Nursing; Analyse and Respond to Client Health Information

Instructions to Students

This assessment requires students to submit a written assessment for each of the body systems studied in this unit

  • Cells and Tissues
  • Integumentary System
  • Musculoskeletal System
  • nervous system
  • Endocrine and Senses System
  • Cardiovascular System
  • Respiratory System
  • Urinary System
  • Lymphatic System
  • Immune System
  • Gastrointestinal System
  • Reproductive System

Students will be required to answer the following questions, according to each body system, to demonstrate your knowledge of the Anatomy and Physiology of the human body.

  1. What is the Anatomy of this system?

What is it?

  • What is the Physiology of this system?

How does it work?

  • Provide a pictorial representation.
  • Does this body system work with other systems in the body?How?
  • List 2diseases(pathophysiology)of this system and how they impact on it.
  • List 2 Medications and contraindications and contraindications and contraindications related to the diseases chosen. Include their use, drug interactions, and side effects.
  • How does this system defend itself?What are the Immune Responses related to this system?
  • What are the main signs of aging according to this system?
  • List types of trauma
  • What Nursing Interventions and planning services would you implement/action when caring for a client with the above-chosen diseases? 

The following websites may assist with this assessment

Cells and Tissues

  1. Anatomy


____Cells are the structural and functional unit of any living body. It is the basic building block of the body. In the human body there are as many as trillions of cells. This unit takes in nutrition and convert nutrition into energy. It the site, where all the specialized functions take place in the living body. Cells carry the hereditary material in the form of DNA within the nucleus of the cell.

Types of cells

____There are 200 different types of cells in any living body. Each of the different categories of cells is specialized in performing to perform specific functions. The different types of cells include:-

  • Stem cells
  • Red Blood cells
  • White Blood Cells White Blood cells include three types- Neutrophil, Eosinophil, Basophil, Lymphocytes
  • Bone cells
  • Muscle cells
  • Fat cells
  • Nerve Cells
  • Endothelial cells


Tissues are the building block of the human body. There are three different types of tissues available in the human body they are epithelial tissue, connective tissue, muscle tissue, and nerve tissue

  • Physiology

 Assimilation of the different types of cells in the human body forms the tissue system. Connective tissue help in the binding of the different part of the body. It helps in the support and protection to the body The muscle tissue helps in maintaining the flexibility of the body through its elasticity. The nervous tissue helps in the communication between the different organs of the body.

  • Pictorial Representation
  • Related systems/ how

Tissues are closely associated with the organs. Aggregation of the cells leads to the formation of tissue and several types of tissues aggregate to form different organs performing a different function in the body.

  • Pathophysiology

One of the most important pathological reactions which are demonstrated by the tissues is the inflammation and irritation in the connective tissue. These inflammations are highly localized in nature. They can cause in the disturbance of the blood flow, leading to the swelling of the degradation and different immune responses in case of the attack of the pathogen or any external agent.

  • Defense and Immune Responses

Bone marrow is a soft tissue which helps in the production of the different lymphocytic cells and other blood cells which help in the immune response of the body.

  • Medications and contraindications

 Medication like nifedipine or Norvasc helps in the relaxation of the muscle tissue, it also helps in the relaxation of the blood vessels walls and used in the treatment of the Raynaud’s disease. The medication for the disorder is given depending on the location of the disorder.

  • Degenerative Changes

The degenerative change includes loss in the elasticity of the muscular tissue with the increase in the age of the patient. Further, as the age increases the blood supply, oxygen concentration also decrease in the body.

  • Types of Trauma

Trauma in the tissue can be categorized into:-

  • Coagulative necrosis
  • Caseous necrosis
  • Sublethal necrosis
  • Mitochondrial change in the tissue
  •  fibroid necrosis
  • Gangrenous necrosis
  •  Nursing Interventions and planning services 

The healing of the tissue has different phases which involve process like haemostasis, defensive and inflammatory phase profliferation and maturation phase. Care should be taken that the patients are kept in a clean area, nutitional and dietary supplement plan are to be provided to the patient, regular monitoring of the disrupted tissue or affected should be done.

Integumentary System

  1. Anatomy

_____ The anatomy of the integumentary system consists of skin and its accessory parts. The skin has different underlying layers and the layers are supported by the connective tissue underneath the skin. The thicker is the skin, more complex and extensive the vascular system supporting the skin. The skin is also supported with different sensory and sympathetic nerves which help in the communication of the skin with brain. The skin has 2 layers. The Epidermis layer and dermis layer. The epidermis layer is made up of epithelial cells. The dermis layer is made up of connective tissue and hair follicles, blood vessels and also sweat glands.

            The Epidermal layer of the skin is keratinised and is made up of squamous epithelial cell. The epidermal layer of the skin is composed of 4 layers of the squamous epithelial layer of cells. These layers are referred as thin layer of the skin as they do not have any blood vessels. From the superficial layer to the deepest layer of the tissues they are termed as Stratum basale, spinosum, granulosum, and corneum. The thick layer of the skin is the fifth layer is found underneath the palms and feet. This thick layer is known as stratum lucidum which lies between the layers stratum granulosum and corneum. All the layers of the epidermis consist of keratinocytes cells which help in the production of keratin.__

              The Dermis layer of skin is also known as the core of the skin which comprises of the blood vessels, lymphatic system, sweat glands. The connective tissue which makes up the dermal layer consists of elastine fibres

  1. Physiology

The main function of the integumentary system is it ability to protect the body and its internal organs from the external environment. It helps in maintaining the body temperature. It protects the body from the ultraviolet rays of the sun. Skin acts as the first line of defence for the body against various infection and environmental changes as well as any change in the process of homeostasis. The skin helps in excreting out certain wastes in the form of sweat

Pictorial Representation

  1. Related systems/ how

The system that closely works with the integumentary system is the circulatory system. The skin consists of several blood capillaries on the surface. These capillary near the surface of the skin has the ability to maintaining the body temperature. The capillaries dilate when the body needs to cool down while it constricts when the body needs to conserve heat within the body. The skin also consists of oil and sweat glands that protects the skin from bacterial invasion.

  1. Pathophysiology

____ The integumentary system being the first line of defence mechanism, it gets affected with different types of infection, diseases, and injuries. The pathophysiology deals with the different diseases and injuries observed in the system.         

A. Diseases- Amongst the disease, skin cancer is caused by the exposure of the skin cell to the ultraviolet rays of the sun. The excessive exposure of the skin to UV rays leads to DNA damage that causes skin cancer. Basal cell carcinomas that affect the areas of the skin like neck, arms or back which are more exposed to the sun that any part of the body. Mitotically active stem cells get affected leading to the formation of bump or growth or scar. Squamous cell epithelial cancer is caused in the keratinocytes of the epidermis occurring in the scalp, ears or hand. Melanoma is another type of skin disease that are caused due to the excessive growth of the melanocytes. They usually form a mole or grows in size due to the metastasis.

