How Advances in Gender Equality Have Affected Women in Policing in UK?



There has been a major perception related to the involvement of women in policing. This is so because the policing job is considered as more of a man’s job than that of women. This research is based on the introduction of gender equality factors in policing and their respective contribution in upliftment of women in terms of opportunity availability and experiences. This research will be oriented in order to evaluate the women policing in UK after development of major acts like equal pay act (1970) and organisations like Equal Opportunities Commision developed for the proper application of gender equality in every possible aspect related to women empowerment. An overall analysis obtained from this research project implicates the fact that there is a relevant increase in the developemnt of a society.   


Task 2: Small scale research project

Chapter 1: Introduction

1.1 Introduction

Women empowerment is a major concern of the developing as well as developed economy all over the world. In present context it is considered as one of the major objective that needs to be accomplished in order to persist the social and developmental aspect of a country. This research will be focussed over the effects that gender equality has achieved in terms of women involvement in UK policing system.

1.2 Rationale

1.2.1 What is the issue?

The inequality in gender oriented practices is the major issue of this research. Gender inequality is considered as the root cause that is responsible for causing irregular practices like unequal division of opportunities, difference in pay rates and durations.

1.2.2 Why it is an issue?

Gender equality is one of the most important aspect in order to develop as a society as it provides an availability of equal opportunity for both the genders. It implicates the development of insecurity and dissatisfaction for a certain segment of gender (Patel et al. 2015, p.387).

1.2.3 Why it is an issue now?

Currently, taking in to context the UK scenario of gender equality several advancements like introduction of women and equality unit, women’s national commision and equal opportunities commission corporate plan have been developed. These developments are in order to justify the need of women empowerment in every segment of the country at this point of time (Duncanson, 2015, p.236).

1.2.4 What light does this research shade on?

This research provides adequate information regarding the availability of major opportunities and developments that are centered with factors like gender equality and women empowerment. It will help in developing a major addition in the progressive events like introduction of maternity leave and pay regulations (1975) which provides women to module in any organisation and eliminate the prevalent gender inequality (Maddrell, 2016, p.51).

1.3 Aim

This research proposal aims to provide guidance and understanding in order to illustrate the developmental impact of gender equality in organisations like police in UK.

1.4 Objectives

  • To identify the concept of gender equality in UK
  • To figure out the impact of woman empowerment in UK
  • To critically analyse the impact of advance in gender equality on women empowerment in UK
  • To recommend suggestions for removing challenges of gender equality on women empowerment

1.5 Questions

1.6 Hypothesis

Research hypothesis provides the prejudgements associated with the project. In this case the research hypothesis is :

H0: Gender equality has no impact on women empowerment in UK

H1: Gender equality has major impact on women empowerment in UK

1.7 Summary

This research concentrates over the availability of major opportunities that can be an additional advantage through the introduction of gender equality factors all around the society. Important factors affecting gender equality are a major constituents that relate with the development of this research. In addition to this various important questions, objectives and hypothesis are also provided in order to facilitate the development of this research understanding.

Chapter 2: literature review

2.1 introduction

This chapter will be focussed with factors like effect of gender equality over female association in policing in UK. This chapter will be focussed with factors like effects of gender equality over women empowerment along with the various limitations that must be encountered in order to facilitate gender equality. It is a very ancient topic of discussion and since from the beginning there has been a major attention over this subject that relates with the development of proper analysis and advantages like women empowerment, demolishing of gender oriented working culture and equal pay for equal work irrespective of the factors like gender.

2.2 Gender equality

Gender equality has a major impact over the social as well as individual aspects related to an country. This factor is equally recognised by the government in UK and thus in order to practice it fairly there are laws like the equal pay act (1970) and sex discrimination act (1975) (Hohl and Stanko, 2015, p.330). The equal opportunities commision is responsible for analysing the factors related to gender equality in UK. Recently, there has been a drastic increase in development of strategies and programs related to gender equality as the advantages have been observed in some of the area of its implementation (Cornwall and Rivas, 2015, p.401). One of the most important aspect that needs to be analysed in order to understand the improvement or respective progress in gender equality is the gender pay gap. According to the views of Durbin et al. (2017, p.4), gender pay gap is the difference between earnings of an individual on the basis of their gender. There has been a significant decrease in the uneven and gender oriented payscale over last 20 years. Even after this, there has been a reported gap of 9.1% on the basis of gender in UK. This data reflects the intensity of this issue and requirement of appropriate measures to eradicate it (Kabir, 2016, p.132). In addition to this, the hetrosexual theory also describes the nature of women empowerment as an important aspect that needs to be considered in order to enhance the social well being and development. It facilitates the natural factor that is relative to the developmental aspects of gender equality in order to attain an environment of equal opportunities and responsibilities (Rubery, 2015, p.720).

