Efficiency of The Management of The Extraction of Gas in BP Khazzan Project Field

This study looks into the case of the effectiveness and efficiency of the management systems in the case of extracting natural gas in BP Khazzan project field situated in Oman. The study primarily defines the industry and provides a background as to the gas mining industry in the first chapter of introduction of the study. It also develops the research questions and objectives in the first chapter and effectively defines the aim of the research along with its significance. In Chapter 2 which is the literature review, the research essentially looks into the process of drilling for natural gas, the transportation systems which are involved and the various different challenges which may arise due to the same. After defining the challenges that may be faced effectively the study essentially defines the various different solutions that may be relevant to reducing the risk posed by the challenges of the environment.

Chapter 3 which is the methodology part of the study defines the various different aspects of the methods which have been used in order to collect data and analyse it for the study. This part defines the philosophy, approach, tools and type of research which has been used in order to effectively ensure that the study was conducted efficiently. The study in his chapter also outlines the various different ethical considerations which need to be considered in the case of research and effectively defines the reliability and validity of research. In the fourth chapter of Data Analysis, the study defines the findings which have been derived from data which has been collected along with brief analysis of each part.

Important factors such as that of sustainability, effective leadership and investment barriers are also discussed pertaining to the effectiveness of the management of extraction of gas. In the final chapter of the study which is that of conclusions and recommendations, the study appropriately concludes the research and links the research to the objectives which had been set out in the introductory chapter. The study in this chapter further provides recommendations on the basis of the findings of the study in accordance to maintaining the effectiveness and efficiency of management of the extraction of natural gas from the BP Khazzan project field. The study also defines the future scope of research which is available alongside the limitations of the research.

Keywords: Sustainability, Effectiveness of management, Inclusive management, Waste Heat energy Harvesting, Effective Control

Chapter 1: Introduction

1.0 Introduction

This chapter will look into the basis of the topic which has been selected for conducting the study. This chapter seeks to evaluate the basic characteristics of the Oil and Gas sector in Oman and shed light on the Khazzan gas Field. It also seeks to look into the basic management structure which is followed by the oil and gas industry. This chapter further outlines the rationale for the study, sets out the aims and objectives and effectively conveys the main research question which is to be considered for the study. It also provides and outline for the entire research and states the significance that the research will have for future purposes.

1.1 Research Background

1.1.1 Oil and Gas industry Overview in Oman

In the case of the oil and gas industry of Oman it can be viewed that i6t holds critical value in the case of the country of Oman. The hydrocarbon sector of Oman accounts for about 72% of its total revenue and adds to the growing economy of the country effectively. In light of the study of Figgins et al. (2018), it can be viewed that the industry has a total of about 4.7 billion barrels of oil reserves which are accounted for and a 25 trillion cubic feet natural gas reserve as of 2018. Oman aimed to produce 120 million cubic metres of gas per day from 2014 to 2018. In the case of the industry of Oman it is seen that it is one of the largest oil and natural gas industries in the case of the world and also is a major supplier of these essential resources across the globe. In the case of the industry it can be viewed that the industry effectively incorporated the Enhanced Oil Recovery(EOR) system which was key in driving up the production and the efficiency of oil mining.

It can be viewed in the light of imports and exports Oman exports huge quantities of oil to Asian economies, China being the largest importer of oil. China alone accounts for 77% of Oman’s oil exports alongside India at 10%, Japan at 4% and South Korea at 3% (Figgins et al. 2018). In the case of imports it can be viewed that Oman does not account for imports of crude oil, however, the economy does import essential elements of refined petroleum products. 

In the case of the economy it can be that there a number of state companies which are into the production of oil and gas in the case of the country the most prominent organisation being Petroleum Development Oman which contributes almost for about all of the oil production in the context of the country. The PDO consists of 60% undertaking of the government and 40% of other organisations such as that of Shell, Total and Partex. In the case of the Khazzan Oil Field it can be viewed that BP Oman went into an agreement with the Government of Oman to develop the gas field. In the light of the gas field the wells were drilled by incorporating the use of 8 drilling rigs as the surface and the nature of the reservoirs were tight and rugged. The Khazzan gas field alone produces around 35000 barrels of resources per day (Hydrocarbons-technology.com, 2018).

In the case of the industry of Oman it can be seen that the industry effectively and efficiently is one of the largest industries in the world and the government is seeking to regulate and develop the same. However, adverse conditions are being faced by the industry in terms of its sustainability and eco-friendliness. It must be viewed that effective changes in management policies are required in order to effectively ensure that the industry is sustainable in nature.

1.1.2 Management and its importance to the oil and gas sector

In the case of management it is important to understand that it is quintessential for an industry to be effectively controlled and managed in order to effectively ensure that it runs smoothly. In the case of the oil and gas industry it must be viewed that just like any other industry there is a requirement of various different departments such as:

Human resource management

As per the study of Noe et al. (2017), the management of human resources is quintessential to the success of an organisation. Every organisation must effectively set out an organisational structure, codes, rules and policies which need to be maintained in order to achieve and integrate the objectives of the companies. According to Bartram et al. (2017), every organization has a separate structure and it is important to ensure that the employees and their work can be effectively integrated into it. However, with the growing need of sustainability in the industries it is important for the Oil and Gas sector of Oman to undertake the measures of sustainable management an inclusive practice. It can be viewed that in the case of Oman the organizational structure is highly patriarchal in nature and it lacks inclusive management policies which are required in order to ensure sustainability on the case of the market.

Operations Management

According to Reid and Sanders (2015), operations management includes the range of systems and procedures which govern the assets of a company and their use alongside the delivery of the end product to the market. In case of the oil and gas industry it is important to note that operations management is a key aspect which governs the sustainability of the industry, in the light of growing environmental regulations it is important to view that the industry of Oman is required to effectively develop proper management practices which will benefit the environment. As per the study of Li et al. (2016), it can be observed that this is a bit difficult to achieve as the drilling systems of oil are not developed to prevent oil spills and other such factors which pollute the oceans. However, it can also be viewed that systems of Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR) are being implemented in order to effectively ensure that the environmental impacts can be reduced. The supply chain which is used in the case of the industry must also be effectively integrated with global Green systems in order to align the systems with green policies

Oman and management

In Oman, the culture of the industry is more reserved in nature and this leads to a host of problems such as the lack of adaptability. According to Coetzee et al. (2015), it is important to understand that the adaptability of an organization is quintessential in order for it to cope with change and effectively ensure continuity in the processes of development. In the light of the management of the extraction of oil it can be observed that there is a growing need for sustainability which needs to be incorporated in order to effectively ensure that the industry is environment friendly and aids to solve the modern problems of the global economy. Development can be seen to be an important process in the light of this industry.

1.2 Rationale

This study will look into the effectiveness of management of the company of BP in the extraction of gas in the Khazzan gas Field in Oman and seek to evaluate the loopholes in the procedures. The study will seek to assess the various different aspects of management which are undertaken during the process of extraction and the organizational management which needs to be considered in order for undertaking the process. The study will also seek to understand the system changes which can be incorporated in order to bridge the loopholes which are detected in the processes and systems of the company.

1.3 Research Questions

Main Research Question

What is the impact of the management systems and their effectiveness and efficiency in the BP Khazzan gas field?

Sub Research questions

  1. How effective are the systems of management which are incorporated in the extraction of gas?
  2. What are the drawbacks of the existing systems in the case of the Khazzan gas field of BP?
  3. What are the opportunities for development of the systems in the case of the management of the Bp Khazzan gas field?
  4. What are the challenges that may be faced in the process of the development of these systems?

1.4 Research Aim

The aim of this research is to evaluate the effectiveness and efficiency of the management of the extraction of gas in the BP Khazzan project field. The study aims to find out the discrepancies in the systems of management in the process and provide appropriate remedies to the same.

1.5 Research Objectives

The objectives of this research are:

  • To understand the management processes in the context of the BP Khazzan gas field with respect to the industry and assessing the efficiency of the incorporated systems of management in the process of the extraction of gas
  • To identify loopholes in the management system which is already incorporated in the process of extraction of gas at the Khazzan field
  • To identify the opportunities in the sector in order to effectively develop the systems of management
  • To recommend appropriate methods and systems which will be beneficial in order for the development of the process of extraction

1.6 Significance of Research

This research is important as it will serve as a basis of addition to future research which may be undertaken in the context of the Khazzan gas field and its management. The research will also effectively aid to the development of an understanding of the processes of management which are incorporated in the bags field alongside the drawbacks which prevail within the systems of the same. This research also helps in identifying the various different options for the development of the systems in the context of the Khazzan Gas field in order for the development of appropriate management strategies. This research will also aid to future research of sustainability as it will look into sustainable methods of operations management and incorporation of sustainability in the case of the management of extraction of gas.

1.7 Structure of Dissertation

Efficiency of The Management of The Extraction of Gas in BP Khazzan Project Field

Figure 1.1: Structure of Dissertation

(Source: Created by Author)

Chapter 1: Introduction

In the case of this study the first chapter of Introduction gives an overview of the research which is being undertaken and it defines clearly the background of the research alongside the research questions, the research objectives and the main aims of conducting the research.