B.  Skin disorder includes Eczema and acne. Eczema is an inflammatory condition of the skin. It can occur at any age of the human body. Acne occurs due to the clogging of the pores on the epidermal layer which may lead to infection or inflammation. Other types of skin disease include seborrheic dermatitis, psoriasis, cold sores, impetigo, scabies, hives, and warts.

C. Injuries- Injuries of the skin may include burns, wounds scars that are caused by excessive sharp objects due to pressure or friction

5.  Defence and Immune Responses

______The integumentary system helps in protecting the body acting as a first layer of the defence mechanism against the external environment. Skin helps in maintaining the body fluids and depends against various infection and attacks of the bacteria and virus. Skin consists of receptors for different types of senses like temperature, touch, and pain. In the presence of sunlight, skin helps in the production of Vitamin D. Epidermal layer of the skin helps in maintaining the skin layer and in replacement of the old cells. The keratinised layer of the skin hardens and form a protective layer over the skin, making it water proof. The dermal layer of the skin consists of several blood vessels as well as sebaceous gland. Sebaceous gland is an oil producing glands which contains enzymes that helps in destruction of the pathogens. The rupturing of the skin and the surface-blood capillaries allows invasion of the pathogen leading to inflammation and infection. The blood capillaries produce enzymes and platelets that repair the damage on the surface of the skin protecting the skin from infection. And prevents and further blood flow.

              Immune system: Other than acting as a protection against the external environment, the integumentary system also produces keratinocytes. These keratinocytes produces interferons. The interferons are helps in the protection against the viral attack. The dermal layer of the skin consists of lymphatic system which produces defence mechanism against the attack of the bacterial and viral infection.  ______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

  1. Medications and contraindications

______Medications that are used to treat different skin conditions include various topical and oral drugs. Topical treatments of the skin includes-

  • Antibiotibacterials: – Drugs like mupirocin or clindamycin is used prevent infection on skin.
  • Anthralin: – This drug is used to help in the treatment of inflammation and psoriasis.
  • Antifungal: – Drugs like clotrimazole, ketoconazole are some of the well-known topical drugs for various fungal skin infections like ringworm infection.
  • Corticosteroids: – This is used for the treatment of eczema. This type of treatments includes foam, creams, and lotions.
  • Retinoids:- This comes in the form of gels and foams as a derivatives of Vitamine A which helps in the treatment of acne.
  • Salicyclic acid:- This is used in the form of soaps and shampoos or wash for the acne or warts.
  • Oral antibiotics like dicloxacillin, erythromycin, and tetracyclin for the treatment of the skin condition.
  • Drugs like flucoconazol and itraconazole for the treatment of the fungal infection.

Contraindication is a specific condition where a certain types of drug cannot be administered in to the patient. This can occur because of certain reason like the two different types of drugs that are given to the patient may work antagonistic to one another. There are certain types of drugs in case administered in to the patient can be life threating.  For example medicines like isotretinoin are a type of drug for treatment of acne.  In case this type of drug cannot be given to a pregnant patient. Several drugs are also found to cause allergic reaction and high blood pressure in the patients.


  1. Degenerative Changes

Degenerative changes of the skin occurs as the skin ages, it becomes thinner and can be easily damaged. This includes the disability of the skin to heals itself as fast as the normal human being. The skins lose its elasticity and are found to have wrinkles. Further aging of the skin leads to the less flow of the blood and low glandular activity.

  1. Types of Trauma

____The different types of trauma involves in the integumentary system are caused by heat, electricity, chemicals, radiation, and friction.

  • Burn:- This is caused by heat, chemical, radiation, light or friction. Classification of burn occurs on the basis of the severity and the surface area involved. It also depends upon the depth of the injury. Further, it can be categorised into major and minor types on the basis of area involved and the thickness of the burn.
  • Allergies:- It is the type of hypersensitivity disorder caused in the immune system. This can be mild as well as it have high risk factors.
  • Acne:-  It is a skin disease affecting the skin of the face, chest and the back part of the body. This involves in those part of the skin which have larger number of sebaceous glands.
  1.  Nursing Interventions and planning services 

______For any kind of the skin infection nursing requires maintaining hygiene condition is essential.  So for the skin of the old people that have lost elasticity and suppleness should be monitored from the breakdown. The skin needs to be kept dry and clean. Wounds that have led to the damage due to the punctures, rupture injuries and abrasion, healing has several phases for them. This can be categorised into primary healing, secondary healing and tertiary wound healing. Wound healing can be clean wound cause due to the operational procedures, contaminated wound which may have occurred due to the area getting infected with skin flora, trauma or laceration. It can also be infected wound which have led to sepsis that have changed in the colour or odour or are inflamated.

Musculoskeletal System

  1. Anatomy Skeletal – bones

_____Bones are a part of the skeletal system which is made up of the hard and dense tissue called connective tissues. Bone tissue is also known as osseous tissue. Bone skeletal structure acts as the internal support of the body.


__The areas in the skeletal system that moves against each other in the presence of cartilages that helps in the flexibility of the body. This movement of the bones against each other with the help of cartilages are known as joints. There are three types of joints that are found in the human body. They are immovable joints, partly movable joints and synovial joints.


_The movement in the human body occurs with the action of the muscles and bones. Muscles usually work in pairs which lead to the movement of the body. This movement occurs with the contraction and relaxation of the muscles. This process is known as antagonism. Muscles work with the help of electrical and chemical activity. The muscles are made up of actin and myosin filaments.

  1. Physiology

____The most important function of the Musculoskeletal system is support of the body, movement and protecting the body. Bones helps in the movement with the helps of the attached muscles (Vemulapalli and Chellappa, 2016). Some bones only support the muscles for the function while some bones helps in transmitting the forces produces during the contraction of the muscle.  Bone tissue also performs several other critical activities. They acts as the site for the deposition of the fat and production of the blood cells. The softer types of connective tissue maintains the internal part of the bone which is known as the bone marrow. There are two different types of bone marrow, the yellow bone marrow and the red bone marrow. The red bone marrow helps in the haematopoiesis, which means production of red blood cells, white blood cells and platelets which are part of the circulatory system.______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

  1. Pictorial Representation


  1. Related systems/ how

__The musculoskeletal system works with trwo other system. They are nervous system and the circulatory system. Further, the muscles are also participate in the digestive, respiratory and immune system. The nervous system is one of the most complex systen in the human body which helps in processing of the information (Vemulapalli and Chellappa 2016). The processing of the information leads to the responses which are acted on the muscles. Additionally, at certain types muscles act as an impulse on the nervous system with the help of the sensors. With the help the help of the circulatory system the nutrients are supplied to the muscles and the wastes are excreted out from the body. __________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

  1. Pathophysiology

____The musculoskeletal system shows various types of discomforts like muscle weakness, stiffness, pain, fatigue, loss in the sensory action, swelling and inflammation causing increase in the heat of the body. Different parts of the body shows different types of the pathophysiological symptoms. This includes parts like muscles, joints, nerves, bones. The most crucial part of the musculoskeletal system is that in case there is any mismatch in the applied physical exertion to that of the ability of the person to with stand the pressure. Further the magnitude of the pressure applied and the time of application and the recovery period also plays a vital role.  This capacity varies from one person to the other, health of the person, time of exposure, age, gender, training effects and weakening of the body.

