TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

Abstract ………………………………………………………………………………… 3

  • Introduction ………………………………………………………………………….4
    • A brief history AVs ………………………………………………………….4
    • Background ………………………………………………………………….4
    • How AVs work ………………………………………………………………7
    • Aims ……………………………………………………………………..……8
    • Methodology ………………………………………………………………….8
    • Literature review …………………………………………………………..…8

References ………………………………………………………………………………..15

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

ABSTRACT

Autonomous vehicles, hereinafter referred to as AVs, are progressively being introduced from science rooms into the business world and they have generated interest among customers in the emerging technology-based mobility. Leading car manufacturers including Amazon, Google, Lyft, Uber, Cisco, and Intel have made notable advancements in their investments in the production of automated vehicles. The government has also been supportive of the inventions relating to autonomous vehicles through the provision of supportive policies and legal frameworks and it is the responsibility of AV dealers to comply with legal and policy provisions for the realization of the benefits of the new and promising industry. Production of AVs is planned and guided by the possible consequences of the emerging motor vehicle technology for better future opportunity. The main objective of this research is to focus on added value of autonomous vehicles based on the expectations, acceptance and requirements for autonomous cars by the target beneficiaries.

This paper discusses the benefits of autonomous vehicles/ self-driving/ driverless/ robotic vehicles and explores how fast autonomous vehicles are likely to be produced and deployed based on experience with the past vehicle technologies, their advantages and costs, as well as how the autonomous vehicles are likely to influence travel demands and decision planning such optimal road, parking and supply of transit. The study also explores the opportunities relating to policies of transportation that may be caused by the emergence of autonomous vehicle technologies. Autonomous vehicles can reduce cost of transportation and improve accessibility to households of low income and people with issues relating to mobility. The new AV technology also has far-stretching applications and implications exceeding all conceivable expectations. This paper provides a thorough analysis of the applicable literary works and discusses issues such as ethics and machine safety. Connected vehicles are an indispensable part of the autonomous vehicle technology, there is a major gap in knowledge regarding autonomous vehicles and routing behaviors. Connected vehicle intelligence offers a great opportunity to develop an efficient routing system. This study contributes to the existing scholarly work by discussing future opportunities as well as the possible challenges linked with the AV technology.

 

  • INTRODUCTION

This dissertation discusses the advent of driverless vehicles which are now considered to be operational in the near future after they are finalized in science and research departments. The AV technology will revolutionize the way things are done in the transport and related industries hence the need for this study to dwell on the invention of autonomous vehicles, and related challenges likely to affect the realization of the benefits of this technological advancement.

1.1 A brief history of autonomous vehicles

The advancement towards autonomous vehicles was started back in the early 1929s and was accelerated in 1980s when scientists succeeded in developing automated highway systems. This was a gateway into semi-autonomous and autonomous cars to be linked to the highway systems (Boglee et al., 2014). Initial pilots of automated vehicles were significantly made in Germany and the United States during 1980-2000.

Autonomous vehicles are directly linked to the thorough research on unidentified equipment manufactured by the military (DARPA) theUnited States Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency. The driverless car launched by Google greatly publicized autonomous vehicles and attracted vast talent from differentsectors (Anderson et al., 2014). Recently, in 2015, Google autonomous car travelled over one million miles and only 14 minor accidents on public road networks were experienced. In all incidences, the AV was not guilty but it was either driven by a driver or the other driver was at fault. However, Google car was involved in accident where it hit the side of a bus in 2016.

1.2 Background

Driverless vehicles are considered to be operational in the near future after they are finalized in science and research departments. The AV technology will revolutionize the way things are done in the transport and related industries.Car manufacturers and investors in the mobility sector haveshown a growing interest in developing autonomous vehicles. Governments have also depicted positive support towards AVs through positive economic and legal policies to enable countries to tap on the potential of AVs (Conti et al., 2018). Autonomous vehicle is capable of becoming an essential part of human life by improving the quality of life through commercial, private, and public transport which will provide a new travelling experience. It is the potential of autonomous vehicles in becoming synonymous with life that forms the background of this paper which seeks to highlight the benefits of the autonomous vehicle technology.

