The abstract provides a succinct summary of the study and MUST include: the purpose of the study, theoretical foundation, research questions stated in narrative format, sample, location, methodology, design, data sources, data analysis, and a valid conclusion of the research.e.g
The purpose of this study is to evaluate the relationship between traditional family concept and current industrialized society. The work aim to establish the influence the family formation has in economic development, and as well shed insight regarding the interrelation of nuclear family and industrialization. This research will use secondary sources of information, that will be obtained from government databases, and peer reviewed journals. The views of different authors will be compared and critiqued, to get an in-depth information regarding the topic under study. Mixed methodology coupled with interpretivism philosophy will be used to arrive at the conclusion.
Family is an enduring social organization based on kinship, marriage, and affiliation. It is an economic, education, and the clan united in the traditional society. Family members work together to produce things they need for life; for example, food and clothing. In the agricultural society, family was a self-sufficient unit, both as a producer and a consumer. This phenomenon was more explicit in the Chinese traditional family. The traditional Chinese familyalso gave birth and took care of the next generation for the society, so that the lineage of the family can be continued. Thus, traditional family played the role of economic production and consumption especially in the traditional Chinese society. In ancient China, the economy was dominated by men ploughing and women weaving, men producing grain, hunting and preparing necessary supplies for daily life. Women produced goods such as silk fabrics. Make up a small economy, and the labor of the family works on the economy of the country. The state has a direct or indirect relationship with each family through taxation.
However, in the current society, the family formation dramatically transformed toward the direction of minimization.The family is the basic constituent of today’s society, also act as the basic unit of economy operation. The general household through the excessive consumption and the labour have caused certain influence on the economy. According to structural functionalists like Talcott Parsons, nuclear family has become the most common family formation under the economic development of industrialization and modernization. It seems that the traditional family formation is abandoned, transformed and gave up by the industrialized Chinese society. In modern society, family labor was replaced by more systematic industrialization, and everyone was directly involved in economic development and resource allocation. Modern industrial society pays more attention to the production efficiency of each participant, and the economy is also related to individual economic activities. Industrial society makes economic development more detailed and precise. Economic development can be analyzed and regulated more precisely.Therefore, this essay analyzes the relationship between traditional family concept and current industrialized society in China.
This is a proposal. The introduction should contain a statement of purpose, giving the reader the real issues that you are dealing with. Here, you state the problem or the issue at hand, the research gap, and how your research is aiming to fill that gap.E.g
The ever increasing industrialization has impacted the society in different ways. Traditional view of the family, is different from what the present generation has adopted. More than before, people have assumed independency in whatever they do, hence breaking the bond that tied the society together. This has resulted to degradation of morals, and appreciation of borrowed behaviour, that mitigate the community from advancing forward. Little concern has been given to this issue, but its effect is witnessed in increased degradation of culture. This research aims to compare the traditional family concept and the current industrialized society.
State the research questions that will guide your work. They should be numbered e.g.
These are generated from the research questions, and always start with the word, To…e.g.
State the hypotheses, for example:
H0: There is no relationship between traditional family concept and current industrial society.
H1: There is a relationship between traditional family concept and current industrial society.
This paper aims to study the relationship between traditional family concept and current industrialized society. Over the years, the perception that was adopted about family has continually changed, due to the evolvement of the living styles. The focus of this study is to give a delve into the major issues that have resulted to the scenario, by reviewing the available secondary sources.
The type of family formation in the industrialized society is dividing. People prefer to live in the form of a smaller family formation which only consists of parents and children. This is a common social phenomenon in western developed countries, but it is not rare in China.
As Tian’s observation on the family behaviors in the China’s reform-era society based on the latent class analysis. As she suggested, “the younger generations in China are more individualistic and future-oriented than previous generations” (Tian, 2017, 205). Thus, the number of extended family formation decreased because the younger Chinese people are individualistic on the decision of later marriage and later fertility (Tian, 2017, 205).
This is the social transformation that structural functionalists called as the emergence of nuclear family. Talcott Parsons is one of the famous sociologist in this genre (Bissell et al, 2002, 63). He believed the miniaturization of family formation in contemporary society is due to the process of industrialization which defines the function of each subsystem of the society. Family regarded by Parsons and other structural functionalists as a primary part of the society and performs the most basic function of economy, fertility and emotional sustenance. On the other hand, there are more different subsystems like government or state, schools and industries. These social parts can perform some functions that family played in the previous society. For instance, the traditional family needed to perform the role of education of younger generations for the continue of family lineage. But in the industrialized society, as Marx suggested, more specialized non-industrial and non-producing sector social institutions emerged. These institutions perform the specialized functions. School is one of the institutions that replaced family and perform the role of education. Thus, due to the specialization and differentiation of social function, the extended family formation became isolated, and nuclear family becomes the mainstream family formation in current society (Bissell et al, 2002, 63).
Therefore, as the structural functionalist’s theory, the specialization and differentiation of social function would be the major reason for the miniaturization of family formation that lead to the emergence of nuclear family. Industrialization created more social institutions that focus on non-industrial sectors like education, finance, insurance and health care. These sectors can replace family in some social functions.