Chapter 2: Literature review

The second chapter of Literature review studies appropriate literature pertaining to the topic of this study in order to develop a better understanding of the topic.

Chapter 3: Methodology

The third chapter of Methodology defines the methods which have been used in the case of the research in order to derive the appropriate findings and conclusions of the research.

Chapter 4: Data Analysis

The fourth chapter is that of data analyses which defines the findings of the research in accordance to the data which has been processed and develops a discussion regarding the same in order to effectively interpret the findings of the research.

Chapter 5: Conclusion and Recommendations

Finally the fifth chapter of conclusions and recommendations considers the analysis of data and draw appropriate conclusions, summarizing the study and provides recommendations with respect to the problems found in the study.

1.8 Summary

This chapter effectively sheds light on the il and gas sector of Oman and also looks into management and its importance for underlining the background of the study. The chapter also effectively provides the research objectives which are considered for the study and defines the research the aim of the research. The chapter further defines main and sub research questions which are being asked in the case of this study and effectively provides an outline of the structure of the research. The chapter also enumerates the significance of undertaking this research in order to effectively provide the reason as to why undertaking this research is important. This chapter thus, outlines the entire research and what is going to be looked into by the research.

Chapter 2: Literature Review

2.0 Introduction

This chapter will look into the literature which pertains to the effectiveness and efficiency in the management of extracting oil from the BP Khazzan gas field. The chapter will primarily define the conceptual framework used in order to effectively conduct a literature review. The chapter essentially looks into the extraction of gas in Oman and the process which is used with respect to the BP Khazzan Gas field. It then derives the various different techniques of management and links them with respect to appropriate literature. It further reviews the various different challenges which are faced in the process of the extraction of gas in the case of Oman and specifically Khazzan. The chapter then looks into the management techniques which can be used as solutions in order for effective management for extracting gas and increasing the efficiency. This chapter thus will help in gaining a better understanding of the topic of the study in order to effectively conduct the research.

2.1 Conceptual framework

Efficiency of The Management of The Extraction of Gas in BP Khazzan Project Field

Figure 2.1: Conceptual Framework

(Source: Created by Author)

2.2 Extraction of gas in Oman with respect to the Khazzan Gas Field-BP

In the light of the process of extraction there are three distinct steps in the drilling of natural gas and mining. According to Powers et al. (2015), natural gas is derived often from the drilling of petroleum as it is found in the same reserves more than often.

Drilling

The first stage of extracting natural; gas is that of drilling a well for the extraction of the natural resource. In the case of drilling more than often there are certain problems that may arise due to the terrain where the reserves are. According to Wang and Krupnick (2015), this process is undertaken by attaching a long piece of metal to a drilling string and it is used to drill the earth. The hole which is formed is then cased using a small steel pipe and cement in order for providing an appropriate shape and structure to the entire system. In the case of Khazzan it must be accessed that the process of drilling is a complicated one as the terrain of the gas field is very rugged and the rocks are hard. As per the views of Butolin et al. (2018), harder rocks lead to more intensified pressure on the surface of the earth and this may lead to uneven or uncontrolled cracks which may occur throughout the span of the Earth. This more than often leads to spills and thus proves to be a major problem in the drilling process. The spilled oil or gas acts as a pollutant and pollutes the environment around it, thus utmost care is required while drilling at such areas.

Figure 2.1: Oil Drilling Rig

(Source: Qsr2010.ospar.org, 2010)

Preparation of Transportation

After the process of drilling is complete the natural gas is then collected in order to be transported effectively. As per the views of Lampert et al. (2016), a gathering system consisting of pipelines is used in order for the collection of the gas. These pipelines are essentially low pressure and they transport the gas from the well directly to the processing plant where the gas is to be refined. According to Ríos-Mercado and Borraz-Sánchez (2015), natural gas transportation also has various different problems which may occur in the process such as that of the pipeline bursting due to high pressures deep inside the surface and below the oceans. This may cause major spills and contribute to polluting the environment of the surrounding ocean.

Figure 2.2: Oil Drilling Rig

(Source: Pulse.nc policy watch.org, 2017)

Refining and processing

From the research of Faramawy et al. (2016), it can be viewed that raw natural gas essentially consists of methane and other hydrocarbons. The primary stage of refining of raw gas is that of the removal of the acid gases which prevail in the system. This is done by undertaking a treatment which is called the membrane treatment. This treatment is essentially undertaken and the remaining acid gases are used in order to create products which are sulphurous in nature. As per the view of Wang (2016), the water is then removed as it is essential for the gas to be clear and free of the same. After the water has been effectively removed the revenant is filtered through activated carbon in order to remove the mercury which is present in the raw natural gas and finally the nitrogen gas liquids are to be taken out. According to Nimana et al. (2015), the nitrogen gas liquids are taken out by channelling the product into a low temperature system in order for undertaking cryogenic distillation.

This gas which has been obtained is then channelled through high pressure pipelines which span across states and cities in order to effectively transport the gas. As per the views of Meng et al. (2017), these pipelines are highly pressurised by the help of compressor stations at regular intervals. This effectively creates a supply of gas and the gas is stored in cylinders and transported to households.

In the case of the transportation of the extraction of the gas there are a number of major risks which can be enlisted and these risks have the potential of environmental degradation. According to Guandalini et al. (2017), in the process the use of high pressure systems relates to the strict control that must be maintained at all times in order to ensure that there is not overload which may result in the bursting of pipelines and leakage of toxic gas. To prevent these problems in the case of the natural gas drilling it is important to understand the challenges in depth. The management of these systems must also effectively b viewed in order to ensure that the control systems of these technologies are strict and can be checked. According to the study of Garbolino et al. (2016), the regular assessment of the functionality of such delicate systems is the key to maintain operational efficiency and effectiveness in the light of the process.

2.3 Challenges in the Extraction of natural Gas

Costly Process

As per the views of Ou et al. (2016), the exploration process of natural gas is a highly costly process. This industry entails the use of heavy machinery and this requires heavy investment values to be poured into the system of setting up of a natural gas manufacturing unit. As per the study of Alexander and Eberly (2018), it must also be analysed that there is a scepticism which prevails amongst the investors of the industry pertaining to the tightening government regulations and the rising concerns regarding the environment. The requirement of sustainability and sustainable systems is increasing and is highly being demanded by the investors of the industry. It can be viewed however, has here are investments which are exploring the nature of sustainable methods of gas extraction, however, these require heavy cost and is a risky process.

Geological Factors

In the light of the various different problems which are being faced, the geological factors are a major problem in the context of this industry as they affect the site of drilling. As per the views of Czolowski et al. (2017), it must be viewed that there is a high risk pertaining to the geological factors such as the terrain of drilling. It can be observed that there is a high risk of drilling in rough terrain fields such as that of the Khazzan field. These fields mainly consist of tough rocks which are hard to drill through. According to the study of Kuznetsov and Suprun (2017), it can be analysed that fields which consist of rough terrains are essentially risky to drill across as there is a high chance of cracks which may form alongside the drill point which leads to leakage of gas and pollutes the surrounding environment. From the study of Amanullah et al. (2018), there is also a high chance of drilling across fault lines which results in pressure on the tectonic plates and thus it may cause major natural calamities such as tsunamis and earthquakes.

Government regulation

In the light of government regulations it is essential to understand that there is a major global concern regarding climate change and environmental degradation. According to Ahmad et al. (2017), the rising concern regarding these issues the governments across the globe have tightened their regulations with respect to the industry of natural gas and oil manufacturing. The regulations have strict barriers and rules in the transportation of the oil and gas and the drilling of the same. These regulations serve as challenges as they are prone to making investors of the sector less likely to invest in the sector more often.

Environmental concerns

In the light of the environmental concerns is a high amount of pollution which was seen in the case of the oil and gas sector. As per the views of Krupnick and Gordon (2015), it is essential to understand that there is a major need for ensuring that the oil and gas sector is effectively sustainable in nature and upholds the requirements of environmental sustainability. In the case of the Oil and Gas sector the number of spills and the toxic nature of the products is a major concern for the environment which is surrounding the environment of this industry. According to Sherry et al. (2017), the UN SDGs which have been placed and enacted globally by various different economies are a major concern for the oil and gas industry as it is difficult to attain sustainability in such an industry and it is also difficult to ensure that there is a low amount of problems which are faced in the same.

Explosive Nature of the product

Extraction and transportation are very risky processes in the light of the industry of Oil and Gas. It can be viewed from the work of Luo et al. (2018), that the transport of the products of gas such as that of LNG is very risky and it is a costly affair. Shipping of these materials is not a viable option for the industry as the products are extremely explosive in nature and there is a high chance of major spills that may occur. It can also be viewed from the work of von Fischer et al. (2017), the pipelines which are used in the transportation of gas across states must effectively be controlled and managed as there is a high propensity for these pipelines to burst due to the high pressure system that is contained within them.

