Global health is at the center stage of the economic growth and development of nations, especially developing countries. Currently, there are many global health issues affecting sectors across the board such as health and the economy. In the 21st century, the most common health issues include poor healthcare accessibility, emergence of epidemics, increase in unhealthy products, and a rise of incurable infectious diseases. For instance, the world records an increase in the number of people with type 2 diabetes (T2D). Truthfully, over 462 million were diagnosed with T2D in 2017 with over 1.5 million deaths annually (Khan et al., 2020). Therefore, it is essential to evaluate the globalization factors, agents, and challenges associated with T2D.
1. Identify and describe FOUR globalization factors and explore to clarify how EACH factor influences global emergence and prevalence of type-2 diabetes.
2. Identify and describe the role of FOUR categories of agents involved in activities for the prevention, control and management of type-2 diabetes.
3. For each of the FOUR categories, identify and examine the challenges facing specific organizations or initiatives in performing their role to reduce the global burden of type-2 diabetes .
4. Draw your conclusions about (i) globalization and type-2 diabetes emergence, and (ii) challenges facing global efforts to reduce impact of type-2 diabetes
Globalization Factors in the Emergence and Prevalence of T2D
Globalization is an integration process that facilitates social, economic, and political interactions among countries, companies, and people. According to Naz and Ahmed (2018), the factors that shape and determine the pace of globalization are technological, economic, political, and social factors. Although these factors alleviate key determinants of global health such as poverty, they contribute significantly to the rapid spread of diseases. Accordingly, technology expedites globalization by enabling companies to globalize their products. It enables fine coordination of multinational food chains; thus, enabling these companies to standardize and produce products that meet market demand. Thus, technology is at the backbone of addressing global health issues.
In healthcare, technological advancements such as robotics, artificial intelligence, and nanotechnology play a pivotal role in overcoming the global spread, emergence, and prevalence of medical issues. According to Naz and Ahmed (2018), digital technology offers room for creating sustainable healthcare systems, enhancing the relationship between patients and care providers, and promoting effective measures for managing diseases. Consequently, contemporary technologies are likely to win the battle against T2D, which is one of the leading healthcare issues of concern. According to American Diabetes Association (2019), technological advancements are essential in the development of devices, hardware, and software for the management of blood glucose levels. Therefore, technology plays a primary role in reducing the burden of living with diabetes, staving off diabetes complications, and improving quality of life.
In China, the socialist government uses Internet technology to develop measures for overcoming the high prevalence rate of T2D. Accordingly, the Internet-of-Things offers room for using connected appliances, wearable health monitors, and m-Health applications to foster safe, timely, and quality management of T2D. Nie et al. (2016) show that m-Health apps enable diabetic patients to communicate with healthcare providers and nutritionists concerning body weight, glucose level, and diet control. In China, m-Health apps such as Tangtang Quan (TTQ) monitor physical activity, offer diabetic education, and foster insulin management. On that note, Internet technology is at the center stage of improving access and availability of diabetes management and control measures.
Technology is at the basic level of reducing the global spread, prevalence, and emergence of diabetes due to the development of measures and devices for managing diabetic patients. Nonetheless, the global economy compares to technology in influencing the prevalence of t T2D. Naz and Ahmed (2018) indicate that economic factors such as the expansion of the financial sector, financial liberalization, and deregulations determine the economic growth of countries. In healthcare, economic issues such as high inflation rate, poverty, and unemployment contribute to the spread of infections. In the case of T2D, poor financial capabilities contribute to the global spread, emergence, and prevalence of diabetes (American Diabetes Association, 2018). As such, the global economy is at the backbone of overcoming an increase in the number of diabetic patients.
China enlists among the leading countries with a high economic growth rate. This economic development is associated with poor dietary patterns and lifestyle changes in increasing the prevalence of T2D. According to Hu and Jia (2018), the economic factors in China are likely to induce a high risk of becoming overweight and obese. Over the years, the prevalence of overweight and obesity among Chinese adults increases rapidly and significantly, according to the China Physical Fitness Surveillance Center. Hu and Jia (2018) indicate that people living in economically developed regions in China have a higher risk and tendency of visceral adiposity compared to others. As such, the Chinese economy acts as a promoting factor for a sedentary lifestyle and dietary behaviors, which are the primary factors for T2D.
The effects of economic factors in disease prevalence are also associated with global politics. According to Naz and Ahmed (2018), governments and healthcare regulatory agencies create policies that affect the delivery of quality, safe, and patient-centered healthcare services. Hence, the effectiveness of the globalization process relies on formulated health and economic policies. In politics, poor health and economic policies influence the delivery of quality healthcare in the management of patients with T2D. Gómez (2020) postulates that governmental commitment to health policy creates a basis for addressing the challenges associated with T2D. As such, politics in healthcare policy development determine the spread, prevalence, and management of diabetes globally.
