Process Safety Management and OSHA Guidelines

Process Safety Management and OSHA Guidelines


In order to ensure that the environment, including human component of the environment are safe from the emissions from the industries, the UK sought to come up with the regulatory law governing the emissions from these industries. (Nwankwo et al., 2020) That said, it can be deduced that emissions from the industries could be hazardous to the environment including the human component. Industries are social places, and the emissions could probably reach the humans vulnerable to exposure to the emissions. In curbing this situation, the UK came up with the regulation referred as the OSHA 1910.119, Process Safety Management of Highly Hazardous Chemicals. This is a regulation due to the actions of the department going by the name, Occupational Safety and Hazardous Administration (OSHA). Hazardous emissions are those that are; toxic, flammable, explosive, and reactive or even some which combine the properties of the hazardous emissions. (Kwon, 2006).  Therefore, the primary role of the regulation is to ensure that the consequences of the emissions are minimized if not being eliminated as they come into the exposure of the environment and the human component of the environment. This paper discusses the aspects around the entire field of Process Safety Management while emphasizing on the OSHA guidelines which must be adhered to by all chemical emitting industries.

Elements of PSM

Employee involvement

The UK, therefore demands that in every facility producing emissions that could of risk to the environment to have a PSM program to ensure that the risks of the emissions are reduced if not being eliminated. The PSM program is a responsibility of a specialized team in the facility. The employee involvement element calls for all of the employees involved in any operations in the facility to play a role in the initiation of the PSM program. Someone could think that some of the workers in the facility are an exception to this, but as long as one is at the risk of coming in contact with the hazardous emissions, they definitely have a role to play in the PSM program. The vast and complex nature of the PSM program allows for the possibility of this condition as there are parts broken down to fit the role of every individual. For instance, the role to be played by a simple secretary in the facility could be utterly subtle, but significant in ensuring that the entirety of the process is met. The secretary could simply play the role of ensuring they don’t access the most prone to exposure regions in the facility. This is a condition of subtle weight, but its significance could be felt in the event when such unauthorized persons trespass to the forbidden places, and are caught by the risk. For instance, entering a Sulphur emitting chamber calls for the protection wears, which are best known to the specialists. Using the simplest example of the mere secretary in the facility provides the best understanding of the employee-involvement component of the PSM program.

Typically, the above component is the most subtle one, but the following elements of the PSM are quite complex and require that there be a competent and experienced team. In every team, the law posits that there be at least one member who specializes in the area being handled by the team.


Process Safety Information (PSI)

This is a preliminary component being preceded by an element which depends on the success of this process. This said, it follows that the elements of the PSM program are sequential and no one should be skipped in ensuring that the entirety of the program is an ultimate success. A step by step process will ensure that no important procedure of the program is left out. This sequential approach of the PSM program could be said to ensure that all boxes are checked in mitigating the risks of the emissions were they hazardous. In the PSI stage, the employers are charged with the role of collecting and documenting all possible highly hazardous chemical information (HHC) before the specialized team can proceed to the next preceding stage which is the Process Hazard Analysis (PHA). Included in the information is the chemical, technology and the process used in the entire process. After the documentation of all the viable and possible information about the process, all the information should be availed to the employees in the company or the facility. Remember the viability of all the employees of the facility in the PSM program. That said, the HHI should be made available to all the stakeholders in the facility to ensure that they are aware of the nature of the chemicals and the risks they are likely to encounter as they initiate their operations in the facility. Having the knowledge of the nature of the risks involved in the process is of importance to the workers, even for those who are not directly involved in the chemical handling.

Process Hazard Analysis (PHA)

It is at this point that there comes in the hands of the specialized people, leaving out some of the employees of the facility with no knowledge about chemical handling. They could be termed as the engineers who are charged with the task of engineering, finding, identifying, analyzing evaluating and controlling of the hazards related with the emissions. Keeping in mind the above named specific tasks of the team, identifying comes as the initial-most procedure of the PHA. The identification process demands a high level of risk identification, thus this team must possess all the minimal requirements suiting the positions. Besides the general role of engineering the entire PSM process, the specialists here are charged with the role of maintaining the process. PHAs have some special designed techniques designed for a systematic approach. This is so owing to the complexity of the PHA process. Some of the techniques that can be used in the PSM are such are;

  • The what if analyses
  • The checklist approach
  • The hazard and operability studies
  • The failure modes and the effects analyses
  • The fault tree analyses

One condition guiding the PHAs is that they should always be conducted in a timely manner. This is due to the fact that respective teams are expected to carry out specific analyses at given deadlines. Also, the PHAs should always be carried out in a facility at least every 5 years as long as the operations of the facility last.


