Why Aid for Africa Has Failed and The Options Available

Introduction

The western countries have been making selfless efforts through funding of the health sector to improve medical care service; however, the goals of these countries have not been achieved since most of the people in Africa do not receive quality health services. The people in Africa also live in poverty and most times are caught in financial crisis. In Africa, the religion and cultures, as well as lack of the political instability, is the primary reason why aids have failed to work in Africa. The level of illiteracy among the people has also contributed to why the grants cannot work in Africa since, for instance with the introduction of mosquito nets to cumber the menace of malaria, the fishermen in the local area started using mosquito nets as fish nets (Minakawa,et al., 2008)

The government Non-government organization and non-profit organizations have been on the forefront to provide these aids to help these countries. This report aims to assess how the case study on why aids are not working in Africa and the option available responds to the challenges.

Culture

The concept of cultures is a significant challenge that affects Africa from benefiting from the foreign aids. Culture influences the human beliefs of how they respond if any form of assistance is offered to them. , and this significantly changed their perceptions. These cultures were lost as the countries got civilized and adopted the western culture. The countries in Africa took cultures that were similar to the European powers that colonized them, and this resulted in divisions among the nations (Andrews, 2009). The cultures are also a result of the social class was formed during the era of colonization, in this instance the communities that were cooperative to the whites got handsome rewards while in contrast, those that resisted the colonial rule got no rewards but rather got punishments brought about the social divisions that mainly exits in Africa to date. The countries, therefore, got a different economy like structure in an instance the Democratic Republic of Congo produces mineral while Kenya Produces tea, even though both countries are the principal exports of their respective products. These differences because offering aids to these countries very difficult. Culture differences may also be a result of the religion; Christianity and Islam are the two major religions in Africa. In Senegal has a large population of Islam due to the presence of Arab influence that invaded the region during the eras of Otto von Empire in the region while Malawi a former colony of British has a high population of Christianity. The non-governmental, therefore, prefer offering aids to the religion that they feel suits them best, in this instance NGOs may opt to provide grants to the Christian countries while those from the East may choose to offer aid to the Muslim nations due to the Arab influence. The NGOs are expected to provide the financial assistance to Africa irrespective of the religion that is predominant in the country. They should be concerned about the individual suffering of the people and not the differences that exist among the various communities and the countries in Africa. These are achieved by appreciating that each culture is unique in its way and there is no need for bias among the various cultures in Africa. They should understand that aid to an in their way, creating a forum where an Islamic non-governmental organization can offer assistance to a Christian country. They should establish criteria that they can provide help to the various nations considering their differences in the structure of the economies. They should indulge in giving aid to both the capitalist like Kenya while not leaving out socialism countries like Tanzania. The NGOs should be independent of any government or benefactors as this can mainly affect their performance. Independence is important since the government may have some interests in the third world country.

Consequently, this conflates with Dead Aid wherein Moyo when she argues that in the economic field African governments should know to generate revenue. Through empowering the Africans to create wealth, this will save them from receiving direct aids from the developed countries. The author discusses with in-depth on how foreign aids given to some African countries have contributed to struggles in the economy of the countries. The result is social and economic development with regressive growth. The author also says that some cultures and countries significantly supported the aid and therefore fostering development. She indicates that presence of foreign aid also promotes the levels of poverty in Africa.

Human beings are universal, and they should have equal chances to access to financial aid. The culture should be accepted how they are rather than being judged, this is since some NGOs may see some cultures as being not civilised. In an instance when introduction of mosquito nets were introduced to cumber the menace of malaria the fisherman should also receive finishing nets to ensure that the disease is controlled as they go on lead to reduction of frogs and other water animals and as a result an imbalance in the ecosystem and as result increase in mosquitoes. Additionally, this was since the sizes are small compared to those of fishing nets, therefore, wiping almost everything in the water bodies. The aid offered should also impartiality not depending on the gender or sex of the victim. Such a case is evident in most of the African communities women are on the receiving end and are not treated fairly as other members of the society. The bodies should therefore not be influenced by the local culture while offering assistance. Some religions especially the Islam don’t treat women fairly, and it shouldn’t affect the performance of the NGOs.

Consequently, this is the same in the Dead aid by Moyo where he outlines how financial aids have been of great use in Africa. The author furthers that there are numerous types of aids that were offered in Africa have seen remarkable development since the different models have been put to good use. This has seen significant economic growth in the African countries. Oyo also outlines each of the models that were used in the development of African countries.