Relation between Economic Development and Family Formation in China
Although the theory of structural functionalist was influential in the 20th Century in developed countries, it cannot reflect the whole picture of China’s family formation. In China, economic development especially the process of industrialization is not the major reason that lead to the decreasing number of family formation. According to Fei Hsiao-Tung, a pioneering Chinese scholar of sociology, the average household population was already about five in the rural areas he studied in the early 20th Century (Fei, 1983). This meant the horizontal and vertical extended families are also very few in the traditional Chinese rural areas. It was a prominent phenomenon in the upper class of the Chinese family but in the lower class of the society, it was infrequent.
On the other hand, the modern family, unlike Parsons’ prediction that it would lose most of its original functions, has only three: sexual satisfaction, reproduction, and emotional support between couples. The criticizes from other socialists prove the serious limitations and deviations of the linear and one-way view of history in the observation and analysis of family changes by Parsons and the structural functionalists. For instance, some scholars criticized the family theory represented by parsons, which actually only described the ideal family model of the white middle class in postwar America with time and space limitations. The biggest problem with this theory is that it regards the nuclear family model as the universal standard and ignores the existence of other family models in American society.
However, in China, the traditional concepts still perform important role in reform-era urban family. According to Hu and Tian (2018, 1), ancestor worship that embodies the filial piety of Confucianism is still an essential practice in the Chinese family. They suggested that the practices of ancestor worship are related to the tendency of early marriage, short duration between marriage and first birth, as well as the son preference (Hu & Tian, 2018, 10). Their research data based on the Chinese Family Panel Studies 2010 suggested that a certain proportion of young couples in China are influenced by their parents’ preference and pressure in the timing of marriage and fertility, and also the preference of son (Hu & Tian, 2018, 10). During the fertility period, their parents usually live with them together for better caring of pregnant mother and new-born. The traditional Confucian concept of family is still influential in some Chinese younger couples as they obey the preference of their parents on the issues of marriage and fertility. Thus, it is not incommensurate in current Chinese society.
The relationship between gender role change and economic developing.
In modern society, with the awakening of women, more and more people begin to realize that women play an important role in society. In tradition family concept, women are more likely to act as mothers and have children. Now，Society places greater emphasis on equality between men and women, and many women have made remarkable achievements in various fields.Women’s equal participation in the labor market will make a valuable contribution to global development.White, jenny B, claimed that women’s ability to work has been limited because they are prejudiced by a male-dominated society（White, 2004）.How to let female enjoy the equal access to the workplace is still a global challenge.
This section is important in every proposal, as it sheds light to the reader on how you aim to achieve the objectives stated in the introduction section. The following subsections are needed here:
The introduction restates the purpose statement to the study. Restate the research questions and the phenomena for the study from introduction part.
2. Research philosophy
State the research philosophy that you adopt. Either, interpretivism, positivism or pragmatism. Discuss all the three, and justify the reason for choosing a particular one. in this case, you can choose interpretivism where researchers believe that reality can be accessed only through social approaches and instruments.
3. Research methodology
Determine whether the research will use Quantitative/Qualitative, or mixed methodology. I believe that you will consult secondary resources. Hence,mixed methodology is an appropriate option here. You need to support that by relevant literature. Read about the three methodologies, and give reasons for choosing mixed.
Describe how you will collect your data. If your source is secondary information state how you selected the journal, books, or any other publication and what you considered in your filtering process. Also, state the measurement tool for your data.
Economic development represented by industrialization is not the only reason to decrease the family member in current family formation. Although the percentage of extended family is decreasing in current East Asian society, in fact it was not a prominent phenomenon in the traditional society that it only existed in the upper class. In the reform-era Chinese society, traditional Confucian concept of family is still influential for some younger couples although they are more individualistic. They would still tend to follow the preference of their parents in the timing of marriage and fertility. Traditional family values do not apply to modern industrial societies and economies; in other words, today’s family economy has little impact on the overall social economy. In conclusion, China’s traditional Confucian Concept is not incommensurate in current society.
Bissell, P. Morgall, J. &Haugbolle, L. S. (2010), “An Introduction to Functionalist Sociology: Talcott Parsons’ Concept of the ‘Sick Role’”, Sociology and Pharmacy Practice 10: 60-68.
Fei, X. T. (1983), Chinese village close-up. Beijing: New World Press.
Hu, A. N. & Tian, F. F. (2018), “Still under the Ancestors’ Shadow? Ancestor Worship and Family Formation in Contemporary China”, Demographic Research 38(1): 1-36.
Stalnaker, A. (2013), “Confucianism, Democracy, and the Virtue of Deference”, Dao 2013(12): 441–459
Tian, F. F. (2017), “Global Interactions and Family Formation Pathways in Reform-Era Urban China”, Chinese Sociological Review 49:3: 183-211.
White, J. B. (2004). Money makes us relatives women’s labor in urban Turkey, chapter 12.
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