Operating procedures

There are obvious events during the entire process of operations in the facility. It is mandatory for companies to document and put on the record all the operational procedures. Operational procedures include even the emergency shutdowns at the company. All procedures starting with the startup procedures, normal operations and also the temporary procedures. While operating, the operators at the facility should ensure that they understand the operating limits of the procedures. This puts them in the best position to understand the ramifications of exceeding the operating limits of the procedure. With a detailed and effectively implemented PSM, in case of the system deviating from the normal operations, the operators should have come back plans to curb the situation and ensure that the primary objective of the program is met ultimately-the role of reducing if not eliminating the impacts of exposure to the hazardous chemicals.


The first element of the PSM program demands for the involvement of all of the workers at the facilities involved in the handling of hazardous chemicals. Involvement of these workers won’t be effective without prior knowledge of what is expected of them at the facility. Taking our example of the naïve secretaries and accountants at the facility, who don’t have any idea on handling of chemicals, it could be a nightmare to them, operating in such a risky environment without having being trained on the mode of contact while at the facility to ensure risks are kept at bay. This, therefore, calls for a training program to cater for the needs of all the workers as they are likely to encounter the danger of the chemicals in reality if the mode of contact is breached at any instance. They should all be trained on the procedures, safety factors and the health hazards associated with the specific tasks they are assigned. To ensure that the best results ensue in this strategy, a certification program will be appreciated. The certification program to the employees ensures that the competency of the workers taking different tasks is sharpened. For some procedures, training cannot be exhausted in a one tome plan, but calls for an ongoing training plan in order to keep all the stakeholders up to date with the necessary information.

Contractor safety

The entire process of PSM is so complex thus having then necessity of a specialized team. A company itself could not have a proper PSM team thus calling for the need of an outside team to be contracted to do take the role of managing the emission of the hazardous chemicals. It means that the role is left for a contracting team specialized in the management of the hazardous materials when emitted to the environment. Before a new contractor takes charge, the employing company should assess the performance of the contractor. This is the role of the risk management team to ensure that an incompetent contractor is not trusted with such a sensitive department of the company. Remember PSM is a guideline laid by the government, meaning the government does checks to ensure that all the procedures are run in the stipulated manner. There are law suits involved in case the laid procedures are not adhered to, and in turn lead to the occurrence of the risks, which could otherwise have been mitigated if things were run in the right manner. If the contractor passes the clearance requirements of the company, it is their role to ensure that he is informed of the risks and health hazards associated with the kind of project he is undertaking. This is the role of the outgoing contractor to brief the incoming contractor of all the risk expectation related with the job, and also to ensure that the contracted team receives the right training concerning the job ahead of them.

Pre-start up safety review

This is a risk prevention procedure which must be carried out by a specialized team to ensure that all are in place before a new or modified company begins the process of production. One of the most potent aspects to check out in this stage is of the PSAs have been undertaken and in the right manner. Apart from the evaluation of the PHAs, this stage confirms if the performance, safety, maintenance, operating, and all the emergency procedures are in line with the specifications of the company.

Mechanical integrity

This focuses on the validity of the machinery and all the equipment involved in the operations at the facility. They should always be in a state that complies with the recognized and the generally accepted good engineering practices. REGAGEP form part of the OSHA, and form the basis of safety and proper operations of the engineering practices.

Hot work permits

This is a minor of the elements of the PSM program, but its significance is felt in the event when workers with health conditions come into contact with the hot temperatures they should otherwise avoid. It is, therefore the role of the employers to ensure that any worker coming into contact with the adverse temperatures is of good health, and permitted by the medical analysists. This is important in curbing the risk of workers losing their lives in the line of duty as their bodies could not accommodate certain temperatures they were exposed to.