Autonomous vehicles will soon be launched and the will have a transformational effect in the transport sector. The technology will require proper planning so that full benefits and improvement of lives, growth of the economy, health improvement, and broadening social connection will be realized. Autonomous vehicle will offer affordable and convenient movement to all irrespective of residential location, driving ability, or age (Fagnant etal., 2015).

Autonomous vehicles will be run by a system of connected network of vehicles offering a safer, sustainable, and efficient compared to current vehicles.A connected network of vehicles will be safer, more sustainable and efficient than the cars of today. Autonomous vehicles will soon be able to navigate around without the input of human drivers ferrying goods and people whenever needed across different places through efficient routes (Floreano& Wood, 2015). The AV technology will further enable a seamless interaction between the road transport and other forms of transport hence offering end-to-end journey linkage and reliability. The shift to autonomous vehicles will enable the uplifting of the value of land as well as jobs since the process will involve locking of the anticipated location making and benefits related to the use of land.

The paper does not seek to rationalize the driverless cars business. Instead, the paper investigates the potential advantages and impact on city centers, rural areas and motorways. The new technology in the transport sector will be widely accepted only if there is evidence that they work effectively, safely, and cheaply in identified areas, utilizing the available transport system-where applicable, when interacted with other cars.

 

The modern day lifestyle has been tremendously transformed by emerging technologies in robotics and communication and the transport sector has not been left out. The emergent technology in the transport sector has led to the invention of autonomous vehicles which has been linked to reduction of car accidents, consumption of energy, pollution, and traffic congestions. While reducing these aspects, AVs will increase the accessibility of transport (Fagnant, 2016). The driverless vehicles technology has been explored for a while nowbut the high cost of producing them has always prevented mass production autonomous vehicles. Nevertheless, the research and development efforts have been sped up in the recent past to breathe life reality into the AV idea. The unveiling of the Google car is a perfect example of the steps made towards the realization of autonomous cars and the fact that motor vehicle industry injects 77 billion Euros into R & D for fostering innovation and maintaining competitive edge is an indication of the notable strides made towards theachievement of autonomous vehicles technology (Gao& Zielke,2014).

The robust advancement in the communication sector and growing desire to effectively cater for special needs of the aging members of the society in first world countries has transformed AVs from just an idea into a necessity and an importantparadigm in business. Scholars have mentioned that the emergence of new ideas and technological advancement in the social networks arena, AVs, smart phone technology will definitely revolutionize the transport sector landscape.A good example is the advent of Uber which has gained tremendous popularity across global cites leading to struggle by traditional taxi industries to remain competitive and retain the business share. As a matter of fact, motor vehicle automation is one of disruptive technologies listed (Harper et al., 2016).

Car manufactures are fiercely competing against each other and 2020 is the horizon year slated for offering commercial autonomous vehicles for the benefit of the ordinary market. By 2050, the AV will be fully operational and available I the market. Previously deployed smart vehicle technologies including automatic transmission and hybrid electric drive yielded success and on the basis of the success of previous technologies, the prediction of sales of AVs 50% sales of automotive and 40% of vehicle travels by 2040(Kalra & Paddock,2016). This makes it imperative for preparedness for the advent of autonomous vehicles as well us understanding the issues that are likely to be encountered and welcoming the opportunities that will be created by AVs.

Autonomous vehicles are hailed for their various positive impacts in the society including enhancement of safety in transport, reducing transport costs, improving access of transport by physically challenged individuals, and enabling low income earners to enjoy cheapertransport options. The estimated societal value that will be created by the invention AVs is roughly 1.9 trillion dollars yearly by 2025(Kumar& Michael, 2017). Positive results of the autonomous vehicles are the driving forces that fuel the developments around autonomous vehicle technology, transforming it from jus an idea into available opportunity for now and posterity.

