Representative democracy can be considered as a particular form of democracy, which is established basis on the principles and values of the elected officials. These elected officials generally oppose the concept of direct democracy or represent a group of some individuals. Representative democracy is also considered as in direct democracy. Alternatively, liberalism can be regarded as an important viewpoint in the field of world political science. The liberalism is regarded as an important political worldview or philosophy developed on the ideas of equality and liberty. This is an important aspect to discuss that the concept of liberalism was introduced from the European regions. Several countries and states across Europe established liberalism and representative democracy in order to maintain liberty and equality within the society. Slowly and gradually, the concepts, principles and values of liberalism spread beyond the European regions and other Western regions. The example of Russia, Iraq and Iran can be considered in which the values of representative democracy and liberalism spread successfully. This essay will examine the widespread of the values of representative democracy and liberalism beyond the Western world. The examples of Russia, Iraq and Afghanistan will be discussed in this essay.
Terrorism has become as one of the critical socio-political challenges in this world in the contemporary era. It is acceptable that the majority of the countries in the western world are suffering from this particular challenge. Majority of the European countries and the United States of America is suffering from the particular issue. It is clear from the particular investigation that different Islamic terrorist groups situated in the Middle-Eastern countries and Afghanistan. The concept of terrorism had evolved in the French revolution. The concept of terrorism is one of the major reasons behind the growth of the inequality and liberalism related issues. The post 9/11 era experienced the liberalism in Afghanistan and Iraq. These countries along with other Middle Eastern countries and Pakistan are suffering from illiberal approaches initiated by the Islamic extremist groups, which are affecting the sustainable social growth, economic growth and political stability of the country. Most importantly, it is also acceptable that the majority of these countries are facing economic challenges due to poor social infrastructure and political inabilities. Therefore, the youths are joining the extremist terrorist groups in order to take care of the economic sustainability of the family members. Alternatively, lack of education and knowledge about Jihad and other religious aspects among the people of young generation is also allowing the extremist terrorism leaders to do brain wash of such individuals. These are the major reasons behind the illiberal approaches and growing terrorism activities. Such approaches are also becoming a serious concern for the majority of the countries across the, especially the countries of the Western World. Most importantly, the federal government of the United States of America along with other European alliances have tried their level best to uproot the root cause of this terrorism problem by maintain equality, peace and liberalism within the states and countries. In this particular related discussion, the example of Afghanistan can be considered here.
Taliban, Al-Qaeda and ISIS are considered as three notorious extremist Islamic terrorist groups. , which have a strong presence in Afghanistan. The Terrorist attack on 9/11 forced the Federal government and security agency of the United States of America to take a step forward in order to reduce the possibilities of the external threat factors on the internal security of the country. This particular concept has allowed United States of America to maintain liberalism and equality in Afghanistan. This is acceptable that the majority of the political scientists have stated that the degree of democracy, equality and liberalism is low in Afghanistan and such country. In the year 2011, the Federal Government of USA decided to bring democracy and liberalism in Afghanistan. The concept of representative democracy was establish through the efforts of American Army and Northern Alliance in Afghanistan, which is considered as an important example of the establishment of Democracy, liberalism and rights of election. Similar kinds of approaches were considered by the Federal government of the United States of America towards the reconstruction of Iraq. The people of Iraq were habituated with the centralized approach initiated by Saddam Hussain and it is alleged that he was more of a dictator kind of leader.
Most importantly, Saddam Hussain had opposed majority of the policies developed and established by the United States of America. Especially invasion policy and oil control policy were heavily criticized. This is the major reason behind the invasion of Iraq by the United States of America. Some of the political scientists have argued that the United States of America initiated the Invasion of Iraq in the year 2003 in order to get serious control over the oil based of the Middle Eastern countries as Saddam Hussain strongly criticized invasion policy. However, the policy makers of the United States of America invaded Iraq as the country was facing dictatorship challenges under the ruling of Saddam Hussain due to lack of democracy, liberalism and equality. The federal government of USA tried to capitalize on this particular opportunity as the United State of America tried to establish a strong democracy in Iraq.