Management of change

There is always the risk of changes occurring during the course of the production process. This implies a change in the risk management plan originally outlined. For this reason, OSHA demands that every production company has an organized change management program concerning the chemicals of the process, the involved technology and also equipment. During the change process, there are some elements to be addressed to ensure that the ensuing impacts are favorable even after a change. They include;

  • The technical basis for the suggested change to be made.
  • The ensuing results of the change to health and the safety of people
  • The appropriate time for the change to be effected
  • Modifications to the procedures, ensuing from the changes to be made
  • Authorization needs for the suggested changes to be made

Risk Assessment Methodologies

With the use of the scientific literature, this study comes up with a compilation of the facts about the risk assessment methodologies. This study provided facts about the qualitative and the quantitative methodologies depended upon in the risk assessment process. Of course they have their strengths and weaknesses, which are also explained in this paper.


Qualitative methodologies


Such are the best to start with owing to their simple nature, and their life in the realm of risk assessment. They have been used for a long while and their existence persists to exits as long the need for risk assessment lasts. Checklists could come in the form of a single checklist or a multiple of them depending on the nature of the demands of the entire process. Typically, checklists are a remuneration of questions concerning different areas of the whole process, while focusing on one major concern- the safety of the whole process. They form a systematic evaluation against the already established process of production in the facility. Some of the questions addressed by the checklist questions ask about the process of operation, the pre-established maintenance procedure together with other installation procedures. The simplicity of the checklist methodology owes to the fact that some of the questions forming the checklists are basically built on the historical set of questions. This means that the checklist questions have the tendency of recurrence, and are easy to master by the analysts as they use them again and again. This could be recorded under the basic characteristics of the checklist strategy that they are built on historical questions. They are based on the history of the operations of such an operating system. Among the advantages of the checklist strategy is that they are easy to master due to their simplicity and nature of recurrence. One can easily master their application after a regular interaction with them. This method is applicable to any activity, equipment or even human factor involved in the initiation of a particular process. However simple the technique of the questions could be, it can only be carried out by a trained individual or a group who are trained to understand the questions, and how to approach them. In carrying out the checklist process, there are minor techniques used to approach the entire thing. The checklist technique relies on interviews, field studies and documentation reviews. In the checklist sheets there is an area for recording the qualitative list of the conformance and non-conformance with a specific list of recommendations on how the non-conformance elements from the study should be corrected. One of the features of the checklists, which is presented as its disadvantage is that the quality of the checklist entirely depends on the expertise and experience of the individual or individuals undertaking the process of checklists. Root cause analysis makes use of this strategy basing on the fact that this technique is best used for the high details analysis while root cause analysis is one of the known high-detail analyses. In the cases of the what-if analyses, the checklist strategy can be of help while coming in as a supplement of the other technique or even as an integral part of the other technique. That said, this technique is flexible and allows room to be used alongside other techniques. Truth is, checklists can be used in the high level identification of high risk hazards but as said in the beginning paragraph of this paper, they have their limitations worth putting on the record, though shallowly explained. The second limitation of the checklist strategy is that the structure of the checklist entirely depends on the knowledge built in checklists in identifying the associated risks of a process. The disadvantage ensuing from this nature of checklists is that if the checklist does not address a major factor, the entire analysis could bring negative results while overlooking of the minor problems associated with the process. That said, a risk assessment process of the PSM can never exclusively rely on the importance of the checklists. There must be other techniques to address the areas ignored by the checklists. Another limitation of the checklist approach is that they traditionally produce qualitative analysis without a touch of the quantitative information of the analysis.


Basing on the primary role of this strategy, it is used in postulating potential upsets that may ensue to accidents or system performance problems, by using broad, loosely structured questions. Also the technique provides a judgement of what things could go wrong in the course of the process and predicting the consequences of the risks if they occurred. One of the features constituting the advantages of the what-if-technique is that they could be used on any activity or system involved in the entire process. Also, from the fact that this is a low cost, but high value technique, it is advantageous that it can be used as a high level risk analysis method. In the sheets of the process, there is a place for recording the qualitative descriptions of the impeding problems, which come in the form of questions and responses. This is accompanied by a list of recommendations to solve the risks in case they occur. Just like the checklist strategy, the quality of the analysis depends on the experience and training of the review team, but for this strategy, the quality of  the assessment is seen to be depended on a multiple of factors including; quality of the documentation. This strategy could be used alone, which is the case occasionally, but it is often used as a complement of the other techniques just like the checklist technique. To its advantage, this strategy is applicable to almost all applications of risk assessment meaning it possesses the aspect of flexibility.