Some scholarshave observed that autonomous vehicles should be approached from a wider perspective, as a technology of a multi-disciplinary nature. Connection and data are essential components for success of autonomous vehicles. A connected vehicle is the technological aspect which facilitates communication between all affected stakeholders including pedestrians, vehicles, authorities, and infrastructure.Connected components need volumes of information from different sources. The various components of the AV system have been extensively studied in various fields; therefore, the AV invention will be regarded as technology that sums efforts from various disciplines ranging from the transport science, law, ethics, electricalengineering, IT, and philosophy. This paper examines AVs from engineering perspective. The paper aims to discuss the implications of AVs among scholars, policy formulators, transport sector practitioners, and planners. Particularly, the paper examines the AV feature relating to safety, consumption of fuel, road pricing, requirements for parking, land utilization, and forecasting of the demand for the AVs.

The paper aims at highlighting the opportunities and challenges that may result from the invention and use of autonomous vehicles. Firs, the paper will discuss autonomous vehicles in relation to the present transport network and society, and then the impact of AVs will be addressed based on the results of previous studies. The paper reviews various studies touching on AVs to come up with a comprehensive and informedperspective. The literature in existence does not address the ways of determining routes by autonomousvehicles. The presumption is that AVs are like any other cars in terms of routing. As previously discussed, connected-vehicle system is an essential part of autonomous vehicle technology. Such sound communication my lead to coordination between autonomous vehicle directional abilities, resulting in an efficient route finding and flow of traffic.

Sound data consisting of time of travel and incidences can be synthesized and analyzed from a central point to facilitate calculation and direction of AVs into best routes.

1.3 How does the AV work?

Autonomous vehicles generally operate under a design consisting of three phases. The design is dubbed sense-plan-act and it is the premise of numerous robotic systems. The greatest challenge for autonomous vehicles relates to understanding and effectively navigating the complicated and dynamic driving environment (Millard, 2016). Autonomous vehicles are therefore fitted with different types of sensors,radars, and cameras which collects raw information from the environment. The collected information is the input for software which is responsible for determining theright action to take i.e. acceleration, change of lanes, and overtaking. A collection of technologies of surveillance is used to manage the challenging task. This task is ordinarily resolved using combined radar, mono, lidar, and stereo camera systems.

1.4 Aim & Objectives

The paper mainly focuses on discussing the various opportunities relating to the autonomous vehicle technology. The various challenges relating to autonomous vehicles will also be addressed.

A great deal of testing on AVs takes place away from the public eye and the appropriate time for urban areas to commence the drafting of rules on the management of behavior of autonomous vehicles is yet to be determined. The big questions are whether the technology can be trusted, whether it is safe for pedestrians and other road users, the readiness for the challenge, and whetherthe technology is sustainable?

Autonomous vehicles aim at driving various traditional vehicles that have been linked to the rise of levels of cortisol. The technology will do away with taxi and truck drivers hence reducing the costly of transportation. Autonomous vehicle is also available for use by non-drivers which facilitates such use without having to rely on other people. Improved safety will reduce instances of crash and accidents hence reducing insurance costs (Litman, 2017). The technology will also increase the capacity of roads and minimize expenditure hence helping in maintenance of vehicle plat forming which are capable of driving in close distance hence fuel saving accorded by reduced vehicle resistance.

The research seeks to achieve the following objectives:

  • To discuss the opportunities created by AVs
  • To explore the possible challenges relating to AVs
  • To identify the current leaders in AVs technology

1.5 Methodologies

The research is based on analysis of existing literature on the opportunities of autonomous vehicles. The study analyses books, articles, and journals in its discourse to establish the opportunities and challenges relating autonomous vehicles.

1.6 Literature Review

According to Petit and Schladover (2015), one of the possible benefits of autonomous vehicles is the reduction of congestion. The factors that touch on congestion and affects and have both positive and negative impact include minimizing delay of traffic by avoiding accidents, and the change in the overall vehicle-kilometer-traveled. The expected reduction of car crashes would lead to minimal delays and consequently improve the overall reliability of the transport system. The change in the distance travelled by the vehicle is not yet clearly explained and some researchers argue that VKT would go higher due to rebound effect (Petit& Schladover, 2015). Increased vehicle-kilometer-distance (VKT) is attributed to factors such as self-parking and fueling, a higher use of AVs by non-drivers, a higher trip number, avoidance of publictransport and longer commutes. For that, they speculate on a combination of factors such as additionalVKT due to self-fueling and self-parking, increased use of AVs by those unable to drive, an increased number oftrips (both unoccupied and occupied), a shift away from public transport and longer commutes.

