This paper focuses on the analysis of the stakeholders who are involved in the Asian games, whose roles include planning and delivering the specific event in Asia. The related infrastructural projects are also reported in this paper. Moreover, the paper will give a report on the social-cultural, political and environmental effects of the Asian Games. This leads to the generation of the recommendations on the method of assessing such impacts from the sustainable development point of view.
Asian Games are conducted after every four years across Asia. It entails many sports activities, which attracts many athletes from all over the Asian continent (Douglas, 2013). A review of the available literature on the stakeholders who are involved in the Asian games points out to the boundless impacts that they have towards the tourism sport. Therefore, it is important to study these stakeholders and then focus on the impacts of this event on society. It is most often accepted that Asian games leave a legacy on the host city or country, however, there is a debate that arises pertaining to the sustainability perspective of this major event. The following tables gives the history of host nations for the events.
|1951||NEW DELHI, INDIA|
|1982||NEW DELHI, INDIA|
|1986||SEOUL, SOUTH KOREA|
|2002||BUSAN, SOUTH KOREA|
|2014||INCHEON, SOUTH KOREA|
From the outset, it is true that the event has a high concentration in time and investment, bearing in mind that the event takes two weeks. The concentration is space is observed in the host city, which also implies that the region will experience many changes. This seems to contradict the idea of sustainable development concepts, which promote the distribution of the impacts of this particular event. The impacts entail the social, economic, and environmental impacts that are brought about the hosting of this sports tourism event (Weber andAli Knight, 2012). The accomplishments by the state and some other corporations in the scope of sustainable development have been scanty, leading to a situation where management of the event offers a great opportunity for many stakeholders to venture into this lucrative business. However, there are many relationships between the scope of sustainable development and stakeholders who are directly involved in hosting the games which do pose a big challenge.
Stakeholders of Asian games
A stakeholder is a person or an organization which has a legitimate interest in the end results of an event. For this scenario involving the Asian games, the stakeholders are majorly focused on sports tourism, which will bring a desirable outcome for them. According to Johnny et al (2007), the managers of any event should be capable of identifying a stakeholder or stakeholders so that the individual needs of the event participants are met. With regard to the impacts of the event, there is a need to judge the event based on the competing need and interests among the wide range of stakeholders involved.
The major stakeholders of Asian games comprise the government and other sponsors (Hazra, Fletcher and Wilkes, 2014). For instance, the government of Singapore was involved in the organizing of the Asian Games in the South East part of Asia. The government of Singapore organized the 28th Asian Games. The sports council of Singapore was given this responsibility to ensure that the event would be a success. It is an agency for sports in the nation that fosters making the event accessible to the interested parties. In addition to that, it offers the opportunities and capacities that are necessary for people to lead happy lives through games.
The sponsors of Asian games are numerous. This depends on the country that will host the event. In order to attract the sponsors, the managers of the event give an explanation of the anticipated benefits of the event to the society (Weber and Ali Knight, 2012). The benefits must also encompass the importance of this event towards the improvement of the marketing strategy for most of the sponsors. It is evident that sports attract a market for the products of certain companies. It is important to consider the needs and the ambitions of the prospective sponsors in this event. This adds to the primary objective of increasing their revenues out of the event, being a tourism activity (Douglas, 2013). For instance, the Coca-Cola company is interested in this event every time it is about to take place. The input of the sponsors largely depends on the close of the events with the corporate aims of such companies which are aiming to sponsor Asian Games. The Asian Games must also portray an illustratable capacity to accrue the benefits to the sponsors.
Another sponsor of the Asian Games is NTUC Fairprice. This foundation was established in 1973 by the labor movement, whose main aim was to fix the living cost of people of Asia (Douglas, 2013). It is a supermarket retailer, which has grown to a big retailer in Asia (NTUC FairPrice). This company organizes the event by giving funds that drive many projects pertaining to the Asian Games. Some of the projects are undertaken before the start of the event. This level is called the planning phase. It involves ensuring that the venues of the events have been maintained to the required standards, to foster the best action during the sports activities. Planning for the Asian Games includes renovation of the football stadiums, the supply of necessary infrastructure in the fields among others.
Impacts of the event
The chosen sponsor for this event is NTUC FairPrice. The major political impact of Asian Games towards this sponsor is the increase of its prestige. The Singapore market recognized the brand of this retailer once signed an agreement to sponsor the event (Johhny et al, 2007). The managers of Asian games need to point out the exact demand of this financier. An evaluation of the output of this event on the company follows. The company seeks to attract an international market for its products. The games are broadcast live, thereby enabling fans throughout the world to recognize the presence of this retailer in the market.
Economic impacts of the event
The main concern of the entrepreneur of this event is the determination of whether the event will be with the stipulated budget. It is expected that the event will lead to a profit or a surplus. It is evaluated by considering the income from sponsors, the sale of tickets to the fans, and the sale of merchandise versus the cost incurred in conducting the event (Malfas, Theodoraki and Houlihan, 2004). For the government, the main economic impact is the creation of employment opportunities. In the process of planning for the Asian Games, many people secure employment in many sectors. The sectors that are involved here are the construction and building sector, the procurement of the event materials and lastly, the service providers.
The host communities offer the host nations a great platform to portray their experience and expertise. In addition to that, the host states get the opportunities for starting new businesses. The Asian Games are attended by many potential investors, who have the vision to establish business links in many countries throughout the world (Van Ewijk, 2015). It is a lucrative opportunity for the stakeholders such as the government to reap big from this event.
Environmental impacts of the event on the stakeholder
Usually, an assessment of the possible impact of the major event is carried out before the permission is granted to host the Asian Games. There is no need for a formal study, but the manager of the event ought to consider the probable effect of the sports event on the environment. The containment of the event impact will be realized if the event will take place in a venue that is built with a specific purpose. For instance, a stadium and a showground will be designated for the respective events. When the event is conducted in a space that is not designed for the same events. Parks cannot be used as venues for football events for that matter.