Competitor energy products

In the case of the industry of natural gas it can be viewed that there is high competition in the market between sources of energy. According to Hong et al. (2016), there is high competition which is derived from competitor energy products such as electricity and solar energy. With the move towards sustainability it must be identified that there is a high propensity of the investors of the Oil and gas sector shift into investing in other sources of energy and this will aid to the depletion of the resources which can be accessed by the industry.

2.4 Management techniques which can resolve the issues

Waste Energy Harvesting

As it can be viewed from the study of Kaygusuz and Sekerci (2016), the oil and gas industry is putting major focus in the context of ensuring that there is appropriate use of the waste resources which are secreted by the process of production. For instance, the waste heat which is being generated is effectively captured and is used as a form of energy in the same process. This helps in effectively curbing the environmental pollution around the industry and also in ensuring that there is a more sustainable method of energy usage. From the study of Rubinstein and Mahani (2015), the enhanced oil recovery systems are also a major benefit in the process of the extraction of oil and its management. It can be viewed that these systems effectively help in increasing the productivity of the plants and also ensure that there is effectively recovery. It is a very important control system which ensures that the oil drilling process is sustainable in nature.

Figure 2.3: Waste energy harvesting

(Source: Seas.ucla.edu, 2015)

Effective Control Systems

In the case of the management of the process it is analysed that the control of this process is necessary factor which ensures sustainability. As per the study of Hazir (2015), it can be viewed that effective control management must be ensured in the case of the transportation of the gas through pipelines. The pipeline system is that of a high pressure system which is controlled by compressor stations. It can be viewed that the leaders and management of the industry must effectively ensure that the processes of these compression stations are effectively coordinated. According to Bhuyian and Wahab (2018), systems of operations such as kaizen, Just-in-time and Total Quality Management are effectively options which can be incorporated in order to ensure that there is appropriate communication and coordination in the processes. This effectively ensures that there is a lack of discrepancy in the systems and ensures lower wastage of resources and pollution.

As opined by George et al. (2016), the control systems integrated with sustainable methods of operations and sustainable systems ensure that the processes of the oil and gas industry can be effectively driven towards achieving sustainability. The effectiveness of these systems implicates higher efficiency of the processes of the industry and ensures that the negative impacts are reduced to the highest possible extent.

2.5 The importance of management in the process of natural gas extraction

Increasing efficiency

According to Nabavi-Pelesaraei et al. (2017), effective management policies of the operations of any organisation help in ensuring that the processes of the organisation are efficient. In the case of the oil and gas sector it must be observed that effective management ensures the high efficiency of the processes of the industry and that the industry remains competitive. According to Shin and Konrad (2017), high efficiency ensures that the productivity of the industry is higher and this aids to the development of the systems of the organisations and helps the organisations in rodeo exploit the full length of their resources and capabilities. 

Maintenance of Effective Control

As per the views of Kreutzer et al. (2015), effective control ensures that the systems which are being used are monitored and the loopholes in the systems are discovered effectively. The discovery of the flaws in the systems ensures the development of the systems on a regular basis. As opined by Rebelo et al. (2016), the regular development of systems ensures the reduction in the number of process discrepancies and ensures that the flow of the work in the case of the organisation is effectively maintained. In the case of the oil and gas sector control is essential and it can be viewed that it must be effectively maintained in order to ensure that the operations do not break down suddenly.

Figure 2.3: Continuous development

(Source:Hbr.org, 2018)

Ensuring sustainability

Effective management and efficiency ensures that the organisation is sustainable. As per the views of George et al. (2016), the management of an organization is a key factor which greatly contributes to inducing sustainability by making sustainable choices and incorporating effective sustainable operations. According to Dong et al. (2016), this ensures that there is continuous development and monitoring and this is beneficial in order of the development of the processes of the industry. Sustainability is a result of effective management systems and this helps in ensuring that environmental degradation with regards to the industry can also be mitigated.

2.6 The process of extraction of Gas in relation to the environmental awareness

In the case of the oil and gas sector sustainability is a rising concern which is putting pressure on the companies that function inside the industry. In the case of the oil and gas sector it is important to view that the sector has effectively undertaken the processes of sustainability such as the case of Marathon Oil. The company of Marathon oil developed a technology called the Global Performance System (GPS) and implemented it in the context of Environmental, Health and Safety (EHS) efforts to be made. Shell organisation also has developed a system of LNG barges which help in the transportation of disel, unleaded petrol and oil across countries in Europe (Schneider et al. 2013).

While it can be viewed that in the case of EHS there is a lot of awareness amongst the oil and gas sector, the major risk areas still prevail with regards to the processes, safety of the workplace, protection of the environment and the personnel and the sustainability of the industry. These effectively need to be mitigated in order to ensure that there is absolute sustainability which is brought about in the business of the industry.

Bringing about sustainability however, seems like a difficult feat in the light of this industry as the rates of compliance it has with the incorporated systems is very low. In the case of the implemented systems it can be viewed that there is a lack of execution of the processes. The performance management in the case of these systems is really low and there is no strict order for implementation. As per the study of Schneider et al. (2013), there is also very low awareness of sustainability in the employee force of the oil and gas sector. The environmental concerns need to be effectively reviewed by the sector in order to ensure that appropriate management systems can be placed.

Overall it can be viewed that the extraction process of oil and natural gas is a risky one and it causes environmental degradation due to spills and leaks. While there are technological developments being made with respect to the EHS concerns of the globe, these systems are lacking when it comes to performance. From the study of Yusuf et al. (2013), the lack of compliance in the case of the industry must be looked into in order to ensure that the systems which have been set up are being controlled and used properly. This will help in ensuring the sustainability of the industry.

2.7 Literature Gap

In the case of this study it can be stated that there is a major gap in the case of literature as it does not consider the cost bearings of the management systems that must be implemented. It can also be viewed that the study does not look into the technical aspects of the systems which are used in order to effectively extract the gas. The study also does not consider the aspects of the human resource which functions within the context of the extraction process as it mainly focuses on the systems of transportation and drilling of natural gas. The study also does not look into the areas of human resource management and the possible methods of efficiency which can be brought about by the same process in the light of the industry. The study also does look too deeply into the industry and the external and internal influences that may affect the process of extraction of natural gas.

2.8 Summary

This chapter effectively looks into the case of the industry and the process of extracting oil and natural gas. The chapter looks into various different forms of literature in order to effectively understand the process by which the gas is manufactured and the various different steps which are needed to be undertaken in the process of refining the natural gas to obtain the end product, it also sheds light on the process of preparation and transportation of the natural gas. With respect to the identification of the process of extracting natural gas the chapter then moves on to state the various different challenges which may be faced during the process of the extraction of natural gas and by the industry on an overall basis. It enumerates various different factors such as geological factors and those of the factors of the, rising environmental concerns, volatile nature of the product and investment barriers. The chapter after defining these major challenges moves on to look at the various different technologies which have been incorporated in the case of the process in order for the reduction of the environmental degradation. It also looks into the management measures which are effective in order to resolve these issues. The chapter finally, discusses the importance of management in the process of extraction of oil and how it is effective aiding to the development of the process of the extraction of oil and gas.

Chapter 3: Methodology

3.0 Introduction

This chapter will look into the various different methods which can be used in order for conducting the research on the given topic. It looks into the different aspects of methods of research such as that of Research Philosophy, Research Approaches, Types of research, Research Design and the Ethical Considerations of the research. This chapter seeks to define each of these aspects properly and indicate effectively which methods will be used in the case of this study. This chapter will effectively help in understanding the various different approaches and the reasons as to why these approaches are probable to give the most accurate results in the case of this research.

3.1 Research Onion

Efficiency of The Management of The Extraction of Gas in BP Khazzan Project Field

Figure 3.1: Research Onion

(Source: Saunders et al. 2015)

In the case of the research onion it can be stated that it gives an overview into the approaches and methods of research and signifies the process by which the research should be undertaken. The outermost layer of the onion defines the various different philosophies that can be used for research, such as positivism, pragmatism, interpretivism and so on. The second layer looks into the approaches of research and defines two definitive methods of research, deductive and inductive methods. The third layer denotes the strategies of conducting research such as that of surveys, case studies, interviews and so on. Finally the last layer focuses on the collection of data and the data analysis of the data that has been collected.

3.2 Research Philosophy

In the case of research philosophy it can be evaluated that it is a belief regarding the system of collecting the data for a specific research. The research philosophy defines the view through which the research will be conducted and how the methods and approaches will be selected.

Positivism

In the case of this research philosophy it can be stated that relies on the precision of data which is to be studied. According to Creswell and Poth (2017), the positivist research philosophy is essentially based around the factor of observation and interpretation. Positivism is of the belief that any data which is not observed and cannot be measured is not reliable in nature. In the case of this philosophy it must also be accessed that the data which is not observed should also be scientifically backed up by evidence in order to prove its viability.

