Clearly state the research question(s). The research question should be clear and focused and summarises the issue you will investigate.
“How are MNE’s entry into developed markets perceived to impact host country industries: The case of Amazon’s entry into Australia.”
Abstract/Summary: (100 words or fewer)
A brief summary of the research to be undertaken, written in non-technical language so that a non-specialist in the discipline will know what the proposal involves.
The primary aim of this study is toexplore the local perception of MNE entry into a new market, focusing on host- countryperceptions of Amazon’s entry into the Australian market. Although research has been conducted on entry strategies in International Business (IB), and spillover impact in terms of technology transfer and economic and employment bnefit,there is scantresearch regarding the broader impact on host countries, in particular, the way in which the entry is perceived within the host country. Previous research has tended to focus on firm performance after entry, or on the technology transfer and other spillover effects. Theresearch will adopt a post-positivist qualitative approach, focusing on the case study of Amazon’s entryintoAustralia. The study will analysessecondary data obtained from sources such as media articles, discussion papers from Australian government websites and industry publications.
Literature/Past Research Review
A summary of the literature you have reviewed which will provide the context in which the research is to be undertaken.This should include a brief account of how the proposed project relates to existing knowledge and literature within the appropriate field.
International business research affirms that businesses grow through expansion beyond the borders (Han,2016).Before making entry decisions, many factors must be taken into play (Al-Habash,Mmieh&Cleeve, 2015), such as potential returns (Papanastassiou, 2009), and the ability to finance and establish the new business, in acontext containing different market policies (Ayden,Demirbag&Tatoglu, 2017). Researchers have identified that making entry decisionsregarding both country choice and choice of entry mode also requires proper understanding of market forces. MNE’s can enter the market in either indirect or FDI modes. International Business (IB) researchers have used OLI to explain whether firms enter through FDI (Rathert, 2016). FDI is impacted by the differences in the political environment (Rathert, 2016). According to Beleska-Spasova, (2016), strategic planning is the primary ingredient in surviving unpredicted market forces.As described by Ayden, Demirbag and Tatoglu, (2017),a company needs a competitive advantage in each market that they operate. There are some dominant theories regading the way in which international Businesses expand, including the staged (Upsalla) model, and elective paradigm (OLI).Uppsala is one of the most dynamic theories discussed in the international trade market (Hodnett& Hsieh, 2012). It details sequential steps which should be taken before resorting to new markets (Ito &Komoriya, 2015). According to the proposition of Uppsala, expansion should start in the nearby psychic place (Jones, 2014). After continuous growth, the business can then seek a distant investment (Zekos, 2003). Furthermore, OLI model suggests that the business should consider ownership, location and internalisation advantages (Jones, 2014)
Improvement of information technology has assisted businesses to explore global markets. Online platforms have facilitated entry of new markets (Herrmann, 2005). To have the proper guideline on how to expand the business, there are some theories which direct the process. Previousliteraturehas tried to focus on the entry of new market (Han, 2016; Hennart, 2009). They indicate the opportunities which foreign business can tap into in other nations. Previous research also shows the importance of MNEs entering the new market (Kabiraj& Sinha, 2014). According to the authors, some of the advantages are increased profit resulting from low competition and therefore control of significant market share (Dikova& Van, 2007). Additionally, the business spreads risks to other areas. Instead of operating in one area, the business benefits from diverse culture and tastes (Manea& Pearce, 2006). These are traditional ways IB researchers think about expansion and market.
There is significant research on the factors, which affect MNEs once they enter the new market (Staning, 2011). Additionally, there is more coverage on emerging market and technology, and other spillover effects. According to Blomkvist, Kappen and Zander, (2010), political factors are instrumental in ensuring the success of market entry. In areas where political instability is witnessed, the chances of business thriving are very minimal (Chen & Johnson, 2015).Chang, (2006) also affirms that technological changes contribute to business performance in new markets. Information technology infrastructure and technical capabilities determine the prosperity of a new entrant in the market (Duanmu, 2006).Social factors such as religion and wealth also have a crucial role in securing demand for goods and services (Duanmu, 2006).
