Four Types of Parenting Styles and Effects on Children

Parenting styles

In hopes of breaking the cycle of ineffective parenting, some parenting styles should be encouraged and implemented while others should be discouraged. For instance, authoritarian and uninvolved parenting styles should be discouraged. On the other hand, permissive and authoritative parenting styles should be encouraged. Many of the parents think that if they feed their children well, they wear decent clothes, and also shelter them well, then they are practicing effective parenting. In reality, parenting is an in-depth process. Effective parenting means the capacity to interact with the children and make them learn to grow into exemplary adults.

Conversely, ineffective parenting entails the tendency of parents to fail to recognize the example that they are setting about their behavior. In addition to that, ineffective parents let many days go without making any reasonable contact with their children. Indeed, interactions with children on a daily basis leads to the conveying of constructive orders and also essential corrections. However, this ingredient lacks in ineffective parenting style and practices.

This paper will discuss many parenting styles that are detrimental to shaping the behavior of children as they grow into adults. As well, these parenting styles will be considered about the impact on the action of the children. The discussion takes a social dimension, which is crucial for rational beings in the society. Indeed, human interactions in the community need to be characterized by a high level of morality.

One of the exciting things about being called a parent is the possibility of variations observed among the styles of childrearing. At the same time, there exist many common practices that are evident in almost all parents across the whole world. Depending on the apparent similarities in the parents regarding how they raise their children, the researcher has classified the parenting styles into four broad categories. Parenting refers to a mixture of strategies and motives that a parent employs to raise their children.

There are four distinct parenting styles, namely authoritarian, permissive, uninvolved and authoritative parenting styles (Darling and Steinberg, 1993).  Authoritarian parenting style is also called the disciplinarian style. Similarly, the permissive parenting style is also known as the indulgent style of parenting.

The significant variations among the parenting styles entail four areas. These are the style of discipline, the mode of communication, the nurturance provided and finally, the expectations of the parents in their children. These styles were developed by Baumrind, based on the culture of the United States of America. However, these parenting styles can be used to describe parents across diverse cultures. The parenting styles impact the social learning of children.

Social learning entails the way in which children copy traits through observation as they interact with their parents. Therefore, from this definition, parenting styles have a significant impact on the behavior of children. For instance, delinquency can be associated with the type of parenting style the children have been subjected to.

Types of parenting styles

A parenting style can be considered as a feature of any parent, which contributes to variations in the effectiveness of the socialization process for that particular chid. It also entails the capacity of children to receive such practices portrayed by their parents (Darling and Steinberg, 1993). Parenting practices include the broad trends and patterns in the methods of childrearing. Through these practices, the parents are expected to take care of their children. It affects the development process of personality among the children (Akhter, 2012). Moreover, parenting styles have an impact on how children interact with their social and close relatives. The following are the parenting styles that affect the social development of children.

Authoritative parenting style

This style of parenting tries to balance clear and elevated expectations of children with emotional support and the identification of the autonomy of children. In addition to that, this style implies that a parent will strive to direct the children in a manner that is rational (Baumrind, 1991). An authoritative parent promotes giving and also taking, but that is accompanied by the incorporation of the sense behind that between the parent and the child (Piko and Balázs, 2012). Valuation of the self will of the children through autonomy is highly embraced under this practice of parenting. Additionally, the parent promotes the discipline of the children.

Authoritative parenting style gives room for a family environment and climate that is warm. It helps to promote the desired standards in that family, thereby enhancing independence among the children as they develop into adults. (Kracke, 1997). The following features are common to authoritative parenting style. First, the high level of nurturance is prevalent in this family climate. It means that children are developing into adults who are well nurtured with life values. For example, honesty and self-discipline.

Secondly, this style of parenting promotes sensitivity and autonomy. It enhances that by offering a favorable environment for the emotional development of the children as the parents support assertiveness and also a high sense of individuality (Piko and Balázs, 2012). Valuation of the methods of disciplining the children is centered on support for the children as opposed to punitive motives.