Since autonomous vehicles are run by a connected system, congestion will significantly reduce. A reservation-based system has been proposed to prevent traffic congestion especially at intersections when AVs are linked. Reservation-based systems work better than traffic lights and can tackle excessively congested traffic situations (Screurs & Streuwer, 2016). The higher the number of autonomous vehicles on the road the lower the level of traffic delays. Consequently, the fact that that autonomous vehicles will reduce traffic congestion is a reality unless it will introduce additional requirements that might burden the heavily congested network. The overall effect of autonomous vehicles on traffic congestion is yet to be explored.

Autonomous vehicles have been positively received since they are likely to enhance safety and minimize crashes. Road crashes in 201 alone killed over 32,000 lives in the U.S, injured over three million and destroyed close to 24 million cars. This amounts to close to $ 277 billion. The expenses burden has a ripple effect on the level of productivity, cost of medical care, legal expenses, work losses, cost of emergency services, and the burden of congestion, insurance costs, and the destruction of property (Sparrow & Howard, 2016). The reduction of accidents has been linked to car technologies includingairbag installation, anti-lock brake system, electronic controls of stability, and warning on head on collision. These are some of the advancements that will be fitted in autonomous vehicles. Studies have stated that accidents could be reduced significantly if all cars are fitted with adaptive lights, collision warnings, and other level 0 or level 1 vehicle automation.Majority of crashes, more than ninety percent are attributed to human errors and AVs will significantly avoid a considerable number of accidents and therefore reducing traffic delay factors.

According to Thill & Nilsson (2015) autonomous vehicles are likely to have positive impacts on the environment in terms of energy and emission. Autonomous vehicle is fuel efficient and have a reduced carbon-intensity, and also AVs have reduced total VKT. Car manufacturers have already made strides in developing fuel efficient engines and passenger cars consume half of what the used to consume 30 years ago. Adoption of autonomous vehicle technology will optimize driving and eco-driving. Eco-drivingis facilitated by technologies such as cruise control and smooth gradual acceleration. Eco-driving willdefiantly enhance fuel efficiency. AVs are likely increase fuel efficiency by close to 40% (Thill &Nilsson, 2015). AVs may lead to increase in travel capacity and reduce fuel consumption during traffic jams as well as enhance better communication among vehicles for communication of actions and maneuvers leading idle time reduction and enhancing efficiency in traffic and drive cycle.

Additionally, a fleet of closely spaced moving vehicles that rarely stop or slow down will look like a train. This will reduce peak speeds hence improving fuel efficiency and higher speeds hence saving time.

From a different point of view, enhanced safety of autonomous vehicles will prompt car makers to produce light vehicles. There is a departure from the old crashworthiness accident control and adoption of accident avoidance techniques (Wynn et al, 2015). Theproduction of light-weight cars is promising outcome of autonomous vehicle technology which will reduce fuel consumption by vehicles. Conventional vehicles rely on weight for safety and reduction of weight reduces fuel consumption. Autonomous vehicles are also likely to be electric hence introducing efficiency.

Autonomous vehicles will increase the value of time since drivers are relieved of their role in the wheel and mental and physical activities of driving giving them more time to do other things while travelling. Consequently, autonomous vehicles minimize the opportunity expenses of travel in terms of spared time value in of-wheel transactions (Thill & Nilsson (2015).