Interpretivism

In the case of interpretivist research it can be understood that this philosophy essentially requires the people in order to effectively develop interpretations of the elements that are present in the study. According to Bell et al. (2018), interpretivism is of the view that the research which is conducted and the interpretations which are made are subject to the perspective of the researcher and it lays greater emphasis on qualitative research analysis.

Pragmatism

As per the study of Kumar (2019), the philosophy of pragmatism essentially is a combination of the positivist and interpretivist philosophies as it does no overrule observation or perspective. The pragmatist approach of research deals with the acceptance of the concepts when these concepts are supported by verifiable action. In the light of the pragmatists research it can be said that it allows the use of qualitative and quantitative methods in order to ensure the utmost accuracy in the case of the research.

Chosen Philosophy

In the case of this research, the research will be taking the research philosophy of positivism into account. The philosophy of positivism is effective in aiding to the method of the research as it can be seen that in measuring the effectiveness of the systems of management here is a need to be highly specific in the approach of the research. According to Comte (2015), a specific approach ensures the outlining of proper trends and values which will aid to the effective measurement of the variables which are being considered in the case of this study.

Figure 3.2: Research philosophies

(Source: As influenced by Bell et al. 2018)

3.3 Research Approach

The research approach defines the methods by which data can be collected systematically in order to effectively ensure that the needs of the research are met.

Deductive

In the case of deductive research approach it is important to understand that this approach develops hypotheses and then tests the validity of the same hypothesis. According to the study of gaur and Kumar (2018), the deductive approach essentially streamlines the data that has been collected and judges the validity of the pre decided outcomes by stating whether they are true or false.

Inductive

In the case of the case of inductive research it can be viewed that he inductive research essentially looks into the case of the development of themes and trends from the data that has been collected and studied. As per the views of Liu (2016), this form of research essentially deals with the development of patterns in the data that has been observed and studied and it is descriptive in nature and effectively assigns meaning to the data sets which it groups.

Abductive

In the case of Abductive approach to research it must be evaluated that it effectively develops meaning in the context of the research and was developed to mitigate the weaknesses of inductive and deductive approaches. From the study of Stoopendaal et al. (2017), abductive research effectively develops a set of patterns and selects the best suitable alternative in order for defining providing appropriate solutions to the research.

Chosen Research Approach

In the case of this research it must be essentially evaluated that an abductive approach has been developed in order to ensure that all the possible alternatives are effectively looked into and then the best one is selected with regard to the topic. This approach will help in effectively deriving the most efficient and effective management practices in the extraction of gas in the BP Khazzan gas field. This approach will also add accuracy to the research as it reviews a host of options out of which it methodically selects the best option which pertains to the issue of the research.

3.4 Types of Research

In the case of the types of research it can be stated that there are two major types of research which can be conducted such as the quantitative and qualitative research.

Primary Research

In the case of primary research it can be accessed that this form of research effectively is conducted by the collection of primary data. As per the views of Norris et al. (2015), primary data is raw data which is unprocessed and is collected directly from the field. In order to make sense of this data it needs to be appropriately processed.

Secondary Research

From the study of Wallman (2017), it can be understood that secondary data is essentially data which already has been pre processed into information. However, it may also be comprehended that this data may not be in accordance to the topic of the research exactly but can be regarding similar topics which have been researched. It can also be derived from research work which aids to the development of a specific research topic.

Under the two above methods there are further different classifications which are:

Qualitative research

In the case of qualitative research it can be understood that this form of research does not define the numerical characteristics of the variables of a research. According to the study of Silverman (2016), a qualitative research is essentially aimed at defining the various different characteristics of the data sets which have been used in the case of the research.

Quantitative Research

In the case of quantitative research it can be said that this form of research is absolutely based on defining the numerical values of the variables of a research. According to McCusker and Gunaydin (2015), quantitative research is often described as a deductive form of research as it involves the collection of data and the linking of data to theory.

Chosen Method

In the case of this research, the research type of primary and secondary research both are used. The study also considers quantitative and qualitative analysis in order to ensure maximum accuracy. In the light of understanding the effectiveness and efficiency of the management of extracting gas in the BP Khazzan project field, the secondary qualitative method of literature reviews have been used and a primary quantitative method of survey has been used.

3.5 Research Design

In the case of the research design it must be understood that there are two main types of research designs which may be followed by a research those are of exploratory and conclusive research.

Figure 3.4: Research design

(Source: As influenced by DeWitt, 2017)

Exploratory Design

Exploratory research design is a design which is followed in order for the exploration of the research question. According to DeWitt (2017), this form of research design aids to the development of better understanding of the research problems which have been identified. It does not form a basis for conclusive findings by which the research can be clearly and distinctly defined.

Conclusive Design

From the study of Neelankavil (2015), the conclusive research design is a design of research which is well structured and is very specific in nature. This form of research design looks into a properly defined data set in order to lay out the basis of the research and derive appropriate findings in the case of the research.

Chosen Method

In the case of this research it can be viewed that even though the research explores possibilities it also defines the findings of the effectiveness and efficiency of the management in the process of extracting gas from the BP Khazzan project field. Thus it can be seen that in the case of this research the research takes up a conclusive design in order to appropriately measure the variables and provide appropriate findings and solutions in the context of the problem.

3.6 Sampling process

According to Etikan et al. (2016), sampling can be of two major types which are probability and non probability sampling. The sampling selected for this study has been simple random probability sampling in order to maintain the accuracy of the research. In this study a total of 1000 people were taken as the population and 20 people were the sample size for the survey.  According to the study of noble and Smith (2015), reliability of research refers to the process of using the same instruments in order for deriving the same results repeatedly. The validity of a research is interlinked with the reliability as the validity is defined as the extent by which scientific methods have been used in the case of the research.

3.7 Summary

This chapter gives an overview of the different approaches, designs and methods of research which are to be followed in the case of this research. This chapter defines the various different aspects of how the research for this study has been conducted and the philosophies of research that has been considered. It also gives a look into the methods of primary and secondary, qualitative and quantitative analysis that have been viewed for the study. The chapter finally concludes by stating the ethical considerations which have been a,de in order to uphold and maintain the integrity of the research and those participating in it. It also outlines the theories of each aspect of the methods of research such as that of the research philosophies, research designs, types of research that can be conducted and the research design appropriately. The chapter alongside defining the chosen methods also defines their suitability for the case of this research.

Chapter 4: Data Analysis

4.0 Introduction

This chapter will look into the data which has been derived in the case of the research and it will enumerate the various different findings that can be derived from the data which has been collected. This chapter aims to create an appropriate understanding of the data with relation to the effectiveness and efficiency of the management of extraction of gas from the BP Khazzan project field. After enumerating the findings the study will develop a perspective and discuss the various different inferences that can be made with respect to relevant literature pertaining to the topic.

4.1 Data Analysis Process

In the case of this research 10 questions have been developed in order for effectively conducting the survey of 20 personnel. The people who were contacted for the survey were the management officials of this industry. The questions were devised in order to gain knowledge and an inference of the effectiveness of the management practices which have been incorporated in the case of the project field alongside the probable management practices which may be incorporated. The questions also look into the case of the risks present and the likelihood of sustainable options being taken up the management in order for mitigating these risks.

4.2 Findings

Question 1: What is your Age?

Options Percentage No. of participants Total no. of participants
18-30 35% 7 20
30-45 55% 11 20
45-65 10% 2 20

Table 4.1: Age of participants

Figure 4.1: Age of participants

Question 2: What is your gender?

Options Percentage No. of participants Total no. of participants
Male 40% 8 20
Female 40% 8 20
Others 20% 4 20

Table 4.2: Gender of participants

Efficiency of The Management of The Extraction of Gas in BP Khazzan Project Field

Figure 4.2: Gender of participants

Question 3: Do you think that the management structure of the management is important for effective management of project fields?

Options Percentage No. of participants Total no. of participants
Strongly Agree 30% 6 20
Agree 25% 5 20
Neutral 15% 3 20
Disagree 20% 4 20
Strongly Disagree 10% 2 20

Table 4.3: Importance of management structure for effective management

Efficiency of The Management of The Extraction of Gas in BP Khazzan Project Field

Figure 4.3: Importance of management structure for effective management

Analysis

In the case of the above it can be viewed that a majority of the participants (55%) are of the view that effective management structures aid in the development of the processes of a company. They are also of the view that it aids to effective management.

Question 4: Do you think the burdening of the governmental regulations is prone to decreasing investments for the project field?

Options Percentage No. of participants Total no. of participants
Strongly Agree 20% 4 20
Agree 15% 3 20
Neutral 25% 5 20
Disagree 25% 5 20
Strongly Disagree 15% 3 20

Table 4.4: Probability of governmental regulations having an adverse effect on the investments

Efficiency of The Management of The Extraction of Gas in BP Khazzan Project Field

Figure 4.4: Probability of governmental regulations having an adverse effect on the investments

Analysis

It can be viewed from the above that the views regarding governmental regulations having an adverse effect on the case of the investment are very neutral. It can be viewed that a total of 40% of the people disagree, 35% of the people agree and 25% of the participants maintained a neutral view.