Authoritarian parenting style

This style of parenting aims at shaping and controlling the behavior of the children. In addition to that, this practice focuses on evaluating the behavior and attitudes that children have in response to a given standard of conduct set in the family setting (Baumrind, 1991). Indeed, obedience is desired by the parents among their children. Therefore, punitive motives and measures can be applied by an authoritarian parent to control self of their children. In the case where the children engage in actions which are believed to be in contrast to the expectation of the parent, such a child faces punishment.

Moreover, an authoritarian parenting style instills a sense of respect for the authority. (Darling and Steinberg, 1993).  In addition to that, it promotes respect to work, thereby preserving order and traditional beliefs and norms. It does not encourage oral give and take. Therefore the words of the parents ought to be considered as right at all times. The parents with this trait tend to show directive behaviors, and they also portray a high degree of restriction and power assertion. Rejection behaviors are also promoted under the authoritarian parenting style (Darling and Steinberg, 1993).  The most top priorities for the parents in this category include the keeping of the structure and the order in the family and the society as a whole.

Uninvolved parenting style

Uninvolved parenting style entails a case of childrearing where the parents tend to give their children a reasonable degree of liberty to indulge in any act that they like. Generally, parents who observe this style of parenting do not keep watch of their children, thereby making the children free to decide on what is wrong and right. Most often, parents make an informed decision to parent in this manner while others observe this parenting style because they do not have an idea on how to monitor their children (Kerr, Stattin and Ozdemir, 2012). The parents who do not have the interest to monitor their children, do so because they have no idea of what they should do. This type of parenting should be discouraged at all costs since it does not follow any particular style of discipline. Furthermore, it limits the communication process, of which the children would pass his or her demands to the parents.

In the uninvolved parenting, there is limited nurturing of the children. An effective parenting style, as noted earlier, should offer an opportunity for nurturing the children into responsible members of the society. There should be many expectations on the children about what they should give back to the community when they grow up. However, this critical aspect of parenting is scanty under uninvolved parenting.


Permissive parenting style

This style takes the scope of behavior that is not punitive and therefore agreeing to the impulses of the child. In addition to that, the permissive style of parenting is responding affirmatively towards the desires, actions, and motivations of the child. In this style of parenting also, the child is given the freedom of doing what he or she feels that is right. Moreover, the parents seem to abandon the art of controlling the code of conduct of the child. Furthermore, the parent does not prompt the child to adhere to the external regulations.

The proponents of the above style of parenting tend to feel that imposing punishment leads to certain adverse effects, thereby it seems to be an ineffective technique of regulating the conduct of their children. Strict parental control leads to passivity and dependence on the child, as argued by the supporters of this parenting style. In this model also, the parents make little demands, which exhibit nonregulating traits and then imposing a small punishment.

The role of parenting styles in child development has attracted attention for research among education enthusiasts. From the analysis, it has been identified that parenting styles are significant to the psycho-motor development. As well, parenting styles affect the cognitive development of the child. From those studies, it was identified that an authoritative parenting style had affected the school grades of the children positively. Therefore, it is a rational decision to embrace this parenting practice. However, the permissive styles of parenting were found out to bring adverse effect on the school grades of the children.

In another study, children raised in authoritative backgrounds obtained higher grades about competence in academics, self-perceptions and also from the mental health perspective. Tay and Tam (2011) indicate that parenting styles are related to the coping capacities of children in society, especially, the capability of adolescents. Therefore, based on this study, the authoritative parenting style should be encouraged as it contributes to a positive value in the society. It is essential for children to cope with the members of the community because it is part of their daily lives.

A good parenting style is the one that allows the parents to keep watch on their children. In addition to that, the parents should be able to comprehend the mindset of their children. It also follows that the children should be made to follow the example set by their parents (Poduthase, 2012). With this respect, an authoritative parenting style should be encouraged. It is clear that via this practice, the parents can offer their children with guidance and instruction in a way that embraces ration.  Through this parenting style also, parents will exercise a high degree of patience in explaining the impacts of a child’s action.

In all religious teachings, the parents are taught on how to be gentle and also moderate. The verdicts of our actions are not seen instantly. Therefore, this analogy reinforces the virtue of patience. With the high level of demandingness, the parents promote the effective sharing of information with their children (Poduthase, 2012).   In addition to a strong relationship between the parent and the child, the parents are capable of explaining the rules and regulations which will promote the independence of their children in society. This parenting style is useful because it also leads to an open-minded personality among children. The parents also exert the necessary power that is essential for their nurturing of the children without any hesitation.

