible for the organization’s success (Ardi et al., 2020). The term “leadership” is a complicated concept that varies from person to person and is applied to a variety of fields. Leadership can be described as the art of persuading others to work freely toward a common objective. The way leaders interact with their staff is referred to as their leadership style. In other words, management’s capacity to execute a collaborative endeavor is contingent on leadership competency (ALKAABI et al., 2020).

According to the literature, there are various leadership theories, including both conventional and modern theories. Each theory depicts a different aspect of leadership style, and each theory explains the leader-follower relationship in a different way.  (Taylor-Ghampson, 2020) outlined the many sorts of leadership styles that are most commonly employed. Bureaucratic autocratic, democratic, dictatorial, laissez-faire, charismatic, transactional, and transformational leadership are examples of leadership styles. Leadership styles can be divided into two categories. Autocratic leadership is characterized by a bossy leader who exercises absolute control and makes all decisions. The autocratic leader wielded total power, which he still wields now (MAMUYE, 2019). Democratic leadership is characterized by a focus on human interactions and teamwork, with employees having the opportunity to participate and make decisions. Researchers have recently focused their emphasis on the link between leadership styles and work performance.

Firms must explore contemporary strategies to boost their performance in today’s environment of ever-increasing competition. In order to boost a company’s performance, it must have a number of different characteristics. Many previous research have focused on critical aspects that influence organizational success (Loh & Lau, 2018). It is crucial to have a good understanding of the factors that influence the positive enhancement of organizational performance. Prior studies demonstrate that transformative leadership and innovation have a critical influence in boosting organizational performance. While previous studies looked at the reciprocal link between the two parameters, the current study fills in the gaps by evaluating the impact of transformational leadership on performance of the organization via the lens of quality innovations (Glyptis et al., 2020).

Transformational leadership is defined as a leadership style that enable firms to affect positive changes in people and societal systems. It creates meaningful and lasting change with the goal of turning followers into leaders. Transformational leadership, according to (Park & Pierce, 2020), promotes employee achievement and self-development. In fact, transformative leadership paradigm in which managers motivate, inspire, and intellectually excite their followers to invent important and beneficial change that helps the firm boost and shape its future competitors.

The concept of transformational leadership emphasizes values, feelings, and the importance of leadership in fostering individual innovation. Individuals are important assets in the organization that transformative leaders should pay attention to, as they are one of the intangible assets that can help firms achieve long-term success (Jensen et al., 2018). Transformational leadership aims to retain a heartfelt bond with followers while also instilling unique principles. Such a leadership style has the potential to contribute to a common cause while also instilling meaning, morality, and a feeling of purpose in followers. Transformational leadership is seen as a key driver of innovative culture, which is used to produce ideas with a high potential for success (Zhang et al., 2018). This leadership style encourages employees to go above and beyond their abilities in order to achieve business objectives. Such leaders also increase intellectual inspiration by improving people’s intelligence and ingenuity, allowing them to solve problems and find answers more effectively. On the other hand, innovation is often regarded as one of the most important factors for success and survival in any firm. In a volatile business climate, Afsar et al. (2019) considered innovation to be a crucial factor of organizational performance. It results in continuous improvements that help firms survive, leads to product and process advances, and assists organizations in achieving positive results and being more effective than non-innovators. Nowadays, innovation is regarded as a recommended practice for competing because it supports continued success of businesses by stimulating growth and assisting them in maintaining their course. Firms who fail to exercise innovation, or, in other words, adapt to fast changing settings, will suffer a slew of issues and, as a result, will be forced out of the market in a complex and volatile economy (Purwanto et al., 2019). As a result, innovation is often regarded as a critical driver of efficiency, productivity, and competitiveness.

1.2 Problem Statement

Failing to finish a project at any organization or on any project is a possibility. Furthermore, if the project is not finished within the given timeframe, budgets, and targets, it is considered a failure from the perspective of project management. Failure to complete a project has a significant influence on the reputation, sales volume, and profitability of the firm (Carreiro & Oliveira, 2019). A project is regarded a failure if it fails to deliver what was promised within the agreed-upon time schedule and budget. In most cases, although, the partners determine if the project was successful and not based on their evaluation and satisfaction with the results.

According to Okundaye et al., (2019), an increasing number of project failures have a negative impact on the overall company. Any project that fails has a negative influence on the company because it results in large financial loss for shareholders, investors, financiers, stakeholders, and even employees. As a result, the company is still more prone to failure. Because of the risk of insolvency, it is even more important for the company to mitigate any potential the variables that contribute to project failure.

According to Morrison-Smith and Ruiz (2020), project success is very important for all organizations to succeed in business competition, and project manager management has been found to be positively related to project success. According to (Khosravi et al., 2020), a successful project cannot be executed without effective communication and teamwork among project team members. Failed projects caused by poor resource management leadership result in direct financial losses on operating costs. It is the project leader’s obligation to decrease the risks of project failure, according to (Sousa & Rocha, 2019). A project leader should deal with all hurdles, including excellent communication, to ensure the success of any project.

According to Khosravi et al. (2020), management and good communication are critical at all phases of the project. The project manager, as the team’s coach, should lead the team from the beginning of the project to project accomplishment, as well as deliver in accordance with all key stakeholders’ necessities. He also created the full-range leadership paradigm, which highlights three leadership styles which can be combined with communicating effectively: transactional, transformational, and laissez-faire leadership. Transformational and transactional leadership have aroused the interest of project leaders because of their relevance to projects as contrasted to laissez-faire that is thought to be rather detrimental in nature, according to Cichosz et al., 2020.


1.3 Research objectives

The following are the main objectives of the study

  1. To examine the effect of transformational leadership style on the success of a project
  2. To examine the effects of transformational leadership style on effective communication
  3. To study the effect of effective communication on the success of a project
  4. To examine the effects of the transformational leadership style on the success of a project thru effective communication



1.4 Research Questions

This study provides us with the answer of the following questions;

  1. Does the transformational leadership style affect project success and team communication?
  2. Does transformational leadership style impact project success?
  3. Does effective communication have a role to play between project success and transformational leadership?


1.5 Significance of the study

The conclusions of this study will provide new insight to researchers because there are few previous research on this subject. This study will benefit project managers in project-oriented businesses by looking into the importance of management in project management. As an outcome, project leaders will notice that most efforts will be successful if they use the right leadership style with project participants. Furthermore, project directors would recognize the need of teamwork in enhancing project success through effective leadership. Recognizing the implications of this relationship could help project-based businesses maximize goals of the project through the positive effects of communication and leadership. It will enable firms to choose appropriate leadership and run their operations effectively despite the impact of styles of leadership. More research suggestion: Because there has been so little research on this subject in Malaysia, future scholars would have plenty of opportunities.