  1. Defence and Immune Responses

__In case of a severely sick person, the immobility of the patients leads to compromise the muscle condition. Skeletal muscles have a way of protecting the inflammation of the muscles through the production of heat proteins and mytokines. This helps in the inflammatory response and signalling of the body. In addition, the musculoskeletal system is also responsible for the metabolism of glucose and protein.

     Bones plays an important factor in the maintenance of the immune system of the body. Bone has the capacity to store various types of minerals and also involves in the formation of the blood cells in the bone marrow.  This process of formation of the blood cells is known as homeostasis. This process is regulated and coordinated by two different types of cells called osteoblasts and osteoclasts. Musculoskeletal system also helps in the regulation of the immune system. Inflammatory reaction caused in bone is also protected by the typical T-lymphocytes present in the osteoclast cells.

  1. Medications and contraindications

_____There are several drugs that can be administered in the patients suffering from the musculoskeletal pain or fatigue. These drugs include nonsteroid   drugs for anti-inflammation. Medicines like Zolpidem, Eszopiclone and Rozerem are some of the medicines which are given to the patients for pain.

The drugs which are administered in the patients may lead to blood clotting and allergies. While administration sterile condition are to be maintained to prevent any inflammation.

  1. Degenerative Changes

____With the increase in the age of the patients’ symptoms like osteoarthritis can be observed in the patients. This is an chronic disability found to be suffered by the older individuals. Osteoarthritis are found to occur due to the regular wear and tear of the joints, however factors like inflammation with the increase in the activity of the cytokines and chemokines in the joints are also observed in the aged patients.  Abnormal joint injury obesity can also lead to osteoarthritis.

  1. Types of Trauma

____The types of injuries that are observed related to the musculoskeletal system are tendinitis, Rheumatoid arthritis, bone fractures, strain in muscles or tendon, sprain in ligament, Osteoartritis, Tension Neck Syndrome, Trigger finger, Carpel Tunnel Syndrome are some of the severe traumas.

  1.  Nursing Interventions and planning services 

______The nursing intervention includes administration of the analgesics to relieve pain, assisting patients on putting back bone braces. Encouragemnt of the patients for walking daily which will help in the strengthening of bone, encouraging the young women to consume good nutrition to minimise risk of the bone.

The nursing plans include in case of the patients with fracture to be casted or should be kept in traction in order to avoid any complications. Further, assessment of the condition of the patient and administration of the suitable drugs to avoid any pain is essential. Regular assessment of the nursing procedure needs to be evaluated._

Nervous System

  1. Anatomy

The nervous system of the human beings comprises of two main parts. They are the central nervous system and the peripheral nervous system. The central nervous system comprises of brain and spinal cord.  Brain regulates most of the functions which includes activities like awareness, sensation, speech, memory, movements. Brain is connected to the spinal cord and is covered by vertebral column. Several nerves exist from the spinal cord and distribute to the different part of the body.

The peripheral nervous system comprises of the parts which are outside the central nervous system. This type of the nervous system takes the signal from the brain and brings it back to the brain from the other parts of the body. The peripheral nervous system is categorised into somatic and autonomous nervous system. They controls activities like walking breathing, digestion

2. Physiology –

The primary function of the nervous system can be categorised into three types of functions. They are sensory functions, motor activity and integrative function of the body. Sensory functions involve in includes the activity by which the change in the environment like change in in temperature,  pH, carbon dioxide are detected as signals and then they are send to the brain in the form of electric impulse (Mulders et al. 2018.). The integrative functions involve in the sorting of the information that are send to the brain with the help of the sensory function. These might include sensations like pain or hunger. The motor system involves in the process by which the body responds to the stimulus or the electrical impulse generated by the brain.

  1. Pictorial Representation
  1. Related systems/ how

 The systems that closely associate with the Nervous system are skeletal system and the endocrine system. The skeletal system helps in the protection of the internal organs and the blood cells of the body. In addition to that, the bones also help in the supply of the calcium which is important for the proper functioning of the nervous system. The vertebral column helps in the protection of the spinal cord (Mulders et al. 2018). The sensory receptors present in the joints in between the bones enables the body to main the position and send the signal to the brain.

The endocrine system involves in the secretion of hormones in to the blood stream and body fluids. Hormones provide feedback to the central nervous system and help in the neural processing. The development of the nervous system is helped by the reproductive hormones.

  1. Pathophysiology

There are several factors that may lead to the disease and injuries of the nervous system.  Issues related to supply of blood also known as vascular disorder, injuries specially related to brain or spinal cord. Mental health related issues like depression, anxiety psychosis. Neurons which are the structural and functional unit of nervous system are sensitive to several external and internal factors. Factors like hypoglycaemia, metabolic disorders, anoxia, vitamin deficiency, viral infections. The effects of these disorders depend upon the degree of the defects that does have occurred. Vascular disorders may include stroke, subdural haemorrhage, and transient ishchemic attack. Infection like meningitis, epidural abscess and structural disorders like injury in spinal cord, cervical spondylosis brain or spinal cord tumours can occur in the patient leading to the malfunctioning of the nervous system.   Additionally Parkinson disease, multiple sclerosis leads to the degeneration of the nervous system.

  1. Defence and Immune Responses

The nervous system in the human body can affect the immune function through stimulation of the immune organs and secretion of hormones from the different endocrine organs and pituitary gland. The human body has an in borne defence line against various infectious diseases and they generate stimulus and send to the brain. The nervous system initiates short span responses so that the adaptive immune cells are ready to perform targeted attack against the bacterial attack.