The Chinese government also promotes healthcare plans for controlling the prevalence and reducing the mortality rate associated with non-communicable diseases. According to Luo et al. (2020), the socialist government uses short-term and long-term strategies such as national demonstration areas and health system integration to overcome the emergence and prevalence of T2D. These two national strategies play a pivotal role in promoting behavioral changes, regular monitoring, and self-management of T2D. These strategies are likely to lower the prevalence rate of T2D in china by approximately 20% in 2025 (Luo et al., 2020). As such, the government intensifies the efforts established in healthcare policies to lower the prevalence and emergence of T2D.
In globalization, social factors facilitate cultural convergence, which is essential for addressing global challenges. Naz and Ahmed (2018) believe that reduction in communication and transport costs is at the backbone of cultural convergence. This convergence facilitates the development of demographic similarities across the globe. In healthcare, social and physical factors such as poor lifestyle standards, high illiteracy levels, and unemployment contribute to the spread of illnesses. Hill-Briggs et al. (2021) indicate that socioeconomic status, food environment, and healthcare accessibility determine the prevalence and emergence of T2D. On that note, social factors are major determinants of issues affecting the global spread and prevalence of diabetes.
Sociocultural and demographic factors impose considerable effects on the economic and political sceneries in the emergence and prevalence of T2D in China. China has a profound and complicated association between social factors and the economic basis of disease development. Internal regional and rural-urban residential segregation contributes significantly to the high prevalence rate of T2D in China (Guo et al., 2021). In addition, sociodemographic factors such as marital status, employment status, occupation, and medical insurance create a link between the Chinese economy and the political zone in healthcare service delivery to diabetic patients. As such, social factors in the globalization of Chinese industrial sectors associate with other globalization factors in influencing the emergence and prevalence of T2D.
Globalization promotes the economic wellbeing of Chinese people due to access to international markets and collaboration with multinational agencies. For instance, the Chinese government formulates strong networks with pharmaceutical companies to ensure the provision of adequate healthcare resources for the management of T2D. However, the country has a significant wealth gap among people in rural and urban areas. As such, the economic performance of China at the national level differentiates from the financial capabilities of people at an individual level. Accordingly, Lin et al. (2020) indicate that the global burden of T2D is on the rise due to the lack of elaborate and well-developed measures for managing, controlling, and preventing the emergence, prevalence, and mortality rate of diabetic patients. Thus, globalization in China imposes considerable benefits and challenges in the development of measures to address healthcare issues such as T2D.
Agents for Preventing, Managing, and Controlling T2D
The health and wellbeing of people rely on established disease management, prevention, and control measures. In most cases, healthcare agents focus on improving the quality of life and lowering healthcare costs. Therefore, their primary mandate is to promote access to quality, timely, dedicated, and patient-centered healthcare services. They offer room for addressing non-communicable diseases such as diabetes, cancer, and cardiovascular diseases among others. According to Goyal and Jialal (2021), T2D accounts for over 90% of diabetic cases across the globe. In China, T2D is the leading healthcare issue of concern that affects over 95% of Chinese people. On that note, evaluating the agents responsible for the management of T2D provides room for reducing the prevalence and mortality rate of T2D.
Healthcare agents play a pivotal role in preventing, controlling, and managing chronic diseases. At the international level, the World Health Organization (WHO) promotes governmental efforts in reducing the global spread and prevalence of diseases. In the management of T2D, the WHO protects the health and safety of diabetic patients by advocating and promoting international policies on the provision of quality, safe, and patient-centered healthcare services (WHO, 2021). Due to the challenges associated with T2D, the WHO directs international health agencies to optimize health responses in managing, controlling, and preventing T2D. Therefore, the WHO aligns national and international T2D management measures with the health-based sustainable development goals.
The prevalence of T2D and related complications are on the rise across the globe. This prevalence creates a burden to healthcare systems and patients in managing, controlling, and preventing the disease. At the national level, the State Council and the Communist Party Central Committee approved the Healthy China (HC) 2030 plan to control the prevalence and mortality rate of non-communicable diseases such as diabetes (Luo et al., 2020). HC 2030 offers room for state-level health improvement, capacity development, healthcare industry expansion, disease risk factor control, and health system optimization. On that note, the Chinese government plays a crucial role in controlling, managing, and preventing the spread and prevalence of TD2 in China.