1.6 Glossary

Perception is everything in transformational leadership (Zheng et al., 2019). It only succeeds if it can change the core of the follower’ emotions. Because they are captivating and motivating, transformational leaders grasp the role of communication. Although training courses include “transformational attributes,” whether transformational leadership is viable depends on the leader’s own effort (Trakulsunti & Antony, 2018). Transformational leadership and employee engagement in decision-making are encouraged by project managers because it has been proved to deliver the best results (Daniels et al., 2019). As a result, adopting transformational leadership is unlikely to improve project outcomes or productivity. Furthermore, as project managers become more informed, creative, and capable, they will no longer accept any leadership which is not transformational (Al Khajeh, 2018). If you’re in control of a project, you’re usually in control of a group or groups of individuals that turn to you for direction. If you have greater leadership qualities, you will be a great project manager. We’ll discuss the impact of transformational leadership on project performance through effective communication in this piece.




2.0 Introduction

This chapter entails basic concepts such as a brief reflection on the nature scientific inquiry as well as the main theoretical concept used as reference point throughout the rest of the thesis.


2.1 Literature review

Transformational leadership development is an important issue for all Malaysian organizations today. An effective leader may persuade people to follow him or her in order to achieve or exceed a common goal. To name a few, all successful leaders have characteristics and qualities such as excitement, authenticity, and a large purpose (Abdullahi & Alias, 2022). These characteristics or habits will not guarantee success, but they will make it more likely.

Some people assume that many of these leadership skills come naturally, which is true in some circumstances. We do understand, although, that leadership skills may be acquired through practice and retroactive review of each leadership situation’s effects. The most of leadership comes from experience. The rest of this article will begin with describing what a successful leader is, as well as the different forms of leadership that are required for organizations to become successful and long-lasting.


2.2 Theoretical Foundation

2.2.1 Transformational leadership

For first time in leadership studies, transformational leadership was introduced by (Zhang et al., 2018). According to (Rezvani et al., 2018), transformational leadership is a type of leadership that enables team members to take ownership of their tasks while also enhancing employee motivation, contentment, and performance. Leaders who use a transformational style of leadership promote, motivate, and urge their staff to innovate and make changes that will help the organization improve and build its successfulness (Liu et al., 2018). Transformational leadership is a form of leadership that focuses on change and improving collective and individual performance. Leaders with a conscientious disposition are more likely to be transformative, according to (Li et al., 2019). The vision is crucial to any organization’s success because it drives employees in the direction of the organization’s goals. According to (Sanyal & Hisam 2018), transformational leaders have the power to modify enterprises based on their long term vision, and by communicating that vision, they may urge others to help them realize that vision.

2.2.2 Project success

According to (Alvarenga et al., 2019), success of a project can be characterized as a relationship in which other requirements must be met first, in addition to the traditional dimensions of quality, time, and cost. For example, the customer organization’s strategic goals, end user pleasure, and accurate approvals from other stakeholders involved must all be accomplished. Successful project outcomes are determined by the extent to which the project completed tough tasks that efficiently met a certain set of objectives within the constraints of time, performance, and budget (Guzmán et al., 2020). Although the project performance criteria are typically determined during the early phases, in reality, a number of unrecognized requirements must be met first for the project within a company to be successful.

2.2.3 Transformational leadership and project success

According to (Para-González et al., 2018), transformational leadership and project success are strongly linked. (Rezvani et al., 2018) backed up the concept that project delivery was strongly linked to leaders’ transformational leadership attitudes. All four qualities of transformative leadership are substantially associated to project success, according to (Cruz et al., 2020). (Crayne & Medeiros, 2021) found that the intellectual stimulation part of transformational leadership stimulates the creation of creative knowledge, concepts, ideas, and creativity in businesses. (Skad, 2019) established a strong correlation between a leader’s style of leadership and the creativity and innovation of his or her subordinates. (Phong et al., 2018) investigated the transformational leadership styles of employees and management team and found no significant differences in their leadership styles.

2.2.4 Communication

According to (Brown et al., 2019), Communication is a collaborative activity that involves everyone at all levels. According to (Elrehail et al., 2018), the word communication is derived from the Latin verb communicare, meaning to share. (Oreg & Berson, 2019) described communication as a metaphorical medium via which one people can communicate with another. The first step in designing a communications plan, according to (Shafi et al., 2020), is understanding what type of information each stakeholders needs, and then choosing the most effective way to communicate based on these requirements.

2.2.5 Effective communication and transformational leadership

Malik et al., (2021) looked into the various communication attributes linked with transformational leaders and found that transformative leaders who communicate with their teammates one on one are more effective at communicating the company objectives and empowering their employees to perform better within their organization. Face-to-face engagement is more expensive than other communication behaviors, according to (Sony & Naik, 2020), since it needs a significant amount of time from the leader. In large corporations, connecting with every employee is difficult. Communication is absolutely a solitary activity with genuine implications for the effectiveness of transformational leaders’ actions, according to (Podgórska & Pichlak, 2019). Leaders’ success is determined by how successfully they use communication abilities, according to (Alrowwad & Abualoush, 2020).

A manager should be able to effectively communicate, address issues, and manage a population, which is made up of all items or events of a particular sort on which researchers seek information and knowledge. A population might be vast (for example, adult males in the USA) or narrow (for example, blogposts in the first 24hrs after a major event) (Maduka et al., 2018). Even when a population comprises of a limited number of sets of objects, collecting data on each individual is sometimes impractical or impossible. Instead, researcher chooses a manageable part of the population, known as a sample, for study (Eisenberg et al., 2019). Researchers make inferences about population from which the sample is drawn based on their findings about the sampling. Effective reading, writing, and listening.

Effective communication needs more than just transferring information. It’s all about figuring out what emotions and motivations lie beneath the data. You must be able to communicate clearly a message and listen in a way that you understand the complete meaning of what’s being said and that the other person understands and feels heard. It appears that effective communication is an inherent instinct. However, when we communicate with people, something typically goes wrong. We say a thing, but the other person interprets it another, resulting in miscommunication, dissatisfaction, and conflict. This can cause problems in your school, home, and job connections (Paais & Pattiruhu, 2020).

To communicate more clearly and effectively, all of us will have to acquire a few key skills. Whether you want to improve communication with your partners, children, management, or coworkers, understanding these communication skills will help you build stronger relationships, get more respect and trust, improve teamwork, solve problems, and improve your overall emotional and social health (Ghazinejad et al., 2018). You can improve your communication efficacy by thinking about your audiences, practicing listening skills, refining your message, and selecting the appropriate medium or environment.


2.3 Hypothesis Development

Since it is informed by what you have already known about a topic, a hypothesis is often referred to as an educated guess (Afriyie et al., 2019). This phase in the process is identifying all hypotheses that deserve further investigation, bearing in mind that hypothesis production and hypothesis evaluation are two different things. It’s unlikely to acquire the right answer if the analysis doesn’t start with the right hypothesis. Psychological studies into how people generate hypotheses reveals that they are actually quite bad at considering all of the options. As a result, it’s a good idea to gather a group of analysts from various backgrounds and viewpoints for a brainstorming session during the hypothesis generation stage. Brainstorming in a team sparks creativity and often uncovers options that individual teammates had not considered (Mansaray, 2019). Prior to determining likelihood or practicality, experience reveals that early group discussion evokes every possibilities, no matter how remote. Only when all of the alternatives have been considered is the focus shifted to evaluating them and picking the hypotheses to be investigated further in subsequent analyses.