     6. Medications and contraindications

The medication which is available for the disorders in the nervous system are as follows:-

  •  Administration of the acetocholine concentration amongst patients of Alzheimer’s including donepezil, galantamine.
  • For any kind of pain, analgesics like Aspirin, Acetaminophen are provided to the patients suffering from Arthritis. Some other drugs are ibuprofen, acetaminophen are prescribed for pain.
  • For panic and anxiety disorder medications like benzodiazepines, diazepam is administered.
  • For insomniacs for inducing sleep benzodiazepines and antihistamines are provided.
  • To control seizures and epilepsies drugs like carbamazepine and phenytoin are monitored in the patients.

       The main contraindications of the nervous system is usually observed in case of drugs such as Amphetamine which is although a powerful stimulator helping in the treatment of several medical conditions. But the drug is also known to be highly addictive. Further several drugs were found to have adverse effects like restlessness, acne, blurring of the vision. In very rare cases seizures and heart problems are also found to affect the patients.

7. Degenerative Changes

  The degenerative changes that are observed among the human body with age are like the balance and movement of the body gets affected, the breathing and the heart functions slows down. Degeneration of the nervous system can also take place in case of alcoholism or if the patient has suffered stroke or tumour.

  1. Types of Trauma

 The trauma related to the nervous system includes brain injury which may affect the neural circuit of the nervous system which leads to the inactivation of the neurons and the glial cells. This leads to the accumulation of the neurotransmitter within the brain tissue especially glutamate which enables in the over stimulation of the neuron resulting in the death of the neurons. Traumatic injury of the brain and spinal cord may result in the damage of the central nervous system. In addition to that anxiety disorders and psychosis can lead to damage of the nervous system.

7. Nursing Interventions and planning services 

__The nursing consideration includes addressing the patients by name even though the patient cannot respond. Refrain discussion of the patient’s condition in front of the patient.

  • Rectal temperatures are to be taken regularly. And report in case there is any change in the vital signs.
  • Attention is to be given of the changes in response to stimuli.
  • The change in the stimulus of the patients’ needs to be checked including protective reflexes, swallowing or blinking of eyelids.
  • Administration of the proper drugs for the patient suffering from the specific disorders. 

Endocrine and Senses System

  1. Anatomy

Sensory – General                                                Endocrine

_____The endocrine system includes some of the major organs like hypothalamus, thyroid gland, pancreas, pineal body, adrenal gland, parathyroid gland, and reproductive organs. It consists of a network of glands which secretes chemical substances like hormones. This helps in the proper functioning of the body. It regulates certain chemical activities within the human body.

  1. Physiology

Different types of endocrine glands have different functions as follows: (Giulivo  et al 2016)

  • Growth Hormone:-  Growth hormone helps in the stimulation of the bone and tissue resulting in growth of the body.
  • Thyroid stimulating hormone:- It is produced from the pituitary gland and helps in the stimulation of the thyroid hormones from the thyroid glands.
  • Adrenocorticotropin Hormone:- This hormone is secreted from the pituitary gland which stimulates the adrenal gland for the production of the steroid hormones.
  • LH and FSH- Luteinizing hormone and Follicle stimulating hormone helps in the control of the sexual function and regulates the production of the sex hormones like oestrogen, progesterone in females and in males secretion of testosterone.
  • Prolactin: This hormone helps in the production of milk in females.
  • Antidiuretic hormone: This hormone is also known as vasopressin which helps in the regulation of the water and control in the loss of water in kidneys.
  • Oxytocin helps in the contraction of the uterus during the child birth and for the production of milk.
  • Thyroid gland for the secretion of thyroxin hormone in the body helping in the development of brain and nervous system.
  • Parathyroid hormone that are produced from the parathyroid gland which helps in the regulation of calcium level in blood and bones.
  • Adrenal gland secrete the hormone adrenalin which helps in the maintainance of the salt and water in the body and helps in the maintance of the immune system and maintaining the sexual function (Geissler and Powers 2017).
  1. Pictorial Representation


  1. Related systems/ how

The endocrine system is related to all the different kinds of systems in the human body. The relation between the endocrine system to all the other systems are as follows:

  • The endocrine system controls the digestive function of the body. The digestive system of the body is regulated by the secretion of hormones. For example, pancreas secretes insulin which helps in maintaining theglucose level of the body.
  • The endocrine system is also related to the integumentary system of the body. The integumentary organs protects the endocrine organs of the body. While sex hormoneshelps in the stimulation of the sebaceous gland in the skin. Prolactin heps in the stimulation of the mammary glands. The adrenal hormone helps in blood low in the dermal layer of the skin.
  • Endocrine system is related to skeletal system. The endocrine system regulates mobilisation of calcium. The sex hormones helps in the growth of the epiphyseal cartilages which maintains the bone mass of the adult human being.
  •  Endocrine system is related to the muscular system where the hormones involves in the metabolism and production of energy. It helps in the muscular growth and involves in the regulation of the calcium and phosphate concentration in the body fluids.
  • Endocrine system is related to the excretory system where the concentration of the water in the body is maintained by hypothalamus. Antidiuretic hormone involves in the maintanng of the concentration and retention of water in case of low water levels in body.
  • Endocrine system also affects the cardiovascular system of the body where the hormone plays a vital role in maintaining the cardiovascular health.
  • Endocrine system is related to the immune system where the hormone acts as chemical messengers and stimulates the target organs.
  1. Pathophysiology

The endocrine glands which are stimulated by the hypothalamus and pituitary organ system shows following disorders:-

  •  The primary hypo or hyper function of the organ. This is related to the peripheral glands of the endocrine system.
  • Secondary hypo and hyper function in the central adenohypophyseal organ. This process is called adenohypophysis.
  • The tertiary hypo or hyper function of the hormones is related to the central hypothalamic part of the endocrine system.

The disorder in the endocrine system can also occur due to the problem in the target tissue or organ for the hormone. In such cases the disorder can take place because of the below following reason:-

  • Change in the number of the receptors or functions in specific hormones.
  • The existence of antibodies against the receptors of specific hormones.
  • In case of any defect in the post receptor mechanism for any specific hormone.
  • The change in the rate of the conversion of pro-hormone into activated hormones.
  • Presence of any defect in  in the hormone released in the peripheral tissue.
  1. Defence and Immune Responses

The Cytokines which is released in the activated immune accessory cells have the ability to affect the release of the hormones from hypothalamus, pituitary and adrenal gland or hypothalamus, pituitary ovarian glands. Further endocrine system also involves in regulation of the immune response through the cortical and subcortical parts of the endocrine sysem. Hormone like epinephrine and norepinephrin helps in the regulation of stress.