However, when a multinational enterprise entersa new market, it also has implications for the host country businesses and industries (Durnev, 2010). According to Ernes, (2003), a dominant company affects the host nation’s business operating in the same field. The weaker businesses find it hard to survive due to stiff competition in the market (Dikovas& Van, 2007). Although it is beneficial to the country regarding tax collected, the host businesses and industries are forced to use more funds in marketing (Dimitropoulou, Pearce & Papanastassiou, 2009).
Some researchers have highlighted advantages for the host country. Firstly, the country benefits from the skilled foreignlabour (Morgan, 2009). Additionally, new technologies are introduced in the country, which is used to boost other sectors of the economy (Morgan, 2009). Moreover, the new businesses create employment, improving the living standards of the locals. Finally, the government collects more returns due to the high circulation of money in the economy.However, there are those who signal disadvantages of foreign companies’ entry into the market (Morgan, 2009).However, there is little research which empirically explores the wider impacts (Papanastassiou, 1997). A recent example of MNE entry which has been given significant public attention is the entry of Amazon into Australia. Currently, there is little scholarly work exploring this example, but there are commentaries in the media and political sources about the impact (Ogendo, 2017). Therefore, this study will explore the host country perception of an MNE entering a developed market, by analysing the case of Amazon’s entry into Australia.
Research Question/Design/Plan of the Study:
Provide a research question and brief outline of the potential methodology and methods/research technique(s) to be employed in the study.
Research Question: “How are MNE’s entry into developed markets perceived to impact host country industries: The case of Amazon’s entry into Australia.”
Underpinned by a post-positivist paradigm, this research will utilise a secondary qualitative methodology, using a case-study approach to explore perceptions of Amazon’s entry into Australia. Case-study research allows the use of different sources of data to build a deep understanding of the research context (Sartor &Bearnish, 2014). To achieve an in-depth understanding of the research question, the paradigm will be post-positivist one because this paradigm highlights the importance of thecontext of the phenomena(Eriksson & Kovalainen,2015).Along with qualitative case study approach, which is useful for achieving a contextual and detailed understanding of the area by using various sources of information (Regner & Edman, 2013).Case Research allows access to a wide range of data from various case studies that will be used for more understanding.Also, the incorporation and contrasting of diverse opinions involved in case study approach can support and form a rich and thorough understanding of a perspective (Gray, 2009).As the the reserchs design is exploratory in nature,case-study is an appropriate choice(Flyvbjerg,2011).
The research will use secondary data gathered from media sources, government and industry publications related to entry of Amazon into the Australian market. The use of multiple sources allows for in-depth analysis and triangulation. The first stage will be the review of extant literature from scholarly journal articles. The second stage of data collection will be from the quality national media sources. I will then use thematic analysis to analyse the data.
|Strategic Heterogeneity in MNEs||1,967|
|Market entry strategies||175,264|
|MNEs centric theories||500|
|MNEs expansion in developed countries||9290|
|Foreign entry of MNE||45,290|
|Impact of MNEs||15,310|
|Multinational enterprises and developed markets||146,441|
Secondary data sources – Amazon in Australia
|Media Article Sources will be selected based on national coverage, restricted to 2015-2017.||The Australian, The Age, Herald Sun, Sydney Morning Herald and The Daily Telegraph.|
|Business Press Restricted to 2015-2017||Business Review Australia www.businessreviewaustralia.com|
|Government publications Used to gain industry statistics, regulatory information, government discussion documents relating to Amazon entry.||Australian Bureau of statistics www.australia.gov.au/directories/australia/abs Business and Industry https://www.australia.gov.au/information-and-services/business-and-industry Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade https://dfat.gov.au/pages/default.aspx|
Thematic analysis will be used in this research. According to Sartor&Bearish, (2014), thematic analysis helps to identify ideas (themes) from the data. Moreover, thematic analysis can support researcher’s interpretation of themes by data. My analytical approach will be grounded in nature, involving open coding in the first instance (Sartor& Bearish, 2014).After open coding, I will group themes with emerge, in an iterative process, consulting the literature.
The key ethical considerations to be addressed in the research. Indicate whether ethical approval will be required. If ethical approval is not required, please include a statement identifying the reasons why the approval is not required.
The current study does not require ethical approval since secondary sources will be used in this. However, the work will be conducted ethically along with the guidelines of Auckland University of Technology (AUT) ethics procedure.