As far as environmental protection is concerned, noise reduction and crowd movement control are essential. The other important considerations include car park sites and also access to the venues. Asian Games create environmental awareness as the activities go on (Malfas, Theodoraki and Houlihan, 2004). Public education is applied by the host governments in order to encourage the re-use and recycle of waste materials that would otherwise go to fill the land. The governments that host the event find the space or platform to inform the public on legislation which will promote adherence to environmental protection framework.
Asian Games are targeted as the avenues to showcase the best practice models in the management of waste (Malfas, Theodoraki and Houlihan, 2004). It will contribute to the variation of the attitudes of the public and habits towards the management of waste materials. During the events, the attendants and participants consume many products that are packaged. Waste management in this scenario entails proper disposal of the containers of the snacks. Another impact of Asian Games is the transformation and renewal of urban settings. When staging the major events for the Asian Games, infrastructure is a key consideration. It contributes to an improved environment for the host country, regardless of the costly budget involved. For example, the government of Singapore has built a new sports complex out of an old stadium. It has become a great destination for lifestyle and entertainment, among other functions.
Furthermore, Asian Games have led to the development of unique sports facilities in diverse nations that have hosted the event. It has led to an increase in the fame of the sports industry in those countries. For example, in Singapore, the Singapore Sports Hub is a fully integrated sports and lifestyle hub for many people in the country. It will spur the improvement of the sports and entertainment industry plus excellence and participation in taking sports to the next level in the host country.
Social-cultural impact of the Asian games
From the report by the post games report, the Asian games management employed more than 17,000 volunteers to translate and interpret the games. This is a nice opportunity for the volunteers to work in some other parts of the world since they gained the relevant skills through training. For instance, the volunteers can interact with other cultures other regions while on their volunteering mission.
On the other hand, the Asian Games led to the disruption of the host towns. Construction of the necessary infrastructure may lead to noise that annoys the people around the sites. In addition to this, when the events are taking place, roads are closed to facilitate the competitions. This led to public outcry and also opposition from the local community gangs, as observed in the 2000 Asian Games.
Recommendation of evaluation of the impact of the Asian Games economically, socially, environmentally, and politically
Evaluation of the impacts refers to the consideration of the possible alternatives and also applying the preset criteria for the intention of making a decision. the purpose of this assessment is to determine whether the development projects have an economic efficiency and also a positive impact on the environment. The following is a recommendation for assessing the impacts that the Asian Games have on the society and also on the economy of the country that hosts the event.
Economic assessment techniques
Economic valuations are not majorly based on the financial viability of the projects within the host city pertaining to the Asian Games. However, the main concern is assessing the appropriate use of the resources and their impact on the economic well-being of the community.
The recommended framework for economic analysis is the benefit-cost analysis. This is a useful tool when it comes to efficiency analysis of the unpriced impacts. Under this technique of analysis, the maximum efficiency is attained when the current value of the net benefits is optimized. This criterion is referred to as the net present value.
Recommendation on the valuation of the environmental impacts
The main aim of benefit-cost analysis is to incorporate the environmental impacts that directly affect the utilization of environmental resources. It also entails the non-use of these resources. The assessment of this impacts takes the dimension of variations in the producers and consumers’ surplus.
The following are the market-based techniques that will help to assess the environmental impacts of Asian Games
Productivity changes method
This will be utilized in a circumstance where the change in the environment promotes the variation in costs, prices, and levels of production. There is a need for the dose-response functions in order to estimate the physical changes with regard to environmental conditions.
Before applying the approach above, the prices and costs should be adjusted in order to reflect the provisional prices.
Steps in the economic assessment
The steps for scoping the assessment should consider the following:
The types of environmental effects and the corresponding values in the economy. In addition, the valuation methodology is chosen. This will rely on financial and market data, which is cheap and easier to obtain. The time, skills and resources for budgetary control should be considered in order to undertake the analysis properly.
The framework should also incorporate the values that should be quantified under the benefit-cost analysis. This is usually based on the kinds of impacts and valuations which are involved while taking into account the available resources and time (Shen, Jorge Ochoa, Shah and Zhang, 2011). The magnitude of the economic impacts at the start of the games should be taken into account. This is either directly or indirectly attributed to proposed developments in preparation for the Asian Games events.
The community should also be consulted. The framework development for the assessment of the impacts of Asian games should consider the benefit that accrues to the stakeholders. In order to find relevant information pertaining to this, consultations with the stakeholders should be conducted. The stakeholders in this event will have the opportunity to show the relevant expenditures and costs involved in the Asian Games. This will provide an insight into the benefit-cost analysis stated earlier.
The stakeholders in Asian Games have been explored in this paper. It has helped to reveal the input of these parties with regard to ensuring the success of the events in the host cities in the Asian Continent. On the same note, the events have numerous benefits to the stakeholders. For instance, Asian Games have an impact on the marketing strategy of the companies which volunteer to sponsor the projects in preparation of the events. The government, being a major stakeholder, reaps big by implementing various policies through the events. In this regard, policies such as environmental conservation are cultured into the people living in the host cities of the events.
The impacts of Asian Games are many. They include the social, political, environmental and political impacts that the events promulgate in the host countries. In most cases, the impacts are felt among the stakeholders. It is important to provide a framework for the assessment of the impacts of Asian Games in the host cities. This will help to provide the scope of environmental sustainability and also it will evaluate the effects of the event towards sustainable development. For instance, it is recommended that the framework takes into account the costs and expenditures incurred in the events by the stakeholders. It will enhance determination of the viable projects in the future.
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