7.   Medications and contraindications

 Medications that are given against the different types of the disorders are as follows:-

  • Sulfonylureas, Biguanides, Thiazolidinediones are some of the the drugs administered in cse the patients are suffering from Diabetics
  • Anabolic drugs or steroids
  • Anti diabetics like like amynomimetics, dipeptyl peptidase, glucagon like peptide-1, insulin combos, Alpha gluconidase inhibitor, Rapid actimg insulins,
  • copper chelators,
  • Corticosteroids,
  • Growth hormone analogs
  •  Treatment agents for homocystinuria
  • Enzyme cofactors
  • Enzyme inhibitors
  • Vassopressin Anagonists
  • Vitamin D analogs

Contraindication of some of the drugs administered during the disorders of the endocrine system includes the following:-

  • In case of the hypothalamic and pituitary agent, the drugs are mostly administered subcutaneously. These agents agaent cross through placena as well as  breast milk. Some of them are also excreted ou through urine. These drugs causes hypersensitivity and may causes risk during the pregnancy.
  • Some of the drugs can lead to the increase in the stimulation of the sex hormone or in blocking of the sex hormone. This may lead to fluid retention, increase in the body temperature, decrease in the sperm count, alternation of the secondary sex characters.
  • In case of the drug use related to the growth hormone antagonists like bromocriptine is used for the treatment of the acromegaly in case only when the patients cannot tolerate any other administration of drugs.

8.  Degenerative Changes

With the increase in the age of the human body, there are several changes that occur affecting the endocrine system. This might also lead to the alteration in the production and secretion of hormones. Adrenal gland, also with the increase in the age of the body undergoes several changes that leads to the increase i the fibrous tissues. This involves sin the decrease in the production of the aldosterone and cortisol.

  1. Types of Trauma

 The different types of trauma involves disorders as follows:

  •  Adrenal Insufficiency- In this case, the adrenal gland produces very less quantity of  cortisol and aldosterone hormone
  • Cushing’s disease- This disease occurs due to the increase in the production of the hormone from the pituitary gland due to the over activation of the adrenal gland.
  • Gigantism occurs due to the excessive production of the growth hormone.
  • Hyperthyroidism.
  1. Nursing Interventions and planning services 

The nursing intervention of the endocrine disorder includes the following step-

  • Regular check in the cardiac output, impaired vision, or lack of balance in the nutrition to be verified in case of the disorders related to Thyroxin and TSH
  • Regular monitoring of the impaired integrity of the skin and constipation,
  • Monitoring of the calcium concentration in the blood and verifying whether there is ay formation of the kidney stone
  • Monitoring any seizer suffered by the patients

Nursing  Plan and care for endocrine disorder includes-

  • Access if there any leak in ICP and CSF
  • Monitor any appearance of stress ulcers
  • Application o the moist packs on the eye for disorders like ecchymois.
  • Administration of the ointments and artificial tears as prescribed by the doctor
  • Strict sterile conditions are to be maintained in order to avoid meningitis


Cardiovascular System

  1. Anatomy

The cardiovascular system comprises of the heart and the circulatory system.  The heart pumps the blood and the circulatory system distributes the blood to the different organs of the body.  The circulatory system through which the blood is carried to the different part of the body from the heart contains complex network of veins, capillaries, and arteries.  He oxygenated blood is carried by the blood vessels like arteries and capillaries while the deoxygenated blood is carried by the veins.

  1. Physiology

In the cardiovascular system of the human body, the heart pumps blood through a enclosed network consisting of blood vessels. The main function of the system is the transfer of the nutrients, gases like oxygen an carbon dioxide, water, salt, and hormones. It also helps in maintaining the blood pressure. The system helps in the transport of the following factors through out the body-

  • Helps in the gaseous exchange from the lung to the blood and again from the different organs to the blood the deoxygenated blood is carried to the lungs.
  • Helps in maintaining the communication in between the cells
  • Helps in the removal of the cellular waste, carbon dioxide through different organs lik lung and kidey
  • Helps in storage of the nutrients in the liver and adipose tissues and also in the other part of the body
  1. Pictorial Representation
  1. Related systems/ how

 The system that is closely associated with the cardiovascular system is the respiratory system.  The circulatory system helps in the transports of the waste materials and carbon dioxide to the lungs and the kidney. While the circulatory system also helps in the transport of the different hormones from their point of origin to their site of action hence involving the endocrine system in the activity.  Removal of the waste also involves excretory system,

  1. Pathophysiology

The pathophysiology of the cardiovascular system includes following disorders-

  •  Coronary Artery Disease- When the body perform any physical exertion the body utilises a large quantity of oxygen. Thereby it leads to the increase in the flow of the blood in the coronary arteries, In case the patient suffers from atherosclerotic plaque the coronary artery gets narrows down. As a rest during and physical exertion, the person may face hypoperfusion which might lead to the myocardial infarction. This causes severe chest pain and destruction of the cardiomyocytes cells.
  • Valve disease causes due to the insufficient flexibility in the valves of the heart. This leads to the back flow of the blood causing blood overload. In case this condition is kept untreated it leads to cardiac failure.
  • Heart failure- Heart failure occurs when the heart is not able to pump the required amount of the blood in order to maintain the required metabolic demands/
  • Arrhythmia occurs when in case of sudden ion imbalance due to hypoxia, there is an excessive build up of the ions which leads to the myocardial infarction.
  1. Defence and Immune Responses

During any cardiac injury, immune response plays a vital part in the repair and the regeneration of the heart. It becomes involved in various damage associated signalling, inflammation, intiation of the vascuarization and differentiation of the cardiomyocytes cells. Furthe the immune reponse helps in the replenishment of the cells. However, in case of the immune responses of heart attack, there is a chance of increase in the worsening of the atherosclerosis which leads to the increase in the risk of the heart. This is also followed by several cascades of inflammatory responses that worsen because of atherosclerosis actively increase the heart to fail in future.

  1. Medications and contraindications

Treatments and medication for the cardiovascular disorders varies on the basis of the change in the life style, surgery, and pacemaker.

  •  ACE Inhibitors which increases the diameter of the arteries and enables in the blood flow. They also helps in preventing heart failure.
  • Aldosterone inhibitors like eplerenone are  type of diuretic that do not consists of potassium. They help in the decreasing of the swelling and water retensing due to heart disease
  • Calcium channel blockin agents helps in the treatment of any chest pains or helps in decreasing the blood pressure
  • Beta Blockers like epinephrine prevents the production of the  substances that are harmful for the body due to the heart failure This also helps in the reduction of the pressure.
  • Also, Digotoxin, Diuretics, Inotopic therapy are some of the other medicines for the treatment of the heart diseases.