The exertion of regulation and the use of power are the ingredients for setting the standard about the future conduct of the children. This also assures that the child will not engage in any form of delinquent behavior.  Authoritarian parenting style should be discouraged because it leads to unfavorable characteristics of the children. The parents who embrace this mode of child-rearing tend to portray a high level of demand (Poduthase, 2012).  This type of parents applies a lot of force in every action that they do while nurturing their children. This parenting style is more inclined to the contrary conduct of parents projected towards their offspring. The rules on which this style rely, are very concrete. However, this style may be appropriate for young children, which can make them avoid delinquency in the future. However, for the adolescents, it is less necessary.

Over application of the authoritarian parenting style limits the autonomy of children as far as their relationship with their parents is concerned. Moreover, this style of parenting contributes to the declining level of ability of the children as they develop. The self-confidence of the child is also hindered in this practice of parenting. So that the children cope well with the adolescents in the society, there is a massive demand for self-confidence. It can be justified that the authoritarian parenting style tends to restrict the craving of the child to explore his or her capacities and societal connections.

Consequently, children will depend on the guidance of their parents solely. In a family, fathers show this style of parenting when rearing their children. It should be discouraged because it brings adverse effects on the children. A permissive parenting style should be discouraged to some extent (Steinberg, Dornbusch and Brown, 1992). The indulgent or permissive parents, usually let their children do what they consider to be right. With the minimal guidance offered by these parents, they seem to be like friends to their children. This style may look reasonable from the outset, but it needs to be improved, regarding the expectations and freedom that the parents endow their children with. The point of encouraging this parenting style is primarily on the warm and nurturing response of the parents towards their children.

It is possible for the family setting to embrace the authoritative parenting style of parenting. The running of the institution of the family becomes easier when both parents practice the same method. However, in some other cases, it is easier when only one parent exercises the authoritative parenting style.

In conclusion, parenting styles have an impact on the social leaning of children. For instance, an authoritarian parent can make his or her child delinquent simply because of the strictness that was imposed on the child. The most effective parenting style is the authoritative style of parenting. As discussed above, this practice of parenting has many advantages that accrue to both the child and the parent. In this style of parenthood, the parents are capable of keeping an eye on the children, which in turn contributes to proper nurturing. The children learn how to cope with the positive aspects of society, and hence they embrace an excellent code of conduct as they develop into adults. The authoritative parenting style is ideal because it contributes to positive outcomes in a child.

The discouragement of the authoritarian style of parenting is due to many justifiable reasons. From the literature search in many studies, this style of parenting tends to exert a lot of power on the children. The juveniles perceive this as a negative motive of the parents. Therefore, they learn to be resistive and hence, delinquent behavior develops in them as they undergo development into adults. The authoritarian parents are less sensitive to the demands of their children. Therefore, this style of parenting ought to be discouraged.

The parents can adhere to effective parenting styles by doing the following:

First, parents ought to spare time to be with their children. This helps to reduce the chances of children developing unethical behaviors such as delinquency. Secondly, active parenting dictates that the parents get involved with their children continuously and consistently to prevent them from associating with those people who indulge in crime. It is easy for a parent to offer a nurturing and stimulating care for the children when such a parent has access to a broad scope of social support. It means that there are no aversive social conditions that will impact the practice of parenting.

Self-regulation that is characteristic of a permissive parenting style allows for the coping of wrong behaviors by the children. For instance, alcohol abuse arises as a result of this practice of parenthood. Therefore, a permissive style of parenting should be discouraged. Ethnic and cultural diversities should be considered when analyzing the effect of parenting styles on the social learning of children. Social pressures are inevitable sometimes, especially those encountered when assessing the performance of the parenting styles. For instance, the authoritarian parenting style is active among the minor ethnic groups, regardless of it being considered an ineffective parenting style.

Information and education on the styles of parenting are essential for social development and learning among children. Adoption of a warm and flexible method will lead to many benefits in a child, such as moral, social and intellectual growth and development.

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