Hence it is acceptable that the invasion of Iraq and Afghanistan in the year 2003 and 2001 initiated by the United States of America was to establish democracy and liberalism within the country. Most importantly, it is also acceptable that the establishment of democracy strongly assisted the federal government of the United States of America to overcome the possibilities and impacts of the negative factors, such as terrorism on the internal security aspects of the country. It is believed that the concept of liberalization in these two countries have been proposed and assisted by federal government. Today, two countries are enjoying the positive impacts of the liberalization and representative democracy. However, it is acceptable that the dominant Islamic terrorist group, such as ISIS is trying to spread terror and hamper the peace process irrespective of different types of initiatives. Most importantly, the reconstruction process in these two countries has been supported by the United State of America. Most importantly, it is acceptable that the reconstruction process introduced the concept of representative democracy within the countries.
The case study example of Russia can be considered in this particular essay. This is acceptable that the concept of liberalization and representative democracy was introduced in the year 1991. It is acceptable that the birth of Russia was initiated in the year 1990s after the collapse of Soviet Union and it is acceptable that the military force of Soviet Union is being taken care of by Russia. This is acceptable that the implementation of the shock therapy is the major reason behind the economic and social reformation of Russia after the collapse of Soviet Union. However, in the 1990s, Russia tried to transform itself into a strong democracy within the world with the help of t he United States of America along with the other types of Western alliances. However, Russia failed to transform itself from the communist country to a stronger democracy. Overall, this is acceptable that the concept of transition into a democracy failed due to consideration of different important reasons. First of all, the post communist Russia experienced the economic downturn as the strong inflation in the middle of 2000s affected the economic sustainability and growth of the country. In addition, lack of effective integration of the national liberation as well as democratization in Russia affected the concept of the liberalization within the society. There are several consequences of this inadequate transformation.
First of all, this is acceptable that the majority of the Western super powers including the United States of America and other European countries have opposed the social, political and economic orientation of Russia. Despite the strong needs, Russia failed to establish national liberty and representative democracy. The western superpowers are trying to isolate Russia from bigger stages. Most importantly, this is acceptable that the satellite states of the Soviet Union gained independence right after the collapse of the Soviet Union. Most importantly, it is acceptable that the concept of liberalization has been introduced in the particular associated countries with the help of the Western alliances, such as European countries and the United States of America. However, Russia failed to capitalize on the opportunity to bring representative democracy and national liberty within the country due to the prioritization to the Soviet communism, which affected the relationship between Russia and other Western superpowers. This is acceptable that the majority of the countries are strongly focusing on maintaining healthy relationship. However, the consideration of the lack of liberalization and representative democracy affected the economic, social and political sustainability of the country.
The lack of strong democracy aspect has several negative consequences for Russia. First of all, it can be accepted that the lack of democracy has affected the relationship and alliance between Russia and other Western Countries. The lack of implication of the sustainable liberalization approach also has affected the political stability, economic sustainability and social sustainability of the country. Despite the reformation in the 1990s, the country suffered from economic depression as well as inflation within a range of 15 to 16 years. This is the biggest drawback of the democratization of Russia, which should have been addressed by the policy developers and government. However, this is acceptable that the scenario has slightly changed in last 10 years after the consideration of some important efforts of Mr. Putin to maintain sustainability. Still the country needs to ensure a strong open economic approach, which will assist the country to maintain a strong economic and political liberalization within the country.
It is clearly identified that different countries, such as Afghanistan, Iraq, Russia and other satellite states of Soviet Union faced different socio-political and socio-economic challenges in the recent past due to the lack of liberalization, equality and democracy within the country. This is acceptable that the particular countries are encouraged and motivated by the western alliance across the world to maintain a strong equality within the country by overcoming ongoing unrest. The example of the invasion of Afghanistan and Iraq can clearly state that how the federal government of the United States of America assisted the two countries to introduce the national liberty and representative democracy within the country, which also assisted somehow to mitigate the global terrorism concepts. The introduction of the representative democracy concept within the Russia after the collapse of Soviet Union also indicates that the concepts have emerged in the Western countries and these have been spread into the particular countries considering the legacy of the introduction of the liberalism within the Western countries.