It’s important to distinguish between hypotheses which appear to be rejected and those that are just unproven while screening out the supposedly improbable theories (Maqbool & Sudong, 2018). There is no indication that an unproven hypothesis is correct. There is positive proof that a refuted hypothesis is incorrect. Early rejecting of unproven but not rejected hypotheses distorts the analysis since the research that might verify them is not sought. Hypotheses that haven’t been proven should be retained until they are disproved. The notion that an opponent is attempting to deceive us is an example of a hypothesis that frequently falls into this unverified but not disproved category (Guinan et al., 2019). You may dismiss the possibilities of rejection and deception because there is no evidence, but in these circumstances, rejection is not acceptable. If deception is well-planned and executed, there should be little proof of it readily available. The option should not be dismissed until it is disproved, or at the very least, until no evidence has been uncovered following a thorough search.

There is no “ideal” number of hypothesis to think about (Ardi et al., 2020). The number is determined by the complexity of the scientific problem and your level of analysis. The greater the level of uncertainties, or the larger the consequence of your decision, the more possibilities you should explore. And over seven hypotheses could be overwhelming; if you have this many options, you might want to combine them together for your first go at the analysis.


2.3.1 Effective communication, project success and transformational leadership

Transformational leadership has an influence on project performance as well as effective communication, according to the literature review. As a result, we may hypothesize that effective communication is a link between transformative leadership and project management success. Self-leadership and nursing performance are strongly linked. According to (Loh & Lau, 2018), there is a strong link between leadership and management professional skills and project success. According to (Glyptis et al., 2020), a manager’s communication talents are critical to project success; as a result, organizations should pay attention to project leader qualities and help them improve their communication skills. According to (Park & Pierce, 2020), there is still a significant correlation between project managers’ leadership talents and the success of their projects.

A construction manager can be more efficient in talking with their project team members by observing some relatively straightforward to recall issues and concerns connected to communication. Effective communication will usually result in better outcomes and, as a result, a greater chance of success of the project (Jensen et al., 2018). While many contributing factors to project communicating failures, it is ultimately the project manager’s responsibility to ensure effective project communication. A lot of variables contribute to communication disruptions. However, project managers can take a few simple steps to lessen the likelihood of miscommunication. Successful projects are frequently built on effective communication. Effective communication may bring team members and stakeholders together to agree on a project’s plan, goals, and budget. It can also help those involved with the project understand their responsibilities, making them more likely to support it (Zhang et al., 2018). In construction projects, effective communication starts with a project plan.

Organizations who adopt a project communication plan and increase project communication can benefit from more successful projects that is especially crucial in todays complicated and competitive global business world. Purwanto et al. (2019) found that better project communication plan raises the chances of meeting goals. Your success as a project manager is contingent on successful projects. Each project should have a solid project communication plan in place. Make sure to show that you understand project deliverables, their impact on the business, and the level of quality reached for each one (Carreiro & Oliveira, 2019). Tailor your communication to every audience so that they remain involved, confident, and supportive in the project’s success.

Organizations who implement an effective project plan and improve project communication can reap the benefits of more successful projects, which is especially important in todays competitive and complex global business world. Purwanto et al. (2019) found that better project communication plan raises the chances of meeting goals. Project success is key to succeeding as a project manager. A good project communication plan should be in place for each project. Make sure to show that you understand project deliverables, their impact on the business, and the level of quality reached for each one (Carreiro & Oliveira, 2019). Tailor your communication to every audience so that they remain involved, confident, and supportive in the project’s success.

They continuously gather information from all aspects of project management and transmit it as needed to people who require it for their jobs. As a result, they should have the necessary communication skills and tools to effectively communicate knowledge. Ineffective communication, according to (Khosravi et al., 2020), can risk project management safety and project quality. As a result, project managers must have excellent communication skills, including the ability to communicate honestly, listen to employees, passing on pertinent information, include project staff in decision-making, and handle problems as they arise. Based on the foregoing, we contend that project management team job satisfaction is influenced by both communication and leadership.

2.4 Review of Prior Empirical Studies

Performance can be measured in several ways. It can also be described as the ability to successfully blend relevant actions to meet corporate objectives. The ability of project managers to integrate relevant inputs for the improvement of project management processes could be described as project work performance. Employee productivity, according to (Sousa & Rocha, 2019), is ascertained by the worker’s level of engagement in the organization’s daily operations. Employees act in a variety of ways depending on the situation. Despite the various key terms used by professionals to describe styles of leadership, (Khosravi et al., 2020) claims that the styles in use by men in leadership roles can be divided into three categories: autocratic, democratic, and mixed. Studies have also explored three different leadership styles. The democratic leadership style underlines team and leader involvement in policymaking. Organizational decisions are made after extensive proper consultation with various members of the organization.

The leader makes every effort to make each person feel like an important person in the organization. While opinions are transferred between staff members and the leader, communication is multidirectional. A high level of employee morale has always been enhanced under this leadership style. Because it encourages each employees to participate in the decision-making process. Nonetheless, the leader has final authority and makes the final decision. The democratic style serves to strengthen the leader’s position as a respected leader (Zheng et al., 2019). Leaders are not anticipated to be full-time parents, and that is why they hire informed and capable staff. This leader views his employees as part of a partnership and motivates them to participate in decisions that affect them. Such leaders achieve success through collaboration. The job performance of subordinates is usually excellent because employees feel involved in or part of decision-making and work with zeal (Trakulsunti & Antony, 2018). Several studies have found that a people-oriented (democratic) approach is more effective than an autocratic approach.


2.5 Conceptual Framework

The anticipated link between communicating effectively, transformational leadership, and success of a project is depicted in the conceptual framework. The impact of transformative leadership, effective communication, and project success are all highlighted in this conceptual framework. Effective communication clearly serves as a link between transformative leadership and project success. The study’s theoretical premise is to analyze the effect of transformational style of leadership on the success of a project through effective communication. Transformational leadership and effective commenuication are independent variables, while organizational success is a dependent variable. The relationship between transformational leadership and effective communication are direct outcome of effectiv styles was created to be favorable and beneficial to the project manager.




Theoretical framework of the study


2.6 Research Hypothesis

This study draws the following hypothesis to test –

H1       There is relationship between effective communication and transformational leadership.

H2       There is relationship between project success and effective communication.

H3       There is indirect impact of transformational leadership on project success.

H4       Transformational leadership have an indirect impact on project success through effective communication.





3.1 Introduction

This chapter examines a variety of tactics and procedures for responding to research questions, as well as providing detailed information on the structure of research methodologies and the motivations for using them.