Autonomous vehicle technology is likely to have long term impact the patterns of land utilization. This will lead to proportional increase in the value of land with its closeness to business center where job slots exist in various industries including financial institutions and other service providing sectors. Transportation will enhance proximity. The emergence of vehicles in the 2oth century led to development of suburbs. The relationship between land utilizations and autonomous vehicles is complex and seems paradoxical. In one hand, the emergence of autonomous vehicles could develop a trend of more scattered population and lowdensity of land occupation and use around metropolitan areas. On the other hand, AVs may lead to growth of other suburbs and may also extend to exurb territories. In another case, autonomous vehicle reduces the need for parking space translating to free up of parking lots in CBDs for other purposes. This could lead to growth in CBDs since parking space takes a lot of space in the center of cities. Parking spaces takes up to 30% of total land in cities.

To sum it up, it is expected that in the long run, the adoption of autonomous vehicles will lead to thicker CBDs many buildings and lesser parking areas. Also, AVs could lead to increased spread of population in metropolitan zones due toowners’ ability to engage in other activities while AVs drive themselves.

Zheng & Lim (2014) argue that driverless vehicles are considered to be operational in the near future after they are finalized in science and research departments. The AV technology will revolutionize the way things are done in the transport and related industries. Car manufacturers and investors in the mobility sector have shown a growing interest in developing autonomous vehicles (Thill & Nilsson (2015). Governments have also depicted positive support towards AVs through positive economic and legal policies to enablecountries to tap on the potential of AVs. Autonomous vehicle is capable of becoming an essential part of human life by improving the quality of life through commercial, private, and public transport which will provide a new travelling experience (Thill & Nilsson (2015).  Autonomous vehicles will soon be launched and the will have a transformational effect in the transport sector. The technology will require proper planning so that full benefits and improvement of lives, growth of the economy, health improvement, and broadening social connection will be realized. Autonomous vehicle will offer affordable and convenient movement to all irrespective of residential location, driving ability, or age.

Harper et al., 2016 argued that autonomous vehicles will be run by a system of connected network of vehicles offering a safer, sustainable, and efficient compared to current vehicles.  A connected network of vehicles will be safer, more sustainable and efficient than the cars of today. Autonomous vehicles will soon be able to navigate around without the input of human drivers ferrying goods and people whenever needed across different places through efficient routes. The AV technology will further enable a seamless interaction between the road transport and other forms of transport hence offering end-to-end journey linkage and reliability (Harper et al., 2016). The shift to autonomous vehicles will enable the uplifting of the value of land as well as jobs since the process will involve locking of the anticipated location making and benefits related to the use of land.

Bogloee, et al., 2016 observed that addressing traffic congestion problem entails increasing supply while reducing demand. This involves a focus on managinggovernment finances with AVs have the absolute possibility of operate on limited space to increase the capacity of roads. There is a growing concern to address congestions challenges through raising supply which can conventionally be achieved by enacting public policies. The system will facilitate close driving and allowing occupants to focus on dealing with regulatory support. Autonomous vehicles come with benefits such as enhancing equity in access to transport services, road safety improvement and service delivery (Fagnant et al, 2015). It encompasses major impact on higher traffic efficiency with more freed up space and pollution reduction that reduces transportation costs also. The autonomous vehicle road blocks are regarded essential for managinghigh traffic density which can be realized easily by autonomous mass movement of cars. This can be speeded up by the authorities through curving out of specific dedicated lanes which will lead to considerable increases in congestion in human lanes.

Enormous initial resources are needed to facilitate the functioning of autonomousvehicle systems and the generation of the requisite data volumes which relies on how users of the internet and vehicles are likely to communicate with (Harper et al., 2016). There is a focus on such issues as road marketing and signs renewal to enable reading by cameras. This requires a huge amount of monetary investments. Automation of vehicle will be done in stages with plans that foresee commercialization of level three-quarters in mid-2020 (Bogloee etal. 2016).Gao & Zielke, 2014 observed that the current lifestyle has been tremendously transformed by emerging technologies in robotics and communication and the transport sector has not been left out. The emergent technology in the transport sector has led to the invention of autonomous vehicles which has been linked to reduction of car accidents, consumption of energy, pollution, and traffic congestions. While reducing these aspects, AVs will increase the accessibility of transport. The driverless vehicles technology has been explored for a while nowbut the high cost of producing them has always prevented mass production autonomous vehicles. Nevertheless, the research and development efforts have been sped up in the recent past to breathe life reality into the AV idea (Litman, 2017). The unveiling of the Google car is a perfect example of the steps made towards the realization of autonomous cars and the fact that motor vehicle industry injects 77 billion Euros into R & D for fostering innovation and maintaining competitive edge is an indication of the notable strides made towards the achievement of autonomous vehicles technology.