In case of most of the medicines of the heart disorders, correct drug selection for the patients is crucial.  Several drugs can have side effects like vasodilation with increase in flushing and headaches can occur. Some of them are also founsd to cause constipation eg Verapamil.  Drugs like nifedipine have found to have a begative effect on the inotropic effect. In some cases, calcium antagonist are also found to cause myocardial failure. The combining therapy of calcium antagonist like Beta blockers is found to be more effective.

  1. Degenerative Changes

As the age of a patient increases, there is a normal change that the heart undergoes which includes deposition of the aging pigment like lipofuscin.  There is degeneration of the cardiac muscles are also found in the older patients.  Thickening of the valves which regulates the flow of the blood in heart and become stiff.

  1. Types of Trauma

 Cardiovascular trauma which eventually leads to the death of an individual includes following factors-

  • Blunt non penetrable trauma
  • Medical injuries that have cause during any invasive cadiac procedure
  • Implantation of any medical device in heart
  • Resuscitation of the cardiopulmonary function
  •  Any kind of cardiac injury caused due to the penetrative accidents like gun shots
  • Any injury caused due to automobile accident or any other blunt injuries.
  1.  Nursing Interventions and planning services 

The caring procedure for the cardiovascular disorders is very crucial for the systemic caring of the patients. The nursing care is planned in a organised manner helping in the felicitation of the systemic care of the patient. The nurse needs to collect the data related to the medical history of the patients. This will help in the clinical analysis  of the patients so that appropriate care can be given to the patient.

In the planning phase for the care giving of the patient, the nurse needs to identify the goals and objective of the care. The nurse requires to set certain goals  and evaluate the outcomes related to the caring interventions. In case of the patients suffering from heart failure, multidisciplinary intervention helps in increasing the quality of the life for the patient. 

Lymphatic System

  1. Anatomy

The lymphatic system is an unique one way system that circulates the lymph fluid through the lymph vessels in to the cardiovascular system leading to the elimination of the toxic by products through organs like kidney, skin, lungs, colon, and liver. There are five important part of the lymphatic system which includes lymph vessels, lymph nodes, the tonsils, the spleen, and the thymus.

  1. Physiology

Lymphatic system consists of several ducts and vessels that helps in the elimination of the interstitial fluids. The removal of the fluids from the tissue to the blood circulation is a crucial process in the human body.  Further, the lymphatic system also helps in the transport of various dietary lipids and cells for the immune system. All these cells of the immune system are produced in the bone marrow which constitutes the hematopoietic system.

  1. Pictorial Representation
  1. Related systems/ how

The lymphatic system closely associates with the cardiovascular system.  The lymphatic fluids flow through out the body with the help of the circulatory system after getting collected from the tissues through lymph vessles. This system also relates with the digestive system as it helps in the absorption of the digested dietary lipids. These lipids then are transported to the different parts of the body through the lymphatic system.

  1. Pathophysiology

The lymphatic system helps in the removal of the unwanted toxin from the body. Hence the lymphatic system plays a n important role in the protection of the body against various infection and helps in the balance of the body fluids. In case of various disorders of the lymphatic system increase in the retention of the fluids in the tissue is observed. This leads to swelling of the body. This is known as lymphedema.  Other problems like infection, blockage of the lymph nodes and cancer is also observed. During the cancer treatment of a patient, there are several times when the lymph nodes get damaged as a result the lymphatic system fails to function properly leading to swelling of the body.

  1. Defence and Immune Responses

 The lymphatic system has a crucial role in the immune response. It helps in maintaining the immunity and prevents the spread of the infection. This system plays the first level of the defence mechanism against any disease. The network of the lymphatic vessels helps in the filter of the lymph fluid, the lymph nodes, and the vessels carries antibodies and lymphocytes. The white blood cells that are manufactured in the bone marrow and spleen help the body to defend against the infection by producing antibodies. Macrophage and white blood cells destroys the bacteria and other harmful pathogens through engulfment of those substances.

  1. Medications and contraindications

For any disorder in the lymphatic system, therapeutic treatments are mostly adopted. This includes

  • Decongestive therapy of lymphatic system. It helps in stimulation of the lymph fluid and decrease in the formation of the edema.
  • Dieuratic therapy  to restore the fluid levels in the patient body
  • Lymph node transplant which is a surgical procedure to remove the lymph nodes of the affected part of the body.

The major contraindication of the lymphatic system is congestive heart failure which occurs during the process of the lymphatic drainage. Renal failure, excessive bleeding, cancer blood clots, and infection are some of the contraindication occurs during the treatment of the disorders of the lymphatic system (Aspelund et al. 2016).

  1. Degenerative Changes

The degeneration of the lymphatic system is observed with the increase in the age in Lymph vessels. With the increase in the age of the patient the immune system also becomes weaker. As a result, the normal rate of movement of the lymphatic fluids through the lymph nodes and lymph vessels helps in clearing of the bacteria and other disease causing pathogens also decrease in the rate.

  1. Types of Trauma

 The blockage of the lymphatic system also known as lymphedoma can lead to the following traumas-

  • The disorder is associated with other conditions that include infectious and inflammatory disease.
  • In some case blockage of the lymph vessels and nodes are also found to affect skin and leads to various skin infections called lymphangitis.
  1.  Nursing Interventions and planning services 

The nursing and the planning of the care given to the disorders related to lymphatic system includes-

  • Educating the patient for the skin care and the details of the treatment regimen.
  • Maintaining the rehydration of the skin
  • Preventing any infection of the skin
  • Improvement in the movement of the joint areas
  • Allow flow of the lymphatic fluids through limbs and other parts of the body through movement
  • Preventing stagnation of the lymph fluids which will lead to fibrosis.
  • Promotion of the normal lifestyle maintaining good posture.


Immune System

  1. Anatomy


The cells of the immune system can be differentiated into lymphocytes, neutrophils, monocyte, and macrophages. The lymphocytes include T lymphocyte cells, B lymphocyte cells, and NK cells. Other cells like dendritic cells, granulocytes, megakaryotes, myeloid derived cells, and the natural killer cells comprises the immune system of the human body.

  1. Physiology

 The innate immune condition of the body helps in the protection of the body non-specifically through the regulation of several defence mechanisms. These barriers include physical barriers like skin, antimicrobial proteins that protect the body against pathogen and other invading bacteria. 

  1. Pictorial Representation
  1. Related systems/ how

The system that closely works with the immune system is the lymphatic system. The immune system forces the organs and tissues of the body working with the circulatory system helping in the transportation of the lymphatic cells in the different part of the body.

  1. Pathophysiology

The main function of the immune system is to protection of the human body from the attack of the foreign antigens.  It also protects the body from the different endogeneous factors like autoimmune disease or tumour.  Dysfunction of the components involves in the immune system leads to variety of the clinical diseases like atopic diseases like rheumatoid arthritis, immunodeficiency as well as cancer. Further, the abnormalities in the immune system lead to hypersensitivities and immunodeficiencies.