Question 5: Are the geological factors a major risk to the drilling for gas in the Khazzan project field?

Options Percentage No. of participants Total no. of participants
Strongly Agree 25% 5 20
Agree 30% 6 20
Neutral 5% 1 20
Disagree 30% 6 20
Strongly Disagree 10% 2 20

Table 4.5: Risk proportion of Geological factors towards the Khazzan Project Field

Efficiency of The Management of The Extraction of Gas in BP Khazzan Project Field

Figure 4.5: Risk proportion of Geological factors towards the Khazzan Project Field

Analysis

In the case of the above it can be seen that a majority of the participants (55%) of the people were of the view that the geological factors governed a major basis for the risk in the case of the Khazzan Project field.

Question 6: In the case of the pipelines which transport gas from the field to the states and supply system, do you think there is space for improvement for the management and communication between the compressor stations?

Options Percentage No. of participants Total no. of participants
Strongly Agree 40% 8 20
Agree 35% 7 20
Neutral 5% 1 20
Disagree 15% 3 20
Strongly Disagree 5% 1 20

Table 4.6: View regarding the availability of space for improvement of communication and management systems between compressor stations

Efficiency of The Management of The Extraction of Gas in BP Khazzan Project Field

Figure 4.6: View regarding the availability of space for improvement of communication and management systems between compressor stations

Analysis

In the case of the above it can be understood that 75% of the participants agreed that the improvement of communication and management systems were key in the development of the project field. It would help in increasing the efficiency and productivity of the field.

Question 7: Do you think workforce motivation affects the case of the management in the extraction of the gas from the BP Khazzan field?

Options Percentage No. of participants Total no. of participants
Strongly Agree 20% 4 20
Agree 50% 10 20
Neutral 0% 0 20
Disagree 20% 4 20
Strongly Disagree 10% 2 20

Table 4.7: Management of gas extraction and the probable positive effect of workforce motivation

Efficiency of The Management of The Extraction of Gas in BP Khazzan Project Field

Figure 4.7: Management of gas extraction and the probable positive effect of workforce motivation

Analysis

In the case of this factor it can be identified that 70% of the participants stated that they believed the workforce motivation would help in order to improve the management of gas extraction as it improves communication and the flow of information in the system.

Question 8: Do the factors of electricity and solar energy options pose a threat to the withdrawal of the investments from the Khazzan project field?

Options Percentage No. of participants Total no. of participants
Strongly Agree 40% 8 20
Agree 30% 6 20
Neutral 5% 1 20
Disagree 10% 2 20
Strongly Disagree 15% 3 20

Table 4.8: Competitor energy products and their adverse effect on withdrawal of investments

Efficiency of The Management of The Extraction of Gas in BP Khazzan Project Field

Figure 4.8: Competitor energy products and their adverse effect on withdrawal of investments

Analysis

It can be seen in the case of the above that a majority of the participants (70%) stated that the competitor options for energy had an edge over the oil and gas industry and could result in the withdrawal of the massive investments that were made. They were of the view that investments being redirected could be a very real problem that this industry may face.

Question 9: In the case of the Khazzan project field do you think sustainable systems are a good option to increase the efficiency of the management in the process of extraction?

Options Percentage No. of participants Total no. of participants
Strongly Agree 35% 7 20
Agree 40% 8 20
Neutral 10% 2 20
Disagree 10% 2 20
Strongly Disagree 5% 1 20

Table 4.9: Scope of incorporation of sustainable systems in Khazzan Project field

Efficiency of The Management of The Extraction of Gas in BP Khazzan Project Field

Figure 4.9:  Scope of incorporation of sustainable systems in Khazzan Project field

Analysis

A total of 75% of the participants thought that sustainable systems were a good method by which the Khazzan project field could bring about higher productivity.  The incorporation of these systems would lead to increasing the effectiveness of the processes and the productivity overall.

Question 10: Do you think Just in time and total quality management are relevant approaches in the case of the Khazzan project field?

Options Percentage No. of participants Total no. of participants
Strongly Agree 45% 9 20
Agree 15% 3 20
Neutral 10% 2 20
Disagree 15% 3 20
Strongly Disagree 15% 3 20

Table 4.10: View on the relevance of Just in time and TQM systems to the Khazzan Project Field

Efficiency of The Management of The Extraction of Gas in BP Khazzan Project Field

Figure 4.10: View on the relevance of Just in time and TQM systems to the Khazzan Project Field

Analysis

In the case of the Khazzan project field it can be viewed that most of the participants (60%) were of the view that the incorporation of the JIT and TQM systems would aid to the development of the productivity of the field.

Question 11: Do you think that communication efficiency will help in developing the management process in the Khazzan project field?

Options Percentage No. of participants Total no. of participants
Strongly Agree 35% 7 20
Agree 25% 5 20
Neutral 5% 1 20
Disagree 20% 4 20
Strongly Disagree 15% 3 20

Table 4.11: Scope for development of management process by increasing efficiency of communication

Efficiency of The Management of The Extraction of Gas in BP Khazzan Project Field

Figure 4.11: Scope for development of management process by increasing efficiency of communication

Analysis

In the light of the increase in communication efficiency it can be observed that the 60% of the participants were of the view that the increase in communication process efficiency would effectively aid to the development of productivity in the management processes.

Question 12: Do you think there is scope for the integration of sustainability in the systems of the Khazzan project field with processes such as waste heat energy harvesting?

Options Percentage No. of participants Total no. of participants
Strongly Agree 25% 5 20
Agree 50% 10 20
Neutral 5% 1 20
Disagree 10% 2 20
Strongly Disagree 10% 2 20

Table 4.12: Scope of implementation of processes such as Waste heat energy harvesting in order to implement sustainable systems in the Khazzan project field

Efficiency of The Management of The Extraction of Gas in BP Khazzan Project Field

Figure 4.12: Scope of implementation of processes such as Waste heat energy harvesting in order to implement sustainable systems in the Khazzan project field

Analysis

In the light of the Khazzan project field it can be viewed that 75% of the participants believed it was a good idea to implement systems such as that of waste heat energy harvesting in order to make the project field sustainable and increase its productivity effectively.

Question 13: Do you think Waste Heat energy harvesting will aid to increasing efficiency?

Options Percentage No. of participants Total no. of participants
Strongly Agree 30% 6 20
Agree 45% 9 20
Neutral 5% 1 20
Disagree 5% 1 20
Strongly Disagree 15% 3 20

Table 4.13: Waste heat energy harvesting aid to the increase in efficiency

Efficiency of The Management of The Extraction of Gas in BP Khazzan Project Field

Figure 4.13: Waste heat energy harvesting aid to the increase in efficiency

Analysis

In the light of the Khazzan field 75% of the participants specifically thought that water heat energy harvesting was an attainable development and it could lead to the increase in efficiency of management in the field by a considerable margin.

Question 14: In the light of the UN SDGs is Oil and Gas sector still a fruitful industry?

Options Percentage No. of participants Total no. of participants
Yes 35% 7 20
Neutral 25% 5 20
No 30% 6 20

Table 4.14: UN SDG and their governance over the demand of oil and gas

Efficiency of The Management of The Extraction of Gas in BP Khazzan Project Field

Figure 4.14:  UN SDGs and their governance over the demand of oil and gas

Analysis

In the case of the UN SDGs it can be viewed that the views of the participants was neutral, while 39% of the participants thought that the industry would still be fruitful, 33% were of the view that it was not going to survive for long. The remaining 28% remained neutral upon the issue as they attributed a range of factors which needed to be considered in the case of this aspect.

Question 15: Do you believe that effective leadership aids to good control and management of systems?

Options Percentage No. of participants Total no. of participants
Yes 50% 10 20
Neutral 25% 5 20
No 25% 5 20

Table 4.15: The view pertaining to the maintenance of effective control systems due to effective leadership

Efficiency of The Management of The Extraction of Gas in BP Khazzan Project Field

Figure 4.15: The view pertaining to the maintenance of effective control systems due to effective leadership

Analysis

In the light of the leadership, 50% of the total participants thought that it was necessary to maintain good leadership in order to effectively control the systems appropriately, gauge the loopholes and carry out effective management of resources.

Question 16: Do you think inclusive leadership is an effective method which will help in ensuring effective management of the oil and gas field?

Options Percentage No. of participants Total no. of participants
Yes 45% 9 20
Neutral 20% 4 20
No 35% 7 20

Table 4.16: Inclusive leadership and its effect on maintenance of effective leadership

Efficiency of The Management of The Extraction of Gas in BP Khazzan Project Field

Figure 4.16: Inclusive leadership and its effect on maintenance of effective leadership

Analysis

Question 17: Does the demand of oil and gas affect sustainability of the industry?

Options Percentage No. of participants Total no. of participants
Yes 55% 11 20
Neutral 15% 3 20
No 30% 6 20

Table 4.17: Demand of oil and gas and its effect on sustainability

Efficiency of The Management of The Extraction of Gas in BP Khazzan Project Field

Figure 4.17: Demand of oil and gas and its effect on sustainability

Analysis

In the case of the demand of oil and gas it can be understood that a majority of the participants (55%) were of the view that the demand of oil and gas is directly tied to the sustainability if the industry of the same.