3.2 Research design

This study will employ a quantitative research design. This is a research article that is descriptive and analytical. Employees in Malaysia’s construction industry were polled. This study’s items were modified from previously published research. Elements from (Daniels et al., 2019) research were used to assess transformational leadership. The effectiveness of communication was assessed using items drawn from (Rezvani et al., 2018) and approved by (Rezvani et al., 2018). (Sanyal & Hisam 2018). Items drawn from (Para-González et al., 2018) were used to assess project success. A well-planned research design ensures that the methods used match the research objectives, that high-quality data is acquired, and that the correct kind of analysis is used to answer the questions using reputable sources. This enables valid and reliable conclusions to be drawn.

3.3 Study Population and Sampling Procedures

The study’s target population is Malaysian construction company’s project managers. Project leaders in the construction industry in Kuala Lumpur provided data. Data was collected via questionnaires based on surveys. A questionnaire was distributed to 100 project managers using the convenience technique. This study used the convenience sampling approach, which is a sort of non-probability sampling (Crayne & Medeiros, 2021). Because of time and cost restrictions, the convenience sampling strategy was utilized to collect data. Oreg & Berson, (2019) indicates that in research, sampling is incredibly beneficial. It’s the most crucial aspects of determining the accuracy of the research findings. If there is a discrepancy with your sample, the final result will reflect this.

A population is comprised of all things and events that belong to a specific category on which researchers seek to learn more. The breadth of a population can be large or small (Shafi et al., 2020). If a population comprises of a limited number of sets of things, obtaining data on each individual can be difficult or impossible. Instead, researchers choose a manageable sample of the population to investigate. Reflecting on the observation of sample, researchers develop inferences about population in which the sampling frame was taken.


3.4 Data Collection Method

The information on variables was acquired through the use of personal questionnaires that were delivered via email. Questionnaires distributed through the internet could be handled swiftly, shared easily, and respondents can answer them at their own pace. As a result, one of data collection strategies was an online questionnaire. The first page of the questionnaire’s covering letter served to inform survey respondents about the study’s purpose. The purpose of the study was to urge project manager to respond to the questionnaires on a voluntary basis while also ensuring them that the information obtained would be kept confidential. Data collection is a systematic process of acquiring observations or measurements. Whether you’re carrying out a study for academics or an organization, data collection helps you gain first-hand data and new insight into the subject issue (2020, Sony & Naik).

3.5 Operationalization and Measurement

The units of measurement for this study were project leaders who led a team on a building project in Kuala Lumpur. In addition, project management professionals were consulted for information on the project leader. The process of operationalization entails defining exactly how a concept would be measured. The variable, the measurement, and how you plan to analyze the measure must all be included in operational definitions (Para-González et al., 2018). Multi-dimensional concepts are measured using indexes, scales, and typologies. In the end, the researcher’s interpretation of what their subjects say will determine the concepts in a qualitative study. Unlike quantitative research, which requires specific definitions in advance, qualitative research enables for idea definitions to arise during data analysis.


3.5.1 Independent variables

Ten items were used to create transformational leadership scales. In addition, five elements were used to assess transformational leadership in terms of individualized considerations, inspiring motivation, idealized impact, and intellectual stimulation. The effectiveness of communication was assessed using a six-item scale. An independent variable in an experimental study is a variable that you change, manipulate, or control to measure what effect it has. It’s called independent since it is unaffected by the other variables in the study (Rezvani et al., 2018). Independent variables can include the following: Variables that help to explain an event or result.

3.5.2 Dependent variable

The scale of seven items borrowed from the project success scale (Elrehail et al., 2018). In experiments, a dependent variable is simply what changes when the independent variable is altered. It’s the item you’re concerned with and it relies on your independent variable. On the other hand, variables that changes due to other variable are the dependent variables.

3.6 Data Analysis Techniques

A descriptive research aims to accurately and systematically characterize a population, circumstance, or phenomena. It can only answer where, when, what, and how inquiries, but not why. A descriptive study might use a variety of research approaches to investigate one or more variables (Shafi et al., 2020). Unlike in empirical research, the variables are seen and measured rather than influenced or changed by the researcher.

3.6.1 Descriptive Analysis Techniques

The descriptive and statistical analysis of this research was done with SPSS. Other quantitative techniques are thought to be less detailed than descriptive analysis, giving a more comprehensive overview or phenomenon (Morrison-Smith & Ruiz, 2020). Any set of variables, or a single variable, can be used in descriptive research.

3.6.2 Inferential Analysis Techniques

The data analysis technique used starts with data collection, screening, and statistical analysis to analyze the respondents’ demographic attributes, reliability and correlation measurements, and lastly regression analysis. Inferential statistics is most commonly used to create estimates about a large population, as well as to evaluate and analyze the data using hypothesis testing procedures (Trakulsunti & Antony, 2018). Inferential statistics uses sample data as it is time-consuming and more cost effective than collecting data from the entire population.

3.7 Summary

The goal of this chapter was to look at a variety of strategies and techniques for responding to survey questions. It is evident from the description above that the study will employ a quantitative research design. The questionnaires will be used to collect data, which will then be evaluated using the SPSS System software. Transformational leadership affects both participants and social conditions. In its ideal form, it encourages valuable and positive development in followers, with the ultimate purpose of transforming followers into managers. Transformational leadership, in its simplest form, utilizes a number of strategies to improve follower’ performance, morale, and motivation. Connecting an employee’s self-worth to the corporate goals and common culture; empowering followers by leading by example; challenging followers to fully participate in projects; and understanding the weaknesses and strengths of employees so that the manager may assign assignments that enhance their performance are just a few examples to list.



Result and Discussion

4.1 Demographics

In analysis demographics, ethnicity, age, race, employment situation, income, family status, and other demographic data help to better understand an interviewer’s background factors (Taylor-Ghampson, 2020). By asking demographic profile of the respondents in questionnaires, you may collect demographic data on current and potential clients at scale, which can help you develop a market segmentation strategy to reach the relevant clients.

Demographics for this study was gathered from 100 project managers from different Malaysian companies. There were 100 responses, 85 percent of them were men and 15% of whom were women. The majority of respondents (58%) had a master’s degree, while 34% had a bachelor’s degree, 4% had a PhD, and the remaining 4% had professional degrees (the Project Management experts). 71 percent of respondents had less than 10 years of experience, while 29 percent more than ten years. The project managers worked for a variety of Malaysian companies. The participants in this study worked for both governmental and commercial enterprises.