  1. Defence and Immune Responses

The immune system consists of various parts of the body and involves different types of the cells and organs. It also involves different types of the protein and tissues. The immune system helps in the identification of the foreign body and in response to the recognition the body generates antibodies against the antigen or the foreign body which helps in the destruction of the antigen. In this way, the body get protected from infection or inflammation (Aspelund et al. 2016).

  1. Medications and contraindications

The different types of the medication provided for the treatment of the immune disorders like-

  •  Non-steroid drugs for anti-inflammatory eg ibuprofen, naproxen
  • Anti-inflammatory drugs like glucocorticoids
  • Disease modifying drugs llike antirhematic drugs

There are several drugs that suppresses the immune system which needs to be taken in to consideration-

  •  Oral corticoids like Budesonide, hydrocortisone, prednisne lead to the suppression of the immune system and weaken the immune system.
  1. Degenerative Changes

 With the increase in the age of the patient, the immune system becomes weaker. Even though the number of the T lymphocytes remains same however the function of the T cells reduces. This leads to the weakening of the immune system exposing the individual to the risk of various types of infection and diseases. At times with increase in the age autoimmune diseases can also develop where the the normal cells of the body gets attacked by the immune system of the body leading to the destruction of the tissues and cells.

  1. Types of Trauma

The trauma related to the immune system includes-

  • Multiple organ failure
  • Exposure of the patients to the different inflammations
  • Different types of opportunistic infection takes place in the body
  • Traumatic injuries
  1.  Nursing Interventions and planning services 

1. The individual should maintain healthy diet with adequet amount of  nutrients Dietary guideline are to  be provided to the patient for the proper treatment.

2.  In case of immunodeficient patients, special diets are to be planned for those who also suffer from gluten sensitivity,  have congestive heart failure or are diabetic (Randolph et al. 2017).

3. Special diet intervention for those who cannot consume food or water or are unable to absorb food in their digestive system they should be provided support for the supply of the adequet nutrition.

4. For immunodeficiency patient, special care should be taken to maintain the hygienic condition with regular bathing and use of soap.

5. Maintenance of proper day care, sleep, and exercise of the body for the patients.

Respiratory System

  1. Anatomy

Upper Respiratory tract

The upper respiratory tract of the body includes nasal passages, nose, paranasal sinus, pharynx, larynx.

Lower Respiratory tract

The lower respiratory tract of the humany body includes a certain portion of the larynx which is situated below the vocal cord. Further, the lungs, trachea, bronchii and bronchioles constitute the lower respiratory tract.

  1. Physiology

 The respiratory system helps in the entry of the oxygen in the body and removes carbondioxide from the body. This process helps in the breakdown of the food leading to the oxidation of the food and generation of energy in the body to perform different functions in the body. The respiratory tract of the body is teh path which heps in the movement of the air from nose to lungs.

  1. Pictorial Representation


  1. Related systems/ how

The circulatory system works closely with the respiratory system. The blood carries the molecular oxygen through RBC cells and carries to the different parts of the body. This also enables the oxidation of the food and production of the energy. Further, the blood also carries the deoxygenated blood from the different tissues back to the lungs for release of the carbon dioxide and continue with the oxygenation of the blood. 

  1. Pathophysiology

Atelectasis is a condition where the lung expansion which is performed incompletely. This leads to the formation of the solid red depression inside the lungs causing inflammation. This can affect the fetal lungs causing obstruction in the lungs (Xing, et al 2016). Pulmonary emphysema is a clinical condition induced by tobacco leading to constriction of the respiratory passage as well as affecting the lungs. Further, vascular disorders are related to the respiratory disorders. Congeston and edema leads to the increase in the hydrostatic pressure in the blood vessels. This can result in the cardiac failure. This also involves haemorrhaging and embolism of the lungs.

  1. Defence and Immune Responses

The respiratory have its own defence mechanism through the production of the antimicrobial activity. This defence system depends upon the innate and adaptive immune response of the human body to protect the lungs and the tract from the inhaled bacteria. Particles like duct particles or fungal spores may deposit in the air passage or in the alveolar surface. The respiratory system has the ability to protect itself from the external agents.

  1. Medications and contraindications

The medication of the respiratory disorders include-

  •  Bronchodialators used as a inhaled mechanism
  • Corticosteroids
  • Anti IgE antibodies
  • Administration of antihistamins and epinephrine
  • Respiratory and pulmonary surfactants.
  • Antimicrobial and antiviral drugs
  1. Degenerative Changes

With the increase in the age of the body, the level of oxygen in the muscles and bone also decreases. Removal of the less quantity of the carbon dioxide from the body leads to the symptom like breathlessness, tiredness, the ability of the muscles and other tissue to remain open is also lost (Iwasaki and Medzhitov 2015).

  1. Types of Trauma

The respiratory trauma includes following factors-

  • In case the ribs get broken or fractured
  • In case the lungs get collapsed called pneumothorax
  • In case there is an accumulation of blood in the lungs or in the wall of the chest.
  1.  Nursing Interventions and planning services 

In order to improve the efficiency of the respiration of the patients following steps needs to be taken-

       -Monitoring of the respiratory status of the patient by checking the level of oxygenation.

       -Evaluation of the ABG results and the values of organ perfusion

       – Monitoring the angina signals of the patients as decrease in the oxygen concentration in the brain leads to the loss of the mental status.

The planning service includes education of the patient family and the patient. Further, proper nutritional support is to be given to the patients. Any lack in the nutritional supply to the patient will result in the impaired functions of the muscle and defence function of the lungs.

Digestive System

  1. Anatomy

The digestive system of the human body comprises of a tubular structure called the alimentary canal from mouth to anus. The alimentary canal of the digestive system comprises of the following organs mouth, oesophagus, small intestine, liver, stomach, gall bladder, and pancreas.

  1. Physiology

The digestive system of the human body helps in the digestion of the food from the intake to the breakdown and then absorption of the broken food particles into the blood stream. Different part of the alimentary canal helps in the breakdown and digestion of the nutirnts which includes carbohydrate, protein, and lipids. These components being complex in nature require several steps for the completion of the digestion to simpler forms (Sompayrac 2019). This enables the blood stream to absorb the simpler food particles and delver to the different part of the body to perform various functions.

  1. Pictorial Representation
  1. Related systems/ how

The digestive system closely works with the circulatory system. The digestive system break the food into simpler particles while the blood carries the broken food particles to the different part of the body for performing different activities in the body. The digestive system is also associates with the respiratory system, where the oxygenation of the nutrients  that lead to the release of energy in order to perform different functions in the body.