2.3 Women in policing

Policing was mostly considered as a men oriented work and thus for a larger segment of time women were not at all allowed to participate in it. Till the first world war women were not admitted to the institutions like police. According to the views of Benería (2015, p.115), consecutively with the development of the gender equality concept, women were also involved in social organisations like police. Initially they were employed at activities like factory supervisions for women workers. Latter after the introduction of theories like inequality, it was analysed thet a more stable and progressive aspect of society can be obtained through providing equal opportunities for every gender (McDowell, 2018, p.42). The inequality theory provides a major introduction in order to illustrate the disadvantages of inequality in policing around UK. This application has provided a consecutive increase in women involvement from 26.3% in 2011 to 28.2% in 2015 in the field of policing in UK.

2.4 Impact of gender equality on women in policing in UK

The introduction of gender equality has been a major guiding factor in order to suggest ways for women empowerment. It is considered as the most initial as well as important step in order to facilitate the development of women in policing or any other fragment of work and organisation (Kaiser and Spalding, 2015, p.601). The development of gender equality is supported with equal pay policies, availability of equal opportunities for each gender and distribution of responsibilities in an organised and measured manner. In the recent years the police department around different parts of UK have observed a remarkable increase in women volunteering services through different modes and this is all provided as a major achievement from the gender equality end (Derks et al.2016, p.460). The impact of gender equality factors are not only affecting the involvement ratios but it is also enhancing the quality of service that is being delivered from various wings of women policing divisions all over the UK. in addition to this, the introduction of several important legislations have also strengthened the use and development of women empowerment in many areas of social implications including policing (Brieger et al. 2017, p.15).

2.5 Challenges of gender equality on women in policies

Some of the major challenges related to women policing in terms of gender equality are:

  • Barrier reduction for the use of employment tribunal system
  • Development of awareness and implementation of discrimination law
  • Providing secure and healthy practicing of duties for women in policing
  • Strengthening the pay law for security of required changes in terms of equal gender pay policy
  • Employer persuading in order to implement the required changes in workplaces (Jewkes, 2015, p.1585).

2.6  Gap in literature

A major gap that has been left behind in this research relates with the introduction of gender equality in a limited aspect that is only in terms of women involvement in policing institutions. Most of the literary sources have focused on the gender inequality and employee empowerment but a very less emphasis is provided over the impact of gender equality over employee empowerment (Cornwall, 2016, p.350). This is a major limitation of the literature that has been taken into consideration. In addition to this limited emphasis has been provided over the availability of women oriented advantages of gender equality.

2.7 Summary

In this chapter development of gender equality and its implications over women policing is a major area of concern. Different aspects that relate with the development and understanding of women empowerment are discussed in order to analyse its advantages. This chapter also provides a summary in relation with the major challenges that are faced in order to develop a proper understanding of the situation.

Chapter 3: Methodology

3.1 Introduction

This chapter concentrates over the various research oriented aspects that are a part of proper conduction of the process. It includes important aspects of research project like philosophy, design, approach, data collections tools and methods, samplings process and ethical considerations. These factors are relatively important in order to facilitate an effective development of the research objectives.

3.2 Research philosophy

The researcher has concentrated over positivism philosophy as it helps him to conclude a better result from the analysis related to the concerned topic. The selection of this positivism philosophy is based on the fact that gender inequality is a major issue in terms of current scenario and the research must be reality oriented in order to perfectly analyse the facts and understandings (Chinyamurindi, 2016, p.6).

Figure1: Research philosophy

(Source: Howe-Walsh and Turnbull, 2016, p.421)

3.3 Research Design

Descriptive research design is used by the researcher in order to full fill the data collection objectives of the research. Use of descriptive research has enhanced the understanding of real time experiences related to this topic. The descriptive designing is used in this research as it provides an opportunity to collect multifaceted data and thus it provides a much broader view for analysing the issue and its implications (Kay and Shipman, 2014, p.4).

3.4 Research Approach

Deductive approach has been used in this research in order to obtain a proper analysis of the theories and concepts related to the respective topics which are obtained from previous researches and other similar works related to gender equality. This approach has helped the researcher to provide a major understanding of the subject and obtain a proper hypothesis over the concerned topic (Wilcock, 2017, p.56).