Table 3: Demographic

Variables Details Frequency Percentage
Gender Male 90 85%
  Female 10 15%
Education Level Bachelors 45 34%
  Masters 75 58%
  PhD 5 4%
  Other 5 4%
Experience Less than ten years 93 71%
  Ten years or more 37 29%


Figure 1: Gender disparity

Figure 2: Level of education


4.2 Reliability

To asses reliability or consistency of test scores is measured by reliability. You can also consider of this as the ability to replicate tests or research results. Cronbach’s alpha values were utilized to determine the instrument’s internal consistency over time. Lower Cronbach’s alpha values indicate a lack of link (inter-relation) between items or a small number of items shown to survey respondents, but removing items having low Cronbach alpha values may improve the results. Cronbach alpha values are high when there is a lot of inter-relationship between elements. The item Cronbach alpha value should be more than 0.7, according to Al Khajeh (2018). The Cronbach alpha variables with Cronbach alpha values larger than 0.7 are shown in the table below. As a result, we can conclude that the tools utilized are reliable or trustworthy.

Table: Reliability Statistic

TFL                                                                                            .766         10
PS                                                                                              .819          8
EC                                                                                              .768          6


A large alpha value may mean that test items are closely linked. However, the quantity of test items has an impact. A large number of items leads to larger α, whereas less number of items leads to smaller α. If alpha is large, it’s possible that the questions are redundant (that is, they’re asking similar question). A small alpha number will imply that there aren’t enough questions on the testing. Include more relevant elements in the test to increase alpha. Poor correlations among test items might also result in low values, as can testing more than one underlying construct. The causes of lower and higher alpha scores are frequently misunderstood. As a reason, tests may be improperly dismissed or branded as untrustworthy. According to Abdullahi & Alias (2022), learning more about consistency reliability and validities will help you use Cronbach’s alpha correctly. Reliability should be examined throughout the process of data collection. When using a tool or a process to collect data, it’s vital that the results are precise, consistent, and reliable.


4.4 Normality Test

The mean values in table 4 represent the average of the each distribution. The standard deviation (a measurement of distribution) describes the distribution of data across the mean. Kurtosis readings indicate how flat something is. The data was further checked for normalcy using skewness and kurtosis. Skewness is used to determine if data is symmetrical or asymmetrical, according to (McIntosh, 2021). According to (Choudhary & Khan, 2021), a variables are considered normal if the skewness values are within ranges of -2 and +2. Kurtosis is a measure of how much data clusters in the tails of a dispersion (Ghasemy et al., 2022). According to (Nnaemeka, 2018), distribution is regarded normal when kurtosis values are within interval of -2 and +2. As a result, all skewness and kurtosis values are within acceptable limits. As a result, the data I used here is normal.

Table 4: Descriptive Statistics




Minimum Maximum Mean SD       Skewness       Kurtosis
Statistic Statistic Statistic Statistic Statistic           Std. Error Statistic Std. Error
TFL 2.60 5.00 4.2600 .44454 -.381    .212 .473        .422
PS 1.88 5.00 4.2096 .56488 -.739    .212 1.05        .422
EC 2.17 5.00 4.0603 .65527 -.797    .212 .534        .422


The normality test is a crucial step in determining the mean and standard deviation and statistical models for analysis of data for continuous variables. When the data has a normal distributions, normality test are employed to compare the groupings; else, non – parametric approaches are used. There are several methods for determining the normalcy of data, which includes numeric and visual approaches, each with its own set of benefits and drawbacks.

4.5 Homoscedasticity Test


Data normalcy is also checked using homoscedasticity (Cook, 2020). Because homoscedasticity demonstrates a consistent link across IVs, data has to be homoscedastic. The scatter plot below illustrate a consistent relationship between independent variables and project management success as the dependent variable and efficient leadership.


 Figure 3: Scatter plot


Figure 4: Regression predicted value

One of the assumptions in regression analysis modeling is homoscedasticity, and data with this type performs well to the least squares. The linear regression model may be inaccurately specified if the variation of the errors along the regression line fluctuates greatly. Heterogeneous is the polar opposite of homoscedasticity, just as homogeneous is the polar opposite of homogeneous.  The variance of error term in a regression model is not consistent that is known as heteroscedasticity. To enhance the linear regression, the study had to experiment with different explanatory factors to see if they might produce a better match to the data. If some participants, for instance, knew the answers in advance, the linear regression model will have to include two multiple regression: time spent studying and whether the participant knew the answers beforehand. More variance in test results would be explained with these two parameters, and the variance of error might be homoscedastic, implying that model was well-defined.


4.6 Multicollinearity Test

When there are several regressions, correlations is examined. Since there is one independent variable in the study, we performed a multicollinearity test. So I used Pearson correlation to check for collinearity. Multicollinearity exists among independent variables if a value of correlation is more than 0.8, according to (GEBRETSADIK, 2020). In linear regression, multicollinearity makes it hard to understand the impact of the each independent variable (Lufungula & Borromeo, 2019).

All of the correlation values in Table 5 are less than 0.8. As a result, there is no concern with collinearity. If independent variables in a linear regression are correlated, this is known as multicollinearity. Because independent variables must be independent, this association is problematic. When fitting this model and understanding the results, a higher level of correlation between the variables can pose issues. You can modify the value from one independent variable but not the others, according to the concept. Correlation between two independent variables means that change in one are related to changes in the other. When the correlation between two parameters is high, it’s much more difficult to change one without changing the other. Because the independent variables generally move in lockstep, the model finds it difficult to assess the correlation amongst each independent variable and the dependent variables independently.

4.7 Correlation

The correlation values among variables are reported in the table below. The purpose of correlation was to determine the size and degree of association between two variables. Correlation is an important and necessary measure for examining the relation between at least two variables, and it is represented by a number called the coefficient of correlation (Matahela & Van, 2021). The ranges of coefficient of correlation is -1 to +1, according to (Lee & Abdullah, 2022). According to (Prateeppornnarong, 2021), a correlation coefficient close to +1 indicates a strong linear correlation among two parameters (the variables move in similar direction). When the coefficient of correlation (r) value is close to zero, the relationship is weak, and when the coefficient of correlation (r) value is close to -1, there is a significant negative linear association (the variables move in the opposite way).

The variables of this study had a moderate correlation. The relationship between the dependent and independent variables is moderate and substantial. All of the correlations were determined to be statistically relevant (p0.01) and to be moving in the right direction. There was a significant relationship between project success and transformational leadership (r=0.518, p.01), project success and effective communication (r=0.566, p.01), and effective communication and transformational leadership (r=.538, p.0.01).

Table 5: Correlation, Mean, SD

Variables Mean SD TFL PS EC
TFL 4.2600 .44454 1
PS 4.2096 .56488 .447** 1
EC 4.0603 .65527 .542** .556** 1

**. Correlation is Significant at the 0.01 level (2 tailed).

We can both measure and anticipate this link. For instance, if we understand how much we intend to spend on project planning, we may utilize correlation to properly estimate how many clients will join the project. This is due to the fact which we can use a particular number to quantify the connection within defined bounds.