Question 18: If the oil and gas management is made sustainable in nature, do you think the industry has a scope to grow?

Options Percentage No. of participants Total no. of participants
Yes 65% 13 20
Neutral 15% 3 20
No 20% 4 20

Table 4.18: The scope of Growth Owing to sustainable Management implementation

Figure 4.18: The scope of Growth Owing to sustainable Management implementation

Analysis

A majority, that is, 65% of the participants were of the view that the implementation of sustainable management methods would enhance the scope of the oil an gas industry to a great extent.

Question 19: Are the management of stakeholders’ important in ensuring long term effectiveness of management?

Options Percentage No. of participants Total no. of participants
Yes 60% 12 20
Neutral 20% 4 20
No 20% 4 20

Table 4.19: Stakeholder management in ensuring long term effectiveness of management systems

Figure 4.19: Stakeholder management in ensuring long term effectiveness of management systems

Analysis

It can also be understood that a majority of the participants which is about 60% of the total pool of respondents were of the view that stakeholder management ensures long term effectiveness of management systems as it aids to the development of appropriate communication channels and the building of a specific aim and scope.

Question 20: Does stakeholder involvement in sustainability aid to the development of effective systems of sustainable management for the oil and gas industry?

Options Percentage No. of participants Total no. of participants
Yes 75% 15 20
Neutral 15% 3 20
No 10% 2 20

Table 4.20: Stakeholder involvement in sustainability and its aid to the development of effective systems of sustainable management

Figure 4.20: Stakeholder involvement in sustainability and its aid to the development of effective systems of sustainable management

Analysis

The stakeholder involvement was viewed positively by 75% of the respondents as they thought it was beneficial in order for the development of proper sustainable systems with the inclusion o compliance and control.

4.4 Discussion

In the case of the BP khazzan project field it is important to understand that there are major challenges which are brought to light in the case of the field such as those of the geological factors. It can be viewed that with the various different responses that have been recorded and the theories that have been developed through the course of the study it is important to understand that the mitigation of the problems can be brought around by sustainability. As per the views of Ou et al. (2016), it can be analysed that risk factors of competitor products and other such influences are prone to withdrawal of investments from the field. However, the incorporation of systems such as that of the JIT and TQM can be observed to be advantageous in the case of the project field. It can also be understood that investment pools are attracted upon the incorporation of leadership; sustainable systems, efficient waste management systems and he also help in increasing the productivity.

4.5 Ethical Consideration

In the case of research it can be viewed that there are various different types of ethical considerations which must be made in order to ensure that the autonomy and the privacy of the participants of the research are maintained. It also ensures the validity of the research and fair practice.

The participants were informed in detail regarding the process of the study, the risks that are involved in the course of the study and the reason as to why the study was being conducted. The participants were not manipulated or forced in order to take part in the research and were allowed to participate out of their free will. The participants were allowed the choice of anonymity and they were also allowed to withdraw their data any given point in the course of the research without any questions being asked. The participants were asked for consent and consent forms were provided with a written brief of the risks involved in the research. No data in the case of the research was manipulated in order to prove the validity of the research and the research was conducted in a fair manner.

The study also can be considered to be conducted from an unbiased perspective by the researcher. There was no manipulation of data involved in order to derive preferable results and manipulate the outcomes. This research has followed the guidelines of the Data Protection Act 2018 (c.12) with respect to the maintenance of the privacy of the data of the participants and safeguarding it.

4.6 Summary

This chapter helps in understanding the different inferences that can be drawn from the responses of the individuals who have undertaken the survey and relates them effectively to the concepts which have developed through the study of literature. The chapter also helps in effectively enumerating the relation of the risks to the counter measures of effectiveness which can be brought about in the case of the Khazzan project field.

Chapter 5: Conclusion and Recommendations

5.0 Conclusion

In conclusion to the research there are various different aspects that can be defined in the case of the efficiency and the effectiveness of management in the case of the Khazan project field. The research which was conducted helps in shedding light on the industry of oil and gas manufacturing in Oman and effectively provided a look into the various different problems of the Khazzan project field. Primarily the research enumerated the various different challenges that were faced by the BP Khazzan project field in terms of geological risk factors such as that of the hard surface of drilling. It effectively stated that the hard surface of drilling effectively poses to be a problem in the case of the BP Khazzan field as there is a high chance of cracks which may appear in and it may lead to major leaks. The research further draws the conclusion that alternative forms of energy also poses a major threat to the project field in terms of market competition with the rising requirement for global sustainability. These risk factors are major drivers of withdrawal of investment and it is probable that these factors may lead to the withdrawal of investments in the case of the Khazzan project field.

In respect to the problems and challenges that have been inferred from the study the study further concludes that effective management is a possible solution in order for effectively mitigating these risks in the context of the project field. In the case of the project field the study looks into the systems of sustainability such as that of JIT and TQM. These two processes help in effectively integrating the transportation system of the natural gas from the project field in order for it to effectively cut down on cost and remove its waste processes. The study further concludes that waste management is an essential process in the case of the manufacturing of gas. The study concludes that effective waste management systems such as that of the Enhanced Oil recovery and Waste Heat Energy harvesting add value to the process and induce sustainability in the case of the process of extraction of gas.

It can be viewed that in the case of Waste energy processes can harvest waste heat energy and can reuse it as fuel for extraction. The study finally concludes that there is a requirement of the management of BP in order to ensure effective leadership systems in order to maintain the workforce motivation in the case of the project field. This will help in enhancing the system of gas extraction and ensure effective integration of processes which in turn will help raise the productivity of the project field. The study also views that these developments will aid to the regaining of competitive advantage in the market and ensure higher sustainability of the investments.

5.1 Linking with Objectives

Objective 1

In the case of the first objective it can be comprehended that the review of literature in chapter 2, effectively looks into the case of the drilling process in the case of the industry. It enumerates the general processes which are used in the extraction of natural gas and then relates it to the extraction of gas in the Khazzan field by viewing the various different risk factors which are involved in the case of the Khazzan field, the most important factor being the one of rough terrains. The management in the case of the Khazzan field is understood by the study of the risk factors and the process of drilling. The objective is also achieved by the quantitative analysis in chapter 4, from where it can be inferred that the Khazzan project field requires better management setups in order for effectively ensuring efficiency. From this it can be understood that the management in the extraction of gas in the Khazzan field faces various different risks and issues in their internal policies which need to be effectively mitigated.

Objective 2

In the case of the second objective it can be stated that the incorporated processes in the case of the Khazzan field have been effectively reviewed in the study of the general processes in the case of the literature in chapter 2. In the case of this industry it must be understood that the incorporated processes are basic systems which have been set up but do not adhere to sustainability requirements which have come into being, the lack of sustainability of these processes leads to major risks which have identified in the second part of the review of literature where the challenges have been discussed. A major threat which can be seen in the case of the incorporated systems is the lack of favourability and their lack of consideration for the environment. These factors lead to the investors of the industry losing faith and withdrawing their investments. Low goodwill in the market of these processes also is repulsive to the investors and they are prone to investing in better options than in this industry.

Objective 3

In the case of the third objective the major loopholes in the process of management were effectively accessed in the case of the review of literature in chapter 2 where the various different problems regarding the communication between compression stations in the transport of gas was identified. In the case of these systems it must be understood that there is a major lack in the communication between the compression stations through the length of the pipeline systems which span on an interstate basis in order for the transportation of gas. These pipelines can be viewed to be high pressure pipelines and compressor stations effectively stabilize these pipeline. Thus communication between these stations is important to coordinate the pressure throughout the length of the pipeline to ensure that there is no leakage or fissure that may appear amongst the pipelines. Through the quantitative analysis in chapter 4, it has also been derived that there is a lack of sustainable processes in the case of the study. The lack of sustainable processes leads to higher chances of withdrawal of investment from the sector as the concerns and governmental regulations pertaining to environmental degradation, sustainability and climate change are growing. This results in the loss of goodwill in the case of the industry.

Objective 4

In the case of the fourth objective of effectively incorporating systems of management as control measures, has been addressed in the final section of the second chapter, the review of literature, effectively looks into the options and the areas of management which can be developed in order to increase efficiency. In the case of this it can be said that there is scope for the implementation of sustainability and systems which adhere to these in the management, Leadership methods such as that of inclusive practice and that of effective control help in ensuring that there is effective development of processes due to the enhanced flow of information and well established communication between the systems. From the quantitative analysis in chapter 4, it can be asserted that systems such as that of Enhanced oil recovery and Waste Heat energy harvesting are essential as they help in reducing the wastage of the gas which is extracted. It also helps increase energy efficiency by harvesting the waste heat energy which has been formed out of the process in order to reuse it. Systems of JIT and TQM have also been suggested by the respondents and they are of the belief that these systems will help in increasing the efficiency in the case of the project field.