Resources and Budget
Indicate what resources (if any) you will need to complete your research which are over and above those that are readily available in the library, computer centre, laboratories etc. Indicate a planned budget for your research. Please indicate how you intend to fund your research,e.g. -through scholarships, personal expenses, etc. If the resources required are higher than that which might be provided by your faculty please state how this will be funded.
There are no other additional resources required to complete this work, side from the usual study resources provided by Auckland University of Technology (AUT) to postgraduate students.
Indicate where the research will be conducted, and if not at AUT, provide a brief justification and indicate how communication and resource issues will be addressed.
The research work will be conducted and completed on Auckland University of Technology (AUT) city campus.
Timetable for Completion
Provide an outline of the major activities required to complete your research and write up your thesis/dissertation (including activities already completed or partially completed), and indicate the date by which you expect to complete each activity
|Feb 26-March 11 March 16 March 17-April 15 April 16 April 16- May07 May 18 May 19-02 June 03 June 04 June -16 June 17 June 25 June-02 July 02 July-23 July 27 July||Literature seaeching,Draft Literature review preparation Draft Literature Review Chapter to Supervisor Secondary Data Collection, Draft Methodology Chapter Draft Methodology Chapter to Supervisor Data Analysis Draft Findings Chapter to Supervisor Draft Discussion Chapter Draft Discussion Chapter to Supervisor Draft Conclusion/Introduction Full Draft to Supervisor Amendments to Draft Proofreading, Editing Submission.|
A list of sources referred to in the proposal.
Abo T. (2012). Global Operations of Japanese MNEs’ Hybrid Factories: Management Geography Framework. In: Schlunze R.D., Agola N.O., Baber W.W. (eds) Spaces of International Economy and Management (pp. 176-199). Palgrave Macmillan, London.
Al-Habash, O., Mmieh, F., &Cleeve, E. (2015). Multinational Enterprises’ Entry Mode Strategies in Syria and Jordan: The Impact of Ownership Advantages. Thunderbird International Business Review, 59(6), 677-691. doi: https://dx.doi.org/10.1002/tie.21775
Ayden, Y., Demirbag, M., &Tatoglu, E. (2017). Market Entry Strategies of Turkish MNEs. Turkish Multinationals, 127-168. doi:https://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-57294-9_5
Beleska-Spasova, E., Loykulnanta, S., & Nguyen, Q. (2016). Firm-specific, national and regional competitive advantages: The case of emerging market MNEs—Thailand. Asian Business & Management, 15(4), 264-291. doi:https://dx.doi.org/10.1057/s41291-016-0009-8
Blomkvist, K., Kappen, P., & Zander, I. (2010). Quo vadis? The entry into new technologies in advanced foreign subsidiaries of the multinational enterprise. Journal of International Business Studies, 41(9), 1525-1549. doi:https://dx.doi.org/10.1057/jibs.2010.22
Chang J, (2006). Ownership Structure, Diversification Strategy, and Performance: Implications for Asian Emerging Market Multinational Enterprises. In: Choi J., Click R. (eds.) Value Creation in Multinational Enterprise (International Finance Review) (pp.125 – 148). Emerald Group Publishing Limited.
Chen, V., & Johnson, L. (2015). Emerging market MNEs and social responsibility: An institutional pressure perspective. Transnational Corporations, 22(3), 1-4. doi:https://dx.doi.org/10.18356/6002938c-en
Duanmu, J. (2006). Country of Origin Effects on Knowledge Transfers from MNEs to their Chinese Suppliers: an Exploratory Investigation. Managerial Issues in International Business, 162-179. doi:https://dx.doi.org/10.1057/9780230800700_10
Dikova, D., & van Witteloostuijn, A. (2007). Foreign direct investment mode choice: entry and establishment modes in transition economies. Journal of International Business Studies, 38(6), 1013-1033. doi:https://dx.doi.org/10.1057/palgrave.jibs.8400297
Dimitropoulou D., Pearce R., & Papanastassiou M. (2009). Strategic Heterogeneity in MNEs and the Integrating European Economy. In: The Strategic Development of Multinationals. Palgrave Macmillan, London
Durnev A. (2010). Comment: Do We Need a New Theory to Explain Emerging Market Multinational Enterprises? In: Sauvant K.P., McAllister G., Maschek W.A. (eds) Foreign Direct Investments from Emerging Markets (pp. 89-93).Palgrave Macmillan, New York
Eriksson, P., &Kovalainen, A. (2015). Qualitative methods in business research (2nd ed.). London: SAGE.