Figure 2: Deductive Approaches

(Source: Kay and Shipman, 2014, p.5)

3.5 Data collection tools and techniques

The data collection method that has been used in this research reflects primary and descriptive approach. The primary approach relatively provides a real time data availability and thus helps in acknowledgment of the present conditions related to the issue (Oldekop et al. 2016, p.60).

3.6 Sampling size and techniques

Here the researcher has adopted random non-probability method of sampling to avoid bias data. Relatable samples with a major importance to gender equality and women empowerment have been taken into consideration in the form of surveys. 55 respondents have been taken into consideration for this research survey (Fotopoulou, 2016, p.1000). Among these 55 respondents majority of them are working women in order to develop an overall understanding of the issue.

3.7 Ethical consideration

The researcher has taken care of the various considerations that are in accordance with the Data Protection Act 1998. The information provided to and from the researcher is completely safe and every aspect related to storage and distribution of information is recorded properly. Especially the survey is performed in a manner that the respondents are allowed to provide their responses without any confusion (Howe-Walsh and Turnbull, 2016, p.420).

3.8 Gantt chart

(Refer to appendix 1)

3.9 Summary

This chapter is mostly focussed with the development of the factors that are related to the conduction of different processes related to this research. This chapter provides a full viewed analysis of the factors used for developing a better indication of gender equality over women empowerment. In addition to this the chapter also provides availability of research oriented effects like methods and properties that facilitate the development of this research as well as gender equality.

Chapter 4: Results

4.1 Primary quantitative

Q1: According to you, is Gender equality effective for women

Response No of respondent Total Respondent Percentage
Agree 20 55 36
Strongly Agree 10 55 18
Neutral 10 55 18
Disagree 10 55 18
Strongly Disagree 5 55 10


Table 4.1: Effectiveness of Gender equality for women

Figure 4.1: Statistical representation

In accordance to this question, the largest number of people, 36% have responded that they ‘agree’ about gender equality and its effectiveness for women. 10% people have responded as ‘strongly disagree’ in case of effectiveness. On other hand, 18% people have responded as ‘strongly agree’, ‘neutral’ and ‘disagree’.

Q2: Do you think, impact of Gender equality is there in women empowerment?

Response No of respondent Total Respondent Percentage
Agree 15 55 27
Strongly Agree 20 55 36
Neutral 5 55 9
Disagree 10 55 18
Strongly Disagree 5 55 10


Table 4.2: Impact of Gender equality in women empowerment

Figure 4.2: Statistical representation

As per the above question, highest number of people, 36% has showed respond as ‘strongly agree’ about impact of gender equality on empowerment of women. 27% has responded that they ‘agree’ and whereas, 9%, 18% and 10% have responded to ‘neutral’, ‘disagree’ and ‘strongly disagree’.

Q3: According to you, are women fairly treated at work?

Response No of respondent Total Respondent Percentage
Agree 15 55 27
Strongly Agree 10 55 18
Neutral 15 55 27
Disagree 10 55 18
Strongly Disagree 5 55 10


Table 4.3: Fair treatment to women at work

Figure 4.3: Statistical representation

According to this question, the largest number of people, 27% has responded towards both ‘agree’ and ‘neutral’. On another hand, 18% people have showed response towards ‘strongly agree’ and ‘disagree’. 10% respondents have been strongly disagreed.

Q4: Do you have bitter experience of Gender inequality

Response No of respondent Total Respondent Percentage
Agree 5 55 10
Strongly Agree 15 55 27
Neutral 10 55 18
Disagree 15 55 27
Strongly Disagree 10 55 18


Table 4.4: Experience of Gender inequality

Figure 4.4: Statistical representation

In accordance to above question, highest number of people, 27% has responded as ‘strongly agree’ and ‘disagree’. Both ‘neutral’ and ‘strongly disagree’ respondents have been 18% each. 10% people have responded as ‘agree’.

Q5: According to you, at your workplace, is men and women treated equally?

Response No of respondent Total Respondent Percentage
Agree 10 55 18
Strongly Agree 5 55 10
Neutral 20 55 36
Disagree 10 55 18
Strongly Disagree 10 55 18


Table 4.5: Gender equality at workplace

Figure 4.5: Statistical representation

As per the question, highest number of respondents, 36% has responded as ‘neutral’, whereas, 18% people has responded as ‘agree’, ‘disagree’ and ‘strongly disagree’. In this question, 10% has showed response to ‘strongly agree’.