Objective 5

In the case of the final objective this objective will be achieved in the recommendation section of these chapters by effectively recommending appropriate measures which can be taken up in order to effectively increase the management efficiency in the case of the extraction of gas in the case of the BP Khazzan project field.  

5.2 Recommendations

This study can be viewed to have taken an intensive look into the various major issues which are faced in the light of the natural gas extraction management process. The study also has enumerated various different systems which can be developed in order for effectively ensuring that the loopholes in the case of the management systems can be effectively mitigated.

  • It can be recommended that sustainable systems need to be incorporated in the case of the management of extraction in the case of the Khazzan project field. There are various different sustainable systems such as those which are based around operations and management separately. In the context of the operational systems it can be asserted that the introduction of the Just in time system into the process of the gas field will ensure the reduction of wastage of time and resources which are required. In the light of the incorporation of this system it can be comprehended that the processes of the extraction of gas will become swifter and there will be an overall cost reduction of the process in terms of the storage of materials.
  • It can also be recommended that the system of Total Quality Management needs to be implemented in the case of the BP Khazzan project field. The process of Total Quality management will aid to the development of the systems as it ensures overall control of the processes. The system of TQM is also essentially dedicated towards continuous improvement of the systems when implemented and thus it will help in order to effectively ensure that the processes which are being undertaken are effectively controlled. The discrepancies in the processes are noted in a periodical manner in order to increase the productivity and the efficiency of the processes. This will ensure higher competitive advantage in the market and added sustainability which will aid to the effective development of market demand by the investors.
  • In the case of the management perspective of improving efficiency a recommendation can be made regarding the need to incorporate the practice of inclusive management in the case of the workforce of the process. Inclusive management allows for enhanced decision making and also creates a sense of belonging in the case of the employees of a certain organisation. This form of management effectively ensures in facilitating the appropriate method of motivation in order to ensure that workforce productivity is maintained. Collaborative working which is also a part of the process ensures that the people in the context of an organisation effectively communicate with one another and this helps in bridging the gap in the case of the walk of communication which can be seen on the case of the project field.
  • Another recommendation can be made, that effective leadership and control systems need to be incorporated in the case of the management of the BP Khazzan project field. In the case of the Khazzan field it is important to understand that there is a requirement of effective control systems because of the loss of resources in the process of extraction. Effective control ensures that the waste areas can be effectively recognised and then by the use of sustainable systems can be effectively recovered and mitigated. This ensures that there is a high level of productivity within the organisation and the project field uses its maximum potential in order or the carrying out of the process.
  • It can be recommended that the system of waste heat energy harvesting must be effectively ensured in the case of the Khazzan project field. The incorporation of the harvesting of waste heat energy is beneficial in the case of the Khazzan project field as it effectively ensures that this waste energy is recovered. The recovery of this energy not only ensures that there is lower environmental degradation in the light of climate change but also helps in ensuring that there is an effective process of waste management. In the light of waste management it can be asserted that the reusability of the waste heat energy ensures in reduction of the costs in the case of the industry and it helps in order to effectively ensure that sustainability is induced into the context of the BP Khazzan field.
  • It is finally recommended that the management and the systems of sustainability needs to be integrated in the case of the BP Khazzan project field. It must understand that this will help in effectively nursing that the systems are functional and effective control measures can be maintained in the case of the project field.

5.3 Research Limitations

For the case of this research it can be observed that there were a host of different limitations which have affected the entire spectrum of the research. In the case of the research it is essential to understand that there was a lack of time in the context of the research and it has thus not been able to effectively look into greater detail and the various different technical aspects which govern the intricacies of the topic. The lack of time also has prohibited the process of data collection in the case of the research as specific research tools could not be used in order to improve the accuracy of the research and add more detail and understanding of the research.

In the case of the study it is observed that the lack of funding also has limited the research. The lack of funding has prohibited the reach to a wider audience and the conducting of the research in a greater and more detailed way. The lack of funding also has prohibited the researcher from availing paid resources which could have provided vital information in the development of the conclusions of the study and enumerating the findings. The lack of funding has also further resulted in the limitation of the accessibility to various different databases which could have provided for important and effective quantitative information in the case of the research.

The research was also effectively limited by the lack of knowledge and literature which has been studied. In the case of the study it can be analysed that it is limited by the view of the researcher’s knowledge base and also the limited literature which was studied for the research. In the case of the availability of time the research could have developed a better understanding with the study of greater literature in the case of the research topic.

In the case of the study it can also be said that the study is also limited in terms of the interpretation of the data which has been derived. In the case of the study it is essential to understand even though scientific and quantitative methods have been used in the study is still limited by the perspective of the researcher in the light of formulating the ideas that have been developed in the case of the research. The integration of the understanding of the research and the findings is perspective based and thus the study is also limited by the interpretation of the researcher.

5.4 Future Scope

In the view of the study it can be analysed that there is future scope of research in the case of the technical aspects of the research. The effectiveness of management in the process of drilling can be researched in further detail in the case of future research. Future research scope is also available in order to look into the aspects of sustainable management and get a good view into the incorporation of the Just in time and total Quality management systems in the case of the BP Khazzan gas field and the industry in general. 

There are also areas of management efficiency such as that of that of inclusive management practices and their reliability can be added to the future scope of research in the case of this topic. Collaborative working and sustainable systems of management such as that of management by objectives and so on can also be studied. Workforce motivation may also be studied with respect to the BP Khazzan gas field workers in the context of the research.

The future scope of research can look further into the various different aspects of the waste management in the context of the industry. There is future scope to conduct research on the risks and viability of incorporating the waste management systems which have been recommended to be set up in the case of this study. This will help in order to effectively get a good look into systems which need to be set up and the long term reliability of these systems.

5.5 Summary

This chapter helps in summing up the nature research and integrating all the views of the research. The chapter primarily includes the entire research by underlining the various different loopholes and linking the research together along with the data analysis and the findings of the study. The chapter then effectively links the objectives of the research to the various different research areas such as the literature review and the quantitative analysis which have helped in effectively achieving these objectives. The chapter also provides appropriate recommendations and justified as to why the recommended systems would be effective in the case of the problems which have been detected in the course of the research regarding the BP Khazzan Project field in Oman. The chapter also determines the limitations of the research in the case of the study, and enumerates the areas which are lacking in the research. The chapter finally looks at the future scope of research which can be undertaken in relation to the topic discussed in this study. It links the drawbacks of this research to the future scope of the research in order to effectively define the probable areas which can still be explored accurately.

Reference List

Ahmad, W.N.K.W., Rezaei, J., Sadaghiani, S. and Tavasszy, L.A.,(2017). Evaluation of the external forces affecting the sustainability of oil and gas supply chain using Best Worst Method. Journal of cleaner production153(12), pp.242-252.

Alexander, L. and Eberly, J., (2018). Investment hollowing out. IMF Economic Review66(1), pp.5-30.

Amanullah, M., Alouhali, R. and Arfaj, M., 2018. Impact of Geological and Geo-Mechanical Controls in Creating Various Drilling Problems. Search and Discovery Online Journal for E&P Geoscientists. AAPG/Datapages Inc. 17(5). pp.55-91.

Bartram, T., Cavanagh, J. and Hoye, R., (2017). The growing importance of human resource management in the NGO, volunteer and not-for-profit sectors. 9(8). pp.145-162.

Bell, E., Bryman, A. and Harley, B., (2018). Business research methods. Ed.3. Oxford: Oxford university press.

Bhuiyan, B.A. and Wahab, A.M.H.A., (2018). Sustainable Tourism Sector Development in Negara Brunei Darussalam: Application of Total Quality Management Approach as Strategic Option. J Tourism Hospit7(357), pp.2167-0269.

Butolin, A., Chekushina, T., Liashenko, V., Shcherba, V. and Vorobev, K., (2018). Geoecological Problems During Oil And Gas Recover. Metallurgical & Mining Industry, 4(3). pp.150-161.

Coetzee, M., Ferreira, N. and Potgieter, I.L., (2015). Assessing employability capacities and career adaptability in a sample of human resource professionals. SA Journal of Human Resource Management13(1), pp.1-9.

Comte, A., (2015). A general view of positivism. Ed.5. Abingdon: Routledge.

Creswell, J.W. and Poth, C.N., (2017). Qualitative inquiry and research design: Choosing among five approaches. Ed.4. California:Sage publications.

Czolowski, E.D., Santoro, R.L., Srebotnjak, T. and Shonkoff, S.B., (2017). Toward consistent methodology to quantify populations in proximity to oil and gas development: a national spatial analysis and review. Environmental health perspectives125(8), p.86004-86112.

DeWitt, B.S., (2017). Exploratory research session on the quantization of the gravitational field. The European Physical Journal H42(2), pp.159-176.

Dong, D., Wang, Y., Li, X., Zou, C., Guan, Q., Zhang, C., Huang, J., Wang, S., Wang, H., Liu, H. and Bai, W., (2016). Breakthrough and prospect of shale gas exploration and development in China. Natural Gas Industry B3(1), pp.12-26.