4.8 Hypothesis Testing


Regression analysis method is used to assess whether there is a positive or negative relationship between two elements, as well as to estimate the value of a dependent variable using the independent variables values (Abdulrasheed & Aminu, 2021). We utilized basic linear regression model to test H1, H2, and H3. Linear model has assumption; if all of the regression assumptions are met, data is subjected to regression analysis. Homogeneity test, normality test, multicollinearity test, and homoscedasticity are all regression assumptions. I tested the data for homoscedasticity, normality test, and multicollinearity in the case study. There was no normalcy and a collinearity problem was discovered. As a result, I performed regression analysis on the data.

Simple and multiple linear regression are types of regression analysis models. When only one independent variable is utilized to estimate a dependent variable, it is called liner regression model; when many independent variables are used in estimating a dependent variable, it is called multiple regression model (Khalikov et al., 2021). The results are also shown in the table.

Table 6: Hypothesis

HYP IV DV R2 B T F Sig Alt. Hyp
H1 TFL EC .294 .542 7.295 53.220 .000 Accepted
H2 EC PS .310 .556 7.575 57.387 .000 Accepted
H3 TFL PS .200 .447 5.565 31.949 .000 Accepted



In order to examine the impact of transformational leadership on communicating effectively, regression analysis test has been performed. Beta value (B) is 0.542 that suggests that unit change in TFL creates 0.542 changes in EC. Hence, it reveals that TFL positively influence EC. Sig value 0.000 which suggests that association is important and strong. Similarly, R – squared value .294 that is substantial and reveals 29.4 percent variation under this model. F value indicates that fitness of model, in this example F value is 53.220 that is good. Value of t is larger than 1.96. That is also significant. So, H1 is approved.


The linear regression test was performed to determine the impact of effective communications on project success. The beta value (B) is 0.556, which suggests that a change in EC induces a change in PS of 0.556 units. As a result, EC has a favorable impact on PS. Sig value 0.000 indicates a considerable and strong association. In this model, the R square value is.310, which is noteworthy and shows a 31 percent variation. The F value indicates the model’s fitness; in this case, the F value is 57.387 that is good. The value of t also is important. As a result, H2 is acceptable.



The linear regression test was performed to determine the relationship between transformational leadership and project success. The beta value (B) is 0.447, which suggests that a change in TFL produces a change in PS of 0.447. As a result, TFL has a beneficial effect on PS. The association between transformative leadership and project management success is considerable and robust, with a Sig value of 0.000. Similarly, the R square value of.200 is noteworthy and demonstrates a 20 percent variation in this case. The F value indicates the model’s fitness; in this case, the F value is 31.949 that is good. The t value of 5.565 is also notable. As a result, H3 gets accepted.

Table 7: Mediation Analysis (H4)

TL       EC       PS

  Effect SE T p LLCI ULCI
Total Effect .568 .101 5.65 .000 .3691 .7667
Direct Effect .262 .109 2.399 .018 .0458 .4774
Indirect Effect .306 .089 .1386 .4789
  Effect SE Z p
Normal theory test for indirect effect .306 .0729 4.2 .000

The Model 4 process was used to investigate the relationship between transformative leadership and project management success. The results are displayed in the table; the direct impact value is 0.266, and the indirect impact value is 0.306, increasing the total effect. TFL’s total effect on PS is 0.572 as a result of good communication mediating, that is higher than individual influence. All of the effects are favorable and significant (indirect, direct, and overall). The Sobel test was also performed to confirm the moderating role of good communication, and it confirmed the role of communicating effectively as expected because the value of z is 4.09, which is more than 2, and the p-value (p=0.000) also is less than 0.05. As a result, H4 is accepted.

The approach of drawing inferences on a population dependent on data gathered from a sample to the population is referred as statistical inference. Hypothesis testing is the process for determining how effectively observed findings in a population sample may be extended to the whole population from which the sample was obtained, and it serves as the foundation for making population-related decisions. The researcher formulates a hypothesis, reviews data from a representative sample, and determines if the findings support the idea.

4.9 Summary of Results

Table 8: Results Summary

Hypothesis No. Statement Result
H1 There is relationship between effective communication and transformational leadership. Accepted
H2 There is relationship between project success and effective communication. Accepted
H3 There is indirect impact of transformational leadership on project success. Accepted
H4 Transformational leadership have an indirect impact on project success through effective communication. Accepted


4.10 Discussion

The goal of this study was to look into the impact of transformational leadership and project success by using role effective communication as a medium. To investigate this link, we gathered information from 130 Malaysian project managers. The first three hypotheses were tested using simple linear regression (H1, H2, and H3). I looked at the direct connection here. The findings revealed that the project manager’s transformational leadership and project management success are linked. (Morelock & Narita, 2021) found similar results, stating that all four aspects of transformative leadership are significantly associated to project performance. As a result, the style of leadership of the project leader is crucial to the successful project. Furthermore, project managers that lead with a transformative mindset can motivate and encourage their teams. Group members’ critical and innovative thinking are also encouraged by transformative leadership.

Moreover, we discovered that efficient communication is positively connected to project management success (B=0.552), implying that it is a great indicator of project success. Our findings are consistent with those of other studies (Cha & Yap, 2020). In addition, (Lee, 2021) found a connection between project management success and effective communication. Similarly, (Schiavo-Campo, 2018) discovered that communication is substantially linked to project success. Project leaders can keep their key stakeholders informed about the project by using efficient communication (externally and internally communication). Project failure can be avoided via effective communication between team members and key stakeholders. A substantial and favorable association between transformative leadership and effective communicating was also found (B=0.538). This finding backs up the claims made by (Mestewat, 2020) Communication studies is one of the studies which cannot be separated from studies of organizational leadership. Further indicated, the topic of communication is frequently related with leadership, and (Howieson, 2019) noted that leadership is entirely founded on communications.

Most significantly, the research demonstrated that good communication is a mediator between transformative leadership and project management success. This is the only study that I’m aware of that looks at effective communication as a mediation between transformative leadership and project management success. As a result, the study has contributed and attempted to answer the question of how transformational leadership contributes to project success. Many scholars have stated that understanding the underlying process by which the transformational leadership promotes project performance is important. (Taylor, 2020) argued that the hidden processes via which TFL has its influence on project success have not been well addressed in field of project management. As a result of our results, transformative project managers are able to effectively communicate effectively to their subordinate in a project setting, which leads to project success.

In any formal situation, such as meetings, teams, and organizations, communications has always been critical. If there is a poor communication, there is a risk of misunderstanding between teammates or associates (Powell, 2020). It could result in a business failure. As a result of the report’s findings, it’s now known that project managers who implement transformational leadership are successful communicators. Transformative leaders provide timely and accurate information to their followers and keep them informed about new projects and initiatives. It gives group members confidence, and makes them approach the project manager without fear to address any issues they may have (Pettinger, 2019). The importance of two-way communication is critical to success. Effective communication refers to the process of sharing thoughts, ideas, and information in such a way that the goal is met, and group members properly comprehend the project’s mission and objective. It contributes to project success in the end.