Identity

Identity is of great importance in the social structure as it identifies how the individual relate to the other people. It refers to how gender, race, gender ethnicity and religion norms relate to each other (Eifrt,et al., 2010).In Africa gender inequality is very common where the women are highly discriminated and don’t receive equal opportunities as their male counterparts. In some communities the boys are allowed to go to school while the girls are at home looking after the premises. The women are subject to this prejudice despite the contributions they make to the communities. This is even under after the many projects established by the NGOs to improve their welfare. The women are also denied quality health care, resources and even chances to exercise the leadership skills they may possess. This inequality has over a long time lowered the economic development in the countries. The gender inequality is a result of social norms that exist in the various communities in the region. Gender equality helps to retrieve fallen glory as well as bring declined economies back to life (Houle, 2009). The NGOs in the regions should focus on empowering women and offering them equal opportunities to pursue education.  However, this can be implemented by providing some sponsorship to the women as well as campaigning for the girl child to attend school. The women should also get excellent health care services regarding maternal services that are of great importance to the female gender as it is them that have the role of bringing the future generations (Scorgie, et al., 2012). The NGOs should treat women fairly and their operations should not be undermined by the various cultures and beliefs in the region. In Nigeria the government with an NGO established a project to help the orphans and the women. This project was in 7 cities in Nigeria that empowered the local women and the orphans. It mainly entailed providing national education to the women, how to earn from farming as well as other methods of income generations. The project had a notable increase in the economic and social capital among the participants (Scorgie, et al., 2012). The growth further led to a reduction in the instances of women being missed by families since it helps them gain some financial freedom. Ethnicity is also another most significant problem that faces Africa; a good example is an unpopular genocide in Rwanda that took away 10,000 lives in 100 days between the tribes of Hutu and Tutsi. The NGOs should focus on treatment of all tribes in the same manner by an understanding that the communities are universally equal and should enjoy equal rights as they are the same. The NGOs should be independent and not influenced by the government to mistreat an ethnic group. In the genocide the government could have been changed NGOs to be biased to the government was made up of one tribe while the other held minor positions in the social structure (Koch, et al., 2009). This can be achieved through participation where the member is allowed to participate in the civic duties in their country. This can reduce ethnicity among the communities in Africa and as result there can be an increase in the economic development (Koch, et a., 2009). These bodies should focus in protecting the people during crisis not considering their ethnicity since they are all human beings therefore are bound to enjoy equal rights. The people should appreciate other ethnic groups since all of them are equal and contribute equally to national development. They should not see their group as superior to the other groups’ therefore foster peace for good existence.

Besides, a contraction is identifiable in the Dead aid by Moyo indicating that financial aids lead to rising in corruption by the government as well as an increase in financial dependency levels. She shows how influx levels in aid are harmful to the underdeveloped countries that mostly have poor infrastructure as well as small social and economic institutions. This creates a long-lasting problem since to the issue since the countries use the development of the infrastructure rather than for developing the economic sector. She illustrates this through inflation rates that are associated with the aids.

Foreign aids are essential as they help the countries in development (Jablonksi, 2014). A country can get help, and in turn, the donor exploits the natural resources in the country. Exploitation of a financed country is indicated in a case that the United Arab Emirates to utilize resources in Libya (Abozed, et al., 2009).In the union both the countries develop. The donor benefits from the resources that would go unexploited since African is made of developing countries that at most times have the inferior technology. The countries in Africa, in turn, have benefited from the development of road and railway network from the aids. The development is substantially supported in the Dead assistance by Moyo as she argues that the Chinese government uses these policies to offer aids to the countries in Africa (Davies, et.al. 2008). She says that both of the members involved greatly benefit from the coupling. The countries also engage in foreign investments and also creating a form of exchange for the natural commodities. She also argues that there is an establishment of trade partnerships that exist for long.

In conclusion, foreign aids are of great importance as well as being associated with several demerits. The NGOs and the foreign governments should not be influenced by religion or the culture or religion while executing or while offering aids to the countries in Africa. I would recommend the companies use the appropriate policies while providing subsidies to Africa. The countries should take advantage of this coupling to trade its commodities. Lastly, I would recommend that African countries should formulate policies to ensure that they come up with methods to generate revenue rather than depending on foreign financial aids.

References

Abozed, M., Melaine, Y., &Saci, K. (2009, May). The Influence of Work Environmental Factors on Motivation to Transfer Management Training: Case Study of the Libyan Oil Industry. In 4 the Annual Conference Liverpool BEAN (p. 9).

Andrews, N. (2009). Foreign aid and development in Africa: What the literature says and what the reality is. Journal of African Studies and Development1(1), 8.

Davies, M., Edinger, H., Tay, N., & Naidu, S. (2008). How China delivers development assistance to Africa. Centre for Chinese Studies, University of Stellenbosch, 53-57.

Eifert, B., Miguel, E., & Posner, D. N. (2010). Political competition and ethnic identification in Africa. American Journal of Political Science54(2), 494-510.

Ekanayake, E. M., &Chatrna, D. (2010). The effect of foreign aid on economic growth in developing countries. Journal of International Business and Cultural Studies3, 1.

Houle, C. (2009). Inequality and democracy: Why inequality harms consolidation but does not affect democratization. World politics61(4), 589-622.

Jablonski, R. S. (2014). How aid targets vote: the impact of electoral incentives on foreign aid distribution. World Politics66(2), 293-330.

Koch, D. J., Dreher, A., Nunnenkamp, P., & Thiele, R. (2009). Keeping a low profile: what determines the allocation of aid by non-governmental organizations?. World development37(5), 902-918.

Minakawa, N., Dida, G. O., Sonye, G. O., Futami, K., & Kaneko, S. (2008). Unforeseen misuses of bed nets in fishing villages along Lake Victoria. Malaria Journal7(1), 165.

Scorgie, F., Chersich, M. F., Ntaganira, I., Gerbase, A., Lule, F., & Lo, Y. R. (2012). Socio-demographic characteristics and behavioral risk factors of female sex workers in sub-Saharan Africa: a systematic review. AIDS and Behavior16(4), 920-933.

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