China is currently on the verge of overcoming the high emergence, spread, and prevalence rate of T2D. At the community level, Wu et al. (2017) indicate that community health services (CHS) provide room for overcoming the widespread of diseases. In line with the CHS, the Chinese government promotes community and hospital-based outpatient programs to improve access to patient care. These programs enable diabetic patients to seek timely healthcare services to manage the progression and severity of their conditions. In addition, the programs promote accessibility and availability of healthcare services for diabetic patients across the board. Thus, the Chinese government plays a primary role in ensuring healthcare service delivery to diabetic patients.
Diabetic patients require advanced and elaborated disease management measures to prevent, manage, and control the emergence and prevalence of T2D. At an individual’s level, lifestyle changes such as dietary patterns and physical exercise overcome the health hazards of T2D (Marín-Peñalver et al., 2016). Regular physical exercises among diabetic patients offer room for managing body weight, creating a balanced sugar level, and reducing exposure to stroke, heart attack, and cardiovascular risk factors. In addition, diabetic patients alter dietary patterns to align with the recommended nutritional intake for overcoming diabetes. This alignment enables diabetic patients to achieve the desired lipid profile, blood pressure, body weight, and blood glucose.
Challenges Associated with the Agents of T2D
The healthcare sector promotes early detection and intensive interventions for managing diabetic patients. However, agents of disease management, control, and prevention are likely to experience challenges in the implementation of the proposed measures. For instance, the WHO develops strategies for implementation at the national level. In most cases, it advocates for the health and wellbeing of patients (WHO, 2021). In this case, policy differences between the WHO and the Chinese government are at the center stage of failing to manage T2D in China. Thus, China may continue to experience an increase in the number of patients with diabetes.
China is at the forefront with over 95% of Chinese having considerable levels of exposure to risk factors for T2D. At the national level, the HC 2030 intensifies disease management measures such as accessibility and availability of healthcare services. However, pharmaceutical companies may fail to offer adequate disease management and control therapeutic products due to the high demand. For instance, China is likely to experience an insulin shortage due to increased demand to manage T2D. According to Liu et al. (2017), inaccessibility and unavailability of affordable insulin increase the risk of premature deaths of diabetic patients. As such, the Chinese government experiences challenges in optimizing the availability of healthcare services for managing T2D.
At the community level, community and hospital-based interventions provide room for addressing, managing, and controlling T2D. However, inadequate resources for managing T2D may trigger the non-delivery of quality, safe, and patient-oriented healthcare services for managing T2D. Therefore, China is likely to experience a progressive surge in the number of diabetic patients, according to Mao et al. (2019). The high prevalence rate is associated with poor economic capabilities and a high mortality rate due to non-communicable diseases. In addition, community interventions provide room for educating the public on appropriate measures to curb T2D. However, the inadequate resources inhibit the provision of community-based educational programs for self and clinical management of diabetes.
At the individual level, lifestyle changes such as nutritional and dietary patterns as well as physical exercise promote the health and wellbeing of an individual. Accordingly, China records a surge in patients with T2D due to non-adherence to approved lifestyle changes, medication patterns, and compliance with educational programs. According to Mao et al. (2019), non-compliance to the set therapeutic measures increases the risk of worsening the diabetic condition as well as increasing the risk of developing diabetic-related complications. However, diabetic patients lack adequate financial measures to support their insulin therapies; thus, they are exposed to risk factors for T2D. As such, China records a high prevalence rate of T2D due to the evidential challenges at individual, community, national, and international levels.
Globalization intensifies efforts to address socio-economic issues affecting people across the board. To influence the delivery of quality, safe, and timely healthcare services, globalization creates a link among factors such as technological advancements, politics, socio-economic issues, and demographic patterns. As such, globalization efforts are at the forefront in addressing emerging and prevalent healthcare challenges such as T2D. Therefore, it offers room for addressing issues such as inaccessibility to healthcare services, poor healthcare policies, and economic burden that contribute to disease progression. In line with globalization efforts, the interrelationship among governments and international agencies plays a pivotal role in addressing the issues fostering the rise and global progression of T2D. As such, the globalization efforts evidence the possibility of addressing T2D in the future. The application of globalization measures provides a basis for addressing not only diabetes but also other highly virulent, lethal, and challenging health issues. In China, globalization influences the economic sector in which most people engage in economic activities to improve their lifestyles. Thus, it enables people to acquire financial capabilities for managing, controlling, and preventing T2D. However, there is a likelihood of high prevalence and mortality rate due to T2D. This challenge originates from the economic gap created by the challenges affecting agents of disease management.
Submitted to Coventry University