The direct effect’s beta value is (0.266), and this is positively significant, while the indirect effect’s beta value is (0.306), which also is significant and positive. As a result, we may conclude that good communication plays a role in bridging the gap between transformative leadership and project management success. Other variables also influence the transformative and project success link, according to partial mediation. This relationship requires further examination (Lusted, 2019). More study into the components that influence this link is being done, and the underlying cause is becoming easier to understand. Organizations supply essential training to the project leaders once they thoroughly comprehend this relationship.


Conclusion and Recommendations

5.1 Conclusion

Project-based businesses are always interested in learning about the aspects that drive success of the project. The study demonstrated that, in the context of construction projects, project leaders with transformational leadership styles improved project success both in direct and indirect ways. As a result, the hypothesis that both effective communication and transformational leadership are major determinants of project success was supported by this study. Furthermore, we established that excellent communication is critical to project performance and bridged the gap linking transformational leadership style and project management success.

As a result, project-oriented corporations must encourage project leaders to use transformational leadership styles. Leadership training programs can help organizations build transformational leadership among project leaders. Managers that lead with a transformational leadership style effectively communicate their views, ideas, knowledge, and organizational vision to the group members (Ben-Nun, 2019). As a result, businesses must encourage project leaders to adopt a transformational leadership style so as to ensure project or other venture success.

Leadership is characterized as improving humans and technologies, raising performance standards, ensuring a sufficient volume of deliveries, and instilling pride in human effort. Leaders must be persuasive, possess a sense of empowerment, be persistent, and participate in consistent personnel management. Project managers must be able to apply a variety of approaches while drawing on sociopolitical and interpersonal abilities (communicating, bargaining, team collaboration, and generating ownership) in order to be effective (Frankenberg, 2019). To be very effective, leaders must be imaginative, show respect toward others, be kind, responsive, and go above and beyond their capabilities.

Integrity, incredible persistence, confidence, hard effort, responsiveness, a high level of energy, and humility are all qualities that project leaders should possess (Serrano & Eckhardt, 2022). The many leadership qualities that are necessary within the construction environment, as shown in the findings, suggest that the more than half of the replies were favorable. The goal of this study was to find out what styles of leadership are needed within a project team in order to achieve project success. According to the findings, the customer support projects team demonstrates all of the aforementioned leadership styles with a high rating of above 50%. These are the basic factors that must be present in order to attract project clients.

Despite the fact that the project manager may be understaffed, participants said that 52 percent of projects were completed successfully, indicating that despite a shortage of resources, the project team has adequate resources and skills. A cross the various variables, it is clear that the position in within organization vs the orientation to push change, as well as possessing amazing tenacity, have a vitally significant value. The importance of leadership styles in an organization’s road to success has been discovered. The literature review stressed the impact of leadership styles in a learning organization and suggested critical characteristics for effective management.

5.2 Theoretical Implications

The research adds to the project management literature by combining leadership theories and an effective communication approach. The findings of the research suggest that good communication plays a role in the relationship between transformative leadership and project management success. It enables us to see how project success and transformational leadership are both important determinants of project success.

The study findings revealed a substantial link between project managers’ transformational leadership style, project success, and effective communication. According to the findings, transformational leadership is substantially associated with project success. This research looked into how a project manager’s transformative leadership style might help a project succeed. Additionally, good communication served as a bridge between transformative leadership and project management success. Good communication somewhat mediated in our model. It implies that in the correlation between transformative leadership and project management success, there are still many elements at play. As a result, future researchers are recommended to investigate these pathways. Theoretically, this research found a connection between DV, mediator variable, and the IV.

Leadership is critical in both small businesses and all industrial operations. Management and leadership are two very distinct business model (Thomas, 2021). Providing a clear vision, expressing that vision to others, and resolving disputes between various employees accountable for carrying out the organization’s vision are all frequent definitions of leadership (Rodiyah et al., 2020). Management is the process of organizing and coordinating a company’s diverse economic resources. Leadership could have a substantial impact on the overall performance of an organization and the performance of individual projects.

The assumption that project managers have an impact on project performance and satisfaction is so widespread that little evidence and opinion exists on the subject. Over decades ago, (Rahmatullah et al., 2021) undertook in-depth interviews with contracting firm leaders and found that businesses needed more leadership than before to survive and thrive. Leadership has a significant impact on several industrial ventures. The decision to alter leadership is hit or miss in some circumstances, but in the high-opportunity cases, efficient leadership can improve the project team’s performance. In order to make a substantial effect, how these improvements are perceived is also essential (Kabir, 2020). In some businesses, it’s not just about whoever the new manager is or how well-known they are, but also about their background. In industries like computer technology and aircraft, it’s important for the new leader to have a track record of success (Xaba, 2020). Because practically all the CEOs in such companies are from industry, their understanding of it is critical.

Teams and organizations are both complex social structures with decorative human interactions. Simply put, the need to comprehend events may be traced back to the leader’s location or name. The employees and management regard their achievements as remarkable. The opinion of the preceding leader is used to gauge future successions. Most organizations and projects’ results are attributed to great leaders if we embrace the logic of theory of attribution in a favorable light (Goel & Nelson, 2022). As a result of the preceding debates, it is found that managers play a critical role in the effective completion of a firm’s projects. We can form the following research hypotheses: H1: Project leadership and success are significantly and positively related.

5.3 Practical Implications

The study’s primary findings, which looked at the indirect and direct impacts of transformative leadership on the success of a project, had clear practical consequences for project leaders. Managers that use a transformational leadership have a significant impact on project success. Therefore, project-based businesses should encourage project managers to adopt a transformational style. Furthermore, firms that encourage project managers to use transformational leadership styles communicate successfully (Diwan, 2019). They are excellent at communicating the organization’s vision to its followers.

Effective communication appears to be a substantial determinant of project success, according to this study. Our findings are congruent with those of other researchers (Khalikov et al., 2021). As a result, firms that encourage project managers to use transformational leadership styles are also successful communicators. Project-based enterprises can increase their performance by offering project managers with transformational leadership training. Projects are the foundation of the development and construction sectors. Adopting and encouraging transformational leadership style among construction and building company leaders will assist managers in meeting goals of the project (Rogelberg, 2018). Finally, this research encourages practitioners to promote transformational leadership and provide training to project leaders in order to ensure project success. To achieve project success, we highly advise project managers working in various businesses to embrace a transformational leadership.

5.4 Limitations and Recommendations

The goal of the research study was to examine the impact of effective communication in bridging the gap between transformative leadership and project management success. The impact of transformative leadership on success of the project was examined using all four dimensions in this study. Firstly, data was only collected once (cross-sectional design of the research), which limited the research study’s assumptions. Longitudinal research can therefore be used to assess the effects of transformational leadership style on success of the project. Longitudinal research reduces prejudice. As a result, academics advocate longitudinal investigations (Pratiwi & Dewi, 2021). Secondly, convenience sampling was used to acquire the data for this investigation. The sampling method has a bias problem. As a result, future researchers can collect data using a variety of sampling approaches. The suggested framework would benefit from a probability sampling method. Thirdly, the study’s representative sample is small. The approach works well with a big sample set. A larger sample size will provide a more accurate picture of transformational leadership. As a result, future researchers should strongly consider it.