Conti et al., 2018 observed that the rapid robust advancement in the communication sector and growing desire to effectively cater for special needs of the aging members of the society in first world countries has transformed AVs from just an idea into a necessity and an importantparadigm in business. Scholars have mentioned that the emergence of new ideas and technological advancement in the social networks arena, AVs, smart phone technology will definitely revolutionize the transport sector landscape (Harper et al., 2016). A good example is the advent of Uber which has gained tremendous popularity across global cites leading to struggle by traditional taxi industries to remain completive and retain the business share. As a matter of fact, motor vehicle automation is one of disruptive technologies listed.

Fagnant, 2016 posited that vehicle manufactures are fiercely competing against each other and 2020 is the horizon year slated for offering commercial autonomous vehicles for the benefit of the ordinary market. By 2050, the AV will be fully operational and available I the market. Previously deployed smart vehicle technologies including automatic transmission and hybrid electric drive yielded success and on the basis of the success of previous technologies, the prediction of sales of AVs 50% sales of automotive and 40% of vehicle travels by 2040. This makes it imperative for preparedness for the advent of autonomous vehicles as well us understanding the issues that are likely to be encountered and welcoming the opportunities that will be created by AVs (Litman, 2017).

Autonomous vehicles are hailed for their various positive impacts in the society including enhancement of safety in transport, reducing transport costs, improving access of transport by physically challenged individuals, and enabling low income earners to enjoy cheaper transport options (Anderson etal., 2014). The estimated societal value that will be created by the invention AVs is roughly 1.9 trillion dollars yearly by 2025. Positive results of the autonomous vehicles are the driving forces that fuel the developments around autonomous vehicle technology, transforming it from jus an idea into a viable opportunity for now and posterity.

Some scholarshave observed that autonomous vehicles should be approached from a wider perspective, as a technology of a multi-disciplinary nature. Connection and data are essential components for success of autonomous vehicles (Floreano & Wood, 2015). A connected vehicle is technological aspect which facilitates communication between all affected stakeholders including pedestrians, vehicles, authorities, and infrastructure. Connected components need volumes of information from different sources. The various components of the AV system have been extensively studied in various fields; therefore, the AV invention will be regarded as technology that sums efforts from various disciplines ranging from the transport science, law, ethics, electricalengineering, IT, and philosophy.

According to Kumar& Michael (2017), theprobability concerns electric vehicle and battery technology which is developed with power vehicles over ranges and speeds at acceptable speeds by majority users. There is 40% emission of gases with greenhouse effect from worldwide road traffic caused by trucks. Power from the battery is required to provide a load with range needed for commercialized roads that seems to increase the weight of the lorry twice with weighty loading.Autonomous vehicles aim at driving various traditional vehicles that have been linked to the rise of levels of cortisol. The technology will do away with taxi and truck drivers hence reducing the costly of transportation (Litman, 2017). Autonomous vehicle is also available for use by non-drivers which facilitates such use without having to rely on other people. Improved safety will reduce instances of crash and accidents hence reducing insurance costs. The technology will also increase the capacity of roads and minimize expenditure hence helping in maintenance of vehicleplatforming which are capable of driving in close distance hence fuel saving accorded by reduced vehicle resistance.

There is a wide acceptance of linked autonomous vehicles which avails the opportunity to design cities and town centers afresh. These places would be cleaned and refurbished. Driverless vehicles are owned underprivate autonomous vehicle ownership model with enhanced safety and efficiency (Harper et al., 2016). AVs are linked to the network for more data where inefficiency concerns are addressed. Autonomous vehicles are effective for eradicating excessive parking slots in cities and the spaces can be put into more valuable use.