Ernes J. (2003). Market Entry Strategies and Competitive Advantages in Poland. In: Stüting HJ. Dorow W., Claassen F., Blazejewski S. (eds) Change Management in Transition Economies. Palgrave Macmillan, London
Flyvbjerg. (2011). Case study. In N.K. Denzin & Y.S. Lincoln (eds.), The Sage handbook of qualitative research(4th ed., pp.289-299). London: Sage.
Gray, D. (2009). Doing research in the real world (2nd ed.). Los Angeles: SAGE.
Han, C. (2016). Can CSR by MNEs enhance home country image? An empirical investigation with Asian MNEs in Vietnam. International Journal of Business Governance and Ethics, 11(3), 183. doi:https://dx.doi.org/10.1504/ijbge.2016.081630
Hennart, J. (2009). Down with MNE-centric theories! Market entry and expansion as the bundling of MNE and local assets. Journal of International Business Studies, 40(9), 1432-1454. doi:https://dx.doi.org/10.1057/jibs.2009.42
Herrmann, A. (2005). Converging Divergence: How Competitive Advantages Condition Institutional Change under EMU*. JCMS: Journal of Common Market Studies, 43(2), 287-310. doi:https://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.0021-9886.2005.00556.x
Hodnett, K., & Hsieh, H. (2012). Capital market theories: Market efficiency versus investor prospects. International Business & Economics Research Journal (IBER), 11(8), 849. doi:https://dx.doi.org/10.19030/iber.v11i8.7163
Ito J., Komoriya Y. (2015). The Impact of Transfer Pricing Regulations on the Location Decisions of MNEs. In: Ishikawa T. (eds) Firms’ Location Selections and Regional Policy in the Global Economy(pp 81-106).Springer, Tokyo
Jones, G. (2014), Business History and the Impact of MNEs on Host Economies. In: Boddewyn J. (eds) Multidisciplinary Insights from New AIB Fellows (pp.177 – 198). Emerald Group Publishing Limited.
Kabiraj, T., & Sinha, U. (2014). Foreign Entry, Acquisition Target and Host Country Welfare. The Manchester School, 83(6), 725-748. doi:https://dx.doi.org/10.1111/manc.12084
Manea, J., & Pearce, R. (2006). MNEs’ strategies in Central and Eastern Europe: key elements of subsidiary behaviour. Management International Review, 46(2), 235-255. doi:https://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11575-006-0046-1
Morgan J. (2009). Theories of Leveraged Buyouts and Theories of Market Instability. In: Private Equity Finance (pp. 153-178). Palgrave Macmillan, London
Ogendo J.L. (2017). Achieve Sustainable Performance in Dynamic Business Environment. In: Emerging Economy MNEs (pp.77-88). Palgrave Macmillan, Cham
Papanastassiou M. (1997). Firm-Strategies and the Research-Intensity of US MNEs’ Overseas Operations: An Analysis of Host-Country Determinants. In: Global Competition and Technology (pp. 153-179). Palgrave Macmillan, London
Rathert, N. (2016). Strategies of legitimation: MNEs and the adoption of CSR in response to host-country institutions. Journal of International Business Studies, 47(7), 858-879. doi:https://dx.doi.org/10.1057/jibs.2016.19
Sartor, M., & Beamish, P. (2014). Offshoring innovation to emerging markets: Organizational control and informal institutional distance. Journal of International Business Studies, 45(9), 1072-1095.doi:https://dx.doi.org/10.1057/jibs.2014.36
Standing, G. (2011). Labour market policies, poverty and insecurity. International Journal of Social Welfare, 20(3), 260-269. doi:https://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-2397.2010.00778.x
Zekos, G. (2003). MNEs, globalisation and digital economy: legal and economic aspects. Managerial Law, 45(1/2), 1-296. doi:https://dx.doi.org/10.1108/03090550310770875