Finally, this research must be completed within a certain amount of time. I also have time and financial constraints as a student. As a result, expanding this research to additional regions proved impossible. The current study has the following drawbacks. First, unlike most existing literature, the current study looked into the conception of TL and IN in in a construction firm in a growing nation.  As a result, additional exploratory approach on industrial organizations in various industries and contexts is advised. Secondly, this study highlights and limits the evaluation of TL type as a facilitator of IN and OP, despite the fact that narrowing the scope of the research offers a better understanding of the phenomenon under research. According to this category, laissez-faire and transactional leadership are two other types of leadership that are present within it (Abdullahi & Alias, 2022). Future studies could look into other styles of leadership in various businesses. Thirdly, because the current study used non-financial metrics, common bias was likely; therefore, replicating the findings with more financial metrics will increase our confidence in our findings. Finally, additional study can be done with various sorts of samples and methodologies in various circumstances in order to achieve generalization.

5.5 Future Research

This study shows that effective communications plays a significant and positive role in project success when transformational leadership is the independent variable. As a result, future scholars can examine the impact of additional independent variables such as laissez-faire and transactional leadership style on project success. In addition, various mediating factors such as teamwork and project manager leadership skills can be substituted for the independent variable mediators. This research was carried out in Malaysia’s construction industry. As a result, this concept could be tried in other areas in the future, such as governmental, commercial, IT, and agriculture.

Finally, the model could be utilized to compare transformational leadership in rural and urban settings. To compare and contrast the leadership styles of urban and rural leaders. The rate of failure of construction projects is considerably higher in rural than in urban areas. As a result, we must investigate independently what the primary causes of project failures are in both rural and urban settings (McIntosh, 2021). It will help understand transformational leadership style better.

Leaders in construction industries should have vision, open new avenues, believe in innovation, and recognize the needs and wishes of their followers, as they can invest more efforts beyond their capability to assist leaders in achieving the organization’s goals and expectations (Choudhary & Khan, 2021). Furthermore, the current study provided a deeper knowledge of how leaders might use IN and TL to support performance in Malaysian construction organizations. Finally, the findings of this research article can help leaders and policymakers better understand the relationships between transformative leadership, innovations, and project success. As a result, practitioners may create effective policies for implementing innovation and transformational leadership to improve organizational performance.

The ultimate goal of effective transformational leadership and success of the project is unquestionably a long journey filled with challenges and issues, but also with fantastic opportunities and unforgettable experiences. Passion, determination, wisdom, bravery, tolerance, and dedication are required to become an effective project management leader (Ghasemy et al., 2022). The management process involves leaders with a wide range of talents to deal with the organization’s demanding requirements, such as controlling humans, managing resources, scheduling timeframe, negotiating contracts, and etc. Effective leadership skills are acquired through time and experience, rather than being inherited (Nnaemeka, 2018). In the realm of construction projects, trial and error is used to determine leadership effectiveness.

Different styles of leadership have varying degrees of project effectiveness, but it all relies on the leader’s attributes, the setting, the workplace culture, and, most vital, the situation in hand (Mandal, 2018). Every style of leadership is as effective as the other; it is comparable to any instrument or weapon. The style of leadership thrives and achieves a greater level of efficacy with in hands and level of skill of beholder. In comparison to other management theories, project management is still emerging, and its theories are all still relatively new. The goal of this study is to give relevant empirical data, as well as a combination of qualitative and quantitative data, to back up existing project management techniques.

This research reveals the vital aspects which are vitally required to successfully execute challenging projects for today’s project managers, project specialists, and other project professionals in the sector. Soft skills are more crucial at the higher levels of project management, whereas technical abilities are less relevant. The use of the proposed important soft skills which were highlighted in the hypotheses is crucial to the shift from ordinary leaders to remarkably effective leaders. The recommended skills for each hypothesis are the result of research and are backed by a number of academies. These key aspects are not a guaranteed success; instead, they are a recommendation that, when correctly implemented, can result in significant positive outcomes. One crucial factor to remember is that a project’s success is solely dependent on the project manager’s competence. Because the project manager’s actions and behaviors have an equal and opposite impact on the project, project leaders must be knowledgeable, competent, and always learning and growing.

To summarize, the major conclusion would be that project leadership styles, behaviors, and abilities should become a natural practice in all activities performed by project leaders; therefore, considerable gains in performances and high productivity levels in construction projects would result (Lufungula & Borromeo, 2019). In the same vein, organizations can greatly benefit from assisting project managers in their development as leaders. Finally, any company that works on a large number of projects should encourage and invest in project management training, and also strive to develop a leadership culture; this will allow project managers to grow and improve project abilities beyond their normal competencies. By offering a professional and personal development environment, the organization will cultivate the foundations for very committed and effective project leaders. Finally, project managers will be more effective in terms of fulfilling milestones, sticking to financial budgets, and finishing projects in a timely manner, and will therefore become valuable assets to the company.




Dear participants,

I am now working on a research project named “the effect of transformational leadership style on project success through effective communication.”

I’d like you to complete the questionnaire. Everything you mention in the form will be kept totally private and no personal or organization identity will be revealed. Finally, I would like to express my gratitude and appreciation for your collaboration.

Section A: Kindly respond to all questions

1. Are you male or female? Male


2. Your highest education level Bachelor




3. Years of experience as a project manager More than ten years

Less than ten years


Section B: 1-strongly disagree, 2- disagree, 3- neither disagree or agree, 4- agree, 5- strongly agree

Transformational leadership

No Statement 1 2 3 4 5
1 Group members have full trust in me
2 I enable group members to reason about old challenges in the modern way
3 I offer individual attention towards team members who appear neglected
4 I let the group to know that I am fully confident the project objectives will be realized
5 I offer my team members new techniques of looking at challenging issues
6 I help every team member to develop their strength
7 I create a favorable working environment for my team
8 I assist the members of the team to find clear meaning in their job
9 I get members of the team to rethink opinions that they have not asked before
10 I am always attentive towards unique issues of every member of the team


Project success

No Statement 1 2 3 4 5
1 The projects were finalized on time
2 The projects were finalized as per the allocated budget
3 Project members were all satisfied with the procedure of project implementation
4 The project results were applied by the intended users
5 The project created the visible positive results on the users
6 The specifications of the project were met in good time
7 The users were all satisfied with the project outcomes
8 Our principal project donors were all satisfied by the results of the implemented project


Effective communication

No Statement 1 2 3 4 5
1  I am always comfortable interacting to my leader concerning my performance
2 Most communication existing between the management and employees with my company are two way
3 My organization encourages diverse opinions
4 The objective of communication within my company is to assist the management to be responsible for challenges of other workers.
5 I am normally informed about the major modifications in policies that affect my work before they are initiated.
6 I am always comfortable communicating with my leader when something is not well