4.2 Discussion

Summarisation of findings

From question no. 1, it can be analysed that the highest number, 36% people has responded that they do agree with the fact of having effectiveness due to gender equality. This indicates that the respondent is quite satisfied with the gender equality and its implications on several fields, such as, employment, health and education. It can be said that the people are able to see the positive change in these said aspects regarding gender equality. For instance, respondent are equivalently getting chances of education nowadays. Additionally, the respondents are having desired behaviors at workplace. On other hand, at work, people employees are equally treated and having equal chances of flexible working as per the result of this specific question. As per question no. 2, largest number of respondent, 36% has showed response to strongly agree. This represents that people are satisfied about the empowerment they are getting experiencing due to gender equality. For instance, it can be mentioned at nowadays, respondent is having self-sufficiency not just at home, rather also, outside home. They have gained ultimate freedom about livelihood, sharing of thoughts and ideas, due to existence of gender equality. It can be analysed from question no. 3 that largest number of people, 27% have responded for both agree and neutral. This refers to the fact that there is actually a diplomatic perspective about being fairly treated at workplace. The result indicates that respondent are not entirely satisfied with the level of treatment that they get at workplace. In few instances, they are still not having fair treatment from their colleagues and hierarchies at workplace. According to question no. 4, it can be analysed that the highest number of people, 27% has showed response to both strongly agree and disagree. This does indicate that respondent have faced bitter experience of gender equality at different aspects of survival. As per the ones, who strongly agreed, it is vivid that they have gone through with partial treatment at workplace, health and in case of education even. On other hand, disagreed people may have undesired experiences of gender inequality; however, they cannot find those as bitter. From question no. 5, it can be seen that 36%, the greatest number of respondent, has responded as neutral. This defines that in spite of existence of gender equality; still there are workplaces where, partial gender treatment does work. The result signifies that there people are not at all satisfied with in every stages of employment regarding gender equality. For instance, in case of promotions, there can be still differences regarding gender. Neutral response is more indicative towards the aspect that in spite of existence of gender equality policies and standards, there are still unequal behaviors.

4.2.1 Discussion linking with objectives

Objective 1: To identify the concept of gender equality in UK

It has been analysed from the current research that vivid and basic concept of gender equality has been discussed elaborately. In literature review, the vast details have been presented.

Objective 2: To figure out the impact of woman empowerment in UK

From the present research, women empowerment and its implications have been mentioned along with the ways, in which, it can be more effective for enhancing fundamental rights of women in UK. This has been focused in literature review part.

Objective 3: To critically analyse impact of advancement in gender equality on women empowerment in UK

It has been observed that impact of advancement in case of both women empowerment and gender equality has been effectively represented in the current research.

Objective 4: To recommend suggestions for removing challenges of gender equality on women empowerment

Possible recommendation has been made in the form of SMART recommendation, in which, several barriers can be potentially reduced from gender equality for promoting more effective women empowerment.

4.2.2 Discussion linking with methods

Descriptive design has been effective in rationally observing data from survey, which was conducted among 55 respondent of UK, regarding gender equality.

Deductive approach has given potential result in answering various questions of survey, regarding gender equality and women empowerment.   

Positivism philosophy has been helpful in gaining experience-based information through survey regarding women empowerment and its impact.

Primary quantitative method has been efficient in gathering preliminary information, regarding gender equality and its affecting role on women policing, from women of UK through survey.

4.3 Recommendations

4.3.1 Recommendation 1:


S – Specific To undertake strict action for sexual harassment
M – Measurable Effective in reducing the number of gender inequality incidents at workplace
A – Attainable Organisational ethics and governance are required to be improved
R – Realistic Positive change regarding women empowerment will be visible
T – Time-bound 3 months to bring proper attempts of change in management


4.3.2 Recommendation 2:


S – Specific To minimalist gender pay gap
M – Measurable Effective in bringing equal pay workforce
A – Attainable Management is required to plan equal pay scale for both men and women in for one specific designation
R – Realistic Positive and healthy workforce will represent the impact of gender equality
T – Time-bound 2 months to plan and improve existing organisational pay scale


4.4 Future scope

The present research has been conducted for showing advancement of gender equality along with its affecting part on the women empowerment. However, it is commendable that that this research can be even conducted with existence of more upgraded, advanced and modernised technologies. For instance, for conducting the survey, SPSS software can be utilised for gaining more accurate and organised data. Therefore, it can be said that the present research has scope of conduction in future with more upgraded technology to achieve desired resulting.


Appendix 1: Gantt chart

Time frame:

Task Week 1 Week 2 Week 3 Week 4 Week 5 Week 6 Week 7 Week 8 Week 9 Week 10 Week 11 Week 12
Identification of topic                        
Literature  review designing                        
Primary  data collection                        
Finding and analysis                        
Investigation process                        
Sources   accessibility                        
Data analysis