 

 

 

 

References

Anderson, J.M., Nidhi, K., Stanley, K.D., Sorensen, P., Samaras, C.   and   Oluwatola, O.A.,   2014. Autonomous vehicle technology: A guide for policymakers. RandCorporation.

Bagloee,S.A.,Tavana,M.,Asadi,M.andOliver,T.,2016.Autonomousvehicles:challenges,opportunities, and future implications for transportation policies. Journal of Modern Transportation, 24(4), pp.284-303.

Conti, M., Dehghantanha, A., Franke, K. and Watson, S., 2018. Internet of Things security and forensics: Challenges and opportunities.

Fagnant,D.J.andKockelman,K.,2015.Preparinganationforautonomousvehicles:opportunities,barriers and policy recommendations. Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, 77,pp.167-181.

Fagnant, D.J. and Kockelman, K.M., 2014. The travel and environmental implications of shared autonomous vehicles, using agent-based model scenarios. Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies, 40, pp.1-13.

Fagnant, D.J. and Kockelman, K.M., 2016. Dynamic ride-sharing and fleet sizing for a system of shared autonomous vehicles in Austin, Texas. Transportation, pp.1-16.

Fagnant, D.J., Kockelman, K.M. and Bansal, P., 2015. Operations of shared autonomous vehicle fleet for austin, texas, market. Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board, (2536), pp.98-106.

Floreano, D. and Wood, R.J., 2015.  Science, technology and the future of small autonomous drones. Nature, 521(7553), p.460.

Gao, P., Hensley, R. and Zielke, A., 2014. A road map to the future for the auto industry. McKinsey Quarterly, Oct.

Harper, C.D., Hendrickson, C.T., Mangones, S. and Samaras, C., 2016. Estimating potential increases in travel with autonomous vehicles for the non-driving, elderly and people with travel-restrictive medical conditions. Transportation research part C: emerging technologies, 72, pp.1-9.

Kalra, N. and Paddock, S.M., 2016. Driving to safety: How many miles of driving would it take to demonstrate autonomous vehicle reliability?Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, 94, pp.182-193.

Kumar, V. and Michael, N., 2017. Opportunities and challenges with autonomous micro aerial vehicles.  In Robotics Research (pp. 41-58). Springer, Cham.

Litman, T., 2017. Autonomous vehicle implementation predictions. Victoria Transport Policy Institute.

 

Millard-Ball, A., 2016. Pedestrians, autonomous vehicles, and cities. Journal of Planning Education and Research, p.0739456X16675674.

Petit, J. and Shladover, S.E., 2015. Potential cyberattacks on automated vehicles. IEEE Transactions on Intelligent Transportation Systems, 16(2), pp.546-556.

Schreurs, M.A. and Steuwer, S.D., 2016. Autonomous Driving—Political, Legal, Social, and Sustainability Dimensions. In Autonomous Driving (pp. 149-171). Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.

Sparrow,R.andHoward,M.,2017.Whenhumanbeingsarelikedrunkrobots: Driverlessvehicles,ethics, and the future of transport. Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies, 80,pp.206-215.

Thill,S.,Riveiro,M.andNilsson,M.,2015.Perceivedintelligenceasafactorin(semi-)autonomousvehicle UX. In ” Experiencing Autonomous Vehicles: Crossing the Boundaries between a Drive and a Ride” workshop in conjunction withCHI2015.

Wynn, R.B., Huvenne, V.A., Le Bas, T.P., Murton, B.J., Connelly, D.P., Bett, B.J., Ruhl, H.A., Morris, K.J., Peakall, J., Parsons, D.R. and Sumner, E.J., 2014. Autonomous Underwater Vehicles (AUVs): Their past, present and future contributions to the advancement of marine geoscience. Marine Geology, 352, pp.451- 468.

Zeng, Y., Zhang, R. and Lim, T.J., 2016. Wireless communications with unmanned aerial vehicles: opportunities and challenges. IEEE Communications Magazine, 54(5), pp.36-42

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