Etikan, I., Musa, S.A. and Alkassim, R.S., (2016). Comparison of convenience sampling and purposive sampling. American journal of theoretical and applied statistics5(1), pp.1-4.

Faramawy, S., Zaki, T. and Sakr, A.E., (2016). Natural gas origin, composition, and processing: A review. Journal of Natural Gas Science and Engineering34(9), pp.34-54.

Figgins. A., Lansdell. J., and Taqi. Y., (2018). Oil and gas regulation in Oman: overview. Dentons, 3(2), pp.1-14.

Garbolino, E., Chery, J.P. and Guarnieri, F., (2016). A simplified approach to risk assessment based on system dynamics: an industrial case study. Risk Analysis36(1), pp.16-29.

Gaur, A. and Kumar, M., (2018). A systematic approach to conducting review studies: An assessment of content analysis in 25 years of IB research. Journal of World Business53(2), pp.280-289.

George, R.A., Siti-Nabiha, A.K., Jalaludin, D. and Abdalla, Y.A., (2016). Barriers to and enablers of sustainability integration in the performance management systems of an oil and gas company. Journal of Cleaner Production136, pp.197-212.

Hazır, Ö., (2015). A review of analytical models, approaches and decision support tools in project monitoring and control. International Journal of Project Management33(4), pp.808-815.

Hbr.org, (2018). Continuous Development Will Change Organisations as much as Agile did.

Hong, T., Pinson, P., Fan, S., Zareipour, H., Troccoli, A. and Hyndman, R.J., (2016). Probabilistic energy forecasting: Global energy forecasting competition 2014 and beyond.9(1). pp.152-179.

Hydrocarbons-technology.com, (2018). Khazzan Gas Field, Ad Dhahirah Governorate.

Kaygusuz, K. and Sekerci, T., (2016). Biomass for efficiency and sustainability energy utilization in Turkey. Journal of Engineering Research and Applied Science5(1), pp.332-341.

Kreutzer, M., Walter, J. and Cardinal, L.B., (2015). Organizational control as antidote to politics in the pursuit of strategic initiatives. Strategic Management Journal36(9), pp.1317-1337.

Krupnick, A.J. and Gordon, H.G., (2015). What experts say about the environmental risks of shale gas development. Agricultural and Resource Economics Review44(2), pp.106-119.

Kumar, R., (2019). Research methodology: A step-by-step guide for beginners. Ed.2. California:Sage Publications Limited.

Kuznetsov, V.S. and Suprun, I.K., (2017). Reduction of an adverse impact during well drilling by means of drilling waste usage. Journal of Ecological Engineering18(2). pp.53-71.

Lampert, D.J., Cai, H. and Elgowainy, A., (2016). Wells to wheels: water consumption for transportation fuels in the United States. Energy & Environmental Science9(3), pp.787-802.

Li, W., Zhao, X., Ji, Y., Peng, H., Li, Y., Liu, L. and Han, X., (2016). An investigation on environmentally friendly biodiesel-based invert emulsion drilling fluid. Journal of Petroleum Exploration and Production Technology6(3), pp.505-517.

Liu, L., (2016). Using Generic Inductive Approach in Qualitative Educational Research: A Case Study Analysis. Journal of Education and Learning5(2), pp.129-135.

Luo, T., Wu, C. and Duan, L., (2018). Fishbone diagram and risk matrix analysis method and its application in safety assessment of natural gas spherical tank. Journal of cleaner production174(9), pp.296-304.

McCusker, K. and Gunaydin, S., (2015). Research using qualitative, quantitative or mixed methods and choice based on the research. Perfusion30(7), pp.537-542.

Meng, B., Gu, C., Zhang, L., Zhou, C., Li, X., Zhao, Y., Zheng, J., Chen, X. and Han, Y., (2017). Hydrogen effects on X80 pipeline steel in high-pressure natural gas/hydrogen mixtures. International Journal of Hydrogen energy42(11), pp.7404-7412.

Nabavi-Pelesaraei, A., Bayat, R., Hosseinzadeh-Bandbafha, H., Afrasyabi, H. and Chau, K.W., (2017). Modeling of energy consumption and environmental life cycle assessment for incineration and landfill systems of municipal solid waste management-A case study in Tehran Metropolis of Iran. Journal of cleaner production148(5), pp.427-440.

Neelankavil, J.P., (2015). Primary Data Collection: An Introduction to Conclusive Research. In International Business Research 8(2). pp. 146-163.

Nimana, B., Canter, C. and Kumar, A., (2015). Energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions in upgrading and refining of Canada’s oil sands products. Energy83(9), pp.65-79.

Noble, H. and Smith, J., (2015). Issues of validity and reliability in qualitative research. Evidence-based nursing18(2), pp.34-35.

Noe, R.A., Hollenbeck, J.R., Gerhart, B. and Wright, P.M., (2017). Human resource management: Gaining a competitive advantage. Ed.2. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill Education.

Norris, J.M., Plonsky, L., Ross, S.J. and Schoonen, R., (2015). Guidelines for reporting quantitative methods and results in primary research. Language Learning65(2), pp.470-476.

Ou, Y., Zhai, H. and Rubin, E.S., (2016). Life cycle water use of coal-and natural-gas-fired power plants with and without carbon capture and storage. International Journal of Greenhouse Gas Control44(9), pp.249-261.

Powers, M., Saberi, P., Pepino, R., Strupp, E., Bugos, E. and Cannuscio, C.C., (2015). Popular epidemiology and “fracking”: citizens’ concerns regarding the economic, environmental, health and social impacts of unconventional natural gas drilling operations. Journal of community health40(3), pp.534-541.

Pulse.ncpolicywatch.org, (2017). A long night ahead in Garysburg: Public hearing on Atlantic Coast Pipeline air permit.

Rebelo, M.F., Santos, G. and Silva, R., (2016). Integration of management systems: towards a sustained success and development of organizations. Journal of Cleaner Production127(8), pp.96-111.

Reid, R.D. and Sanders, N.R., (2015). Operations Management, Binder Ready Version: An Integrated Approach. Ed.4. Hoboken:John Wiley & Sons.

Ríos-Mercado, R.Z. and Borraz-Sánchez, C., (2015). Optimization problems in natural gas transportation systems: A state-of-the-art review. Applied Energy147(10), pp.536-555.

Rubinstein, J.L. and Mahani, A.B., (2015). Myths and facts on wastewater injection, hydraulic fracturing, enhanced oil recovery, and induced seismicity. Seismological Research Letters86(4), pp.1060-1067.

Saunders, M.N., Lewis, P., Thornhill, A. and Bristow, A., (2015). Understanding research philosophy and approaches to theory development. 8(1). pp.52-80.

Seas.ucla.edu, (2015). Waste energy harvesting using Pyroelectric Materials.

Sherry, A., Andrade, L., Velenturf, A., Christgen, B., Gray, N.D. and Head, I.M., (2017). How to access and exploit natural resources sustainably: petroleum biotechnology. Microbial biotechnology10(5), pp.1206-1211.

Shin, D. and Konrad, A.M., (2017). Causality between high-performance work systems and organizational performance. Journal of Management43(4), pp.973-997.

Silverman, D. , (2016). Qualitative research. Ed.4. California:Sage.

Stoopendaal, A., Grit, K. and Wehrens, R., (2017). Book Review: Iddo Tavory and Stefan Timmermans, Abductive Analysis: Theorizing Qualitative Research. 8(5). pp.150-171.

von Fischer, J.C., Cooley, D., Chamberlain, S., Gaylord, A., Griebenow, C.J., Hamburg, S.P., Salo, J., Schumacher, R., Theobald, D. and Ham, J., (2017). Rapid, vehicle-based identification of location and magnitude of urban natural gas pipeline leaks. Environmental science & technology51(7), pp.4091-4099.

Walliman, N., (2017). Research methods: The basics. Ed.3. Abingdon:Routledge.

Wang, W.C., (2016). Techno-economic analysis of a bio-refinery process for producing Hydro-processed Renewable Jet fuel from Jatropha. Renewable energy95(14). pp.63-73.

Wang, Z. and Krupnick, A.,(2015). A retrospective review of shale gas development in the United States: What led to the boom?. Economics of Energy & Environmental Policy4(1), pp.5-18.

Also look at some of our services
– Business Essay Writing Service
– Business Dissertation Writing Services
– Business Report Writing
– Business Assignment Writing Service

Here you can check some of our dissertation services:
– Dissertation Services
– Buy Dissertation Online
– Dissertation Editing Services
– Dissertation Writing Services
– Write My Dissertation

Give your grades a boost

500 words
We'll send you the first draft for approval by September 11, 2018 at 10:52 AM
Total price:
$0.00

How to place an order:

  1. Select your academic level and the number of pages and pick a desired deadline

  2. Then press “Order Now”

  3. Add your instructions

  4. Choose writer’s category

  5. Make a payment

  6. Get your paper before the deadline

Not Ready to pay? Try for free!

free inquiry
Top Academic Writers Ready to Help
with Your Research Proposal