  1. Pathophysiology

The pathophysiology of the digestive system includes-

  • Acute Gastritis
  • Chronic Gastritis
  • Chronic Autoimmune Gastritis
  • Peptic Ulcer
  • Duodenal ulcer
  • Pancreatitis
  1. Defence and Immune Responses

The gastrointestinal tract is also responsible for the immune responses. The tract is lines by epithelial cells and the mucosal layer of the tract helps in the protection of the body from infection and inflammation by the production of lymphocytes, macrophages, and other cells. There is also presence of dendritic cells which receives the antigen and transporting them to the tissues where the antigens get digested (Honda and Kubes 2018).

  1. Medications and contraindications

Medication for digestive disorder include-

  • Administartion of antibiotics in case of bacterial infection in the digestive tracts
  • Antacids for heart burn or in case of the pain, pain killer can be provided to the patient
  • Antinausea and anti diahorrheal medication for digestive disturbances.

Contraindication includes cases of disease like dyspepsia which are unresponsive in most of the medical treatments. Further persistent gastroesophageal disturbances leads to the bleeding and malignancies.

  1. Degenerative Changes

With the increase in the age of the patient, the bowl movements decreases, as a result, the rate of dgeston of the complex food matrixes also decreases. Infrequent bowl movement with constipation and increase in the water absorption takes place in the body.

  1. Types of Trauma

The types of trauma that occurs in the digestive system are as follow-

  •  Haemorrhage
  • Pancreaitis
  • Peritonitis
  • Fistula
  • Abscesses
  • Stricture in the oesophagus
  • Problem in wound healing.
  1.  Nursing Interventions and planning services 

The care of the patients for the digestive tract disorder includes-

  • Appendectomy
  • Check in the balanced nutrition of the body
  • Check whether there is an acute pain in the body
  • Monitoring whether there is risk related to the aspiration
  • Monitoring whether there is any risk of injury.

Urinary System

  1. Anatomy

The urinary system of the body includes kidneys, renal pelvis, urinary bladder, urethra, and ureters. The kidney consists of a structural and functional unit called nephron which helps in the production of the waste with the re-absorption of the essential elements in the types of blood.

  1. Physiology

 The urinary system helps in the filtration of the excess fluids and absorption of the essential ions and removal of the waste. The accumulation of the waste and removal of the waste from the body occurs through urinary bladder. This whole process of filtration and reabsorption of the elements from the blood occurs in the nephron of the kidney. The filtration occurs in the glomerulus of the kidney while the absorption of the Na and K ions occur in the Henle’s loops and the Distal and proximal part of the convoluted tube of the nephron (Stanger and Podolsky 2015).

  1. Pictorial Representation
  1. Related systems/ how

The system that is related to the urinary system is the circulatory system The circulatory system carries the wastes material dissolves in the blood and filters in the glomerulus of the Kidney. While the filtered part of the blood goes out of the kidney to the other parts of the body.

  1. Pathophysiology

The function performed by the kidney can get challenged due to certain renal diseases. Diseases include malfunctioning of the uropoetic function, urinary tract infection, nephritis, and other types of disease like uremia which is lethal to the human body.

  1. Defense and Immune Responses

The immune system of the body works closely with the urinary system in order to protect the body from infection from the waste. The innate immune system of the human being helps in the protection of the urinary bladder and urinary tract from the infection of the Escherichia coli and other pathogens.

  1. Medications and contraindications

Medication includes different types of drug administered for the different types of urinary tract infections. Antibiotics including Penicillin are provided to the patients. Other drugs like sulfamethoxazole, trimethoprim, Fosfomycin are also administered.

  1. Degenerative Changes

With the increase in the age of the patient the muscles lose elasticity and hence the patient loses control of the bladder. The change in the elasticity of the muscle with the increase in the age may lead to malfunctioning of the kidney (Maggi et al. 2015).

  1. Types of Trauma

The trauma of the kidney injury or damage of any organ in the urinary system may lead to Renal failure. Further multiple injuries caused due to accidents in the lower abdominal and pelvic region causes lower urinary tract trauma.

  1.  Nursing Interventions and planning services 

Nursing plan and care of the individual includes the following factor-

  •  Change in the dietary plan of the individual
  • Reduction of the animal fat intake by the patients
  • Urinary drainage should be performed through catheterization and the process should be closely monitored in order to avoid any infection in the body

Reproductive System

  1. Anatomy

The structure of the reproductive system in male includes testes, the prostate, and the penis. The female reproductive system of the human body includes the uterus, fallopian tubes, vagina, cervix, and ovaries.

  1. Physiology

 The reproduction is a procedure by which the organism maintains its species.  The tests are present in the scrotum of the male reproductive organ. The male gamete- sperms are produced within the testes. This is ejaculated through the penis in the form of the seminal fluid. In the female reproductive system, the female gamete or the ovum is produced with the ovaries. This ovum travels to the uterus through the fallopian tube.

  1. Pictorial Representation
  1. Related systems/ how

The systems that are related to the reproductive system are the endocrine system and the circulatory system. The endocrine system releases certain sex hormone that helps in the development of the sex organs in the male and the female human body during the puberty. Further, the blood in the circulatory system helps in carrying of the hormone to the target organs. 

  1. Pathophysiology

Disorders like alteration in the menstruation cycle, pain in the pelvic area, infertility during the reproductive period of a human being can occur. Further, late menopausal onset increases the mortality rate and the incidence of metastasis is observed. Further disorder in the function of the reproductive organ can also occur which affects the hypothalamus, pituitary, thyroid and adrenal glands (Bahmanpour et al. 2015).

  1. Defense and Immune Responses

The reproductive system is also associated with different hormones like paracrine glands produces cytokines which lead to the systemic immunity of the body. Further, the mucosal immunity in the genital tract of the body also act as immune system barrier against the infection

  1. Medications and contraindications

Certain antimicrobial drugs like ampicillin help in protection against infection. Also, tetracycline is another drug that helps the human body against microbial infection.

  1. Degenerative Changes

Degenerative changes include schistosomes during in vitro procedures.  Change or decrease in the fertility of the female reproductory organs. Aging also changes the testes thereby decreasing the tissue mass of the structure.

  1. Types of Trauma
  2. Abdominal pain
  3. Fever
  4. Malaise
  5. Abnormal vaginal discharge
  6. Pain in sexual intercourse
  1.  Nursing Interventions and planning services 

Nursing plan and care includes

  • Checking the age and the family history of the patient
  • Check the alcohol or fat intake by the patients
  • Monitoring of the onset of the menopause or first pregnancy
  • Factor like no breastfeeding, treatment of estrogen should be taken into consideration.

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