Task analysis

In order to understand the manner in which the human component at the work places interact with each other and with the equipment, the task analysis, just as the name suggests, it analyses the manner in which the employees perform their tasks in their work environment. The provision of the analysis about the manner in which people perform their tasks provides insights into several aspects of importance. For instance, the performance of a particular worker when analyzed provides insights into the level of experience of the particular worker. Such insights are important in determining the level of accuracy of the worker’s performance, hence the productivity. High productivity is directly proportional to low risk levels in cases where risks are prone to occur. Task analysis also, defines how the tasks being performed are refined into subtasks. (Liaw, 2016).  By using all the necessary information at the work place, the task analysis strategy can draw a detailed structure of all the human involvements at the work place. This is an important strategy in ensuring that every aspect of the worker activity is monitored to ensure that every detail of the worker activity is in line with the accepted code of standard or performance. Remember in the risk management plan, in order to mitigate risks arising from the workers’ operations, there are stipulated codes of standards to be adhered by the workers to reduce if not eliminating the errors or rather risks. At the end of the task analysis procedure, the anticipated result of the entire process is the task model, which also includes the communication details of the workers.

For the analysists to come up with a successful task analysis model, there are three phases involved. Phases which have to be carried out in a systematic manner for the purpose of order in the process. The most initial stage is the collection of data on any kind of human intervention while including data about the demands of the system. The second procedure of the process is the representation of this data in a comprehensible format or by the use of graphs. Finally, after the two initial stages have been met, it follows that the analysts compare data about the demands of the system and the capabilities of the operators. From the foregoing, and the repeated mention of the operator capabilities and system demands, one could see the primary purpose of the task analysis process as trying to bring compatibility between the capabilities of the operators and the demands of the system. (Amalia and Sommeng, 2020). While doing so, they are basically trying to alter the demands of the system to be compatible with the capabilities of the operators. Precisely, this strategy appreciates the fact that some system could be unnecessarily complex, and thus become a night mare to the operators of such a system. Dealing with chemicals could be complex and challenging especially while working in a technological sensitive company. For this matter, some of the mitigating strategies that could be used in this case is the in service training programs to acquaint operators with the complexity of the systems. Knowledge of the field provides that, there are several applicable forms of task analysis while the most commonly used form is the hierarchical task analysis (HTA). Perhaps this form of task analysis is the most popular because it provides a well-structured overview of the task processes. Statistics provide that the HTA approach is the easiest way of collecting and organizing information about the activities and the interactions of the human component at the work place. Among the advantages of the task analysis method when the HTA approach comes into play is that it is an easy and cheap way of collecting interacting information about the workers, while also aiding in discovering the safety-sensitive tasks by the analysts. Usually, there must be disadvantages to every alternative, and that said, the use of the HTA approach in task analysis process is time consuming in cases involving complex tasks. (Crowl and Louvar, 2001). Also, without the corporation of the experts in the specific domain, the entire process could end up as a failure all through.

Quantitative techniques

Just as the name suggests, quantitative techniques aim at determining the actual picture of what the risk could look like if it came by. This, therefore calls for the use of the mathematical concepts in calculating or determining the nature of the risk in terms of its magnitude.

The proportional risk assessment technique (PRAT)

The PRAT technique makes use of the proportional formula in calculating the quantified hazard that was anticipated to occur. Before using the formula, there are elements of great significance worth noting; the exposure and the probability factors. Quantifying the risk follows the following formula which is to be arranged in a manner that would always give correct and consistent results.


In the above formula, R stands for actual anticipated risk. Quantifying this value gives insights into the nature of the risk to come, thus laying down the strategies to minimize or prevent the risk from coming to pass. On the other hand, P is the probability factor, S is the severity of hazard factor while F is the frequency or rather factor of exposure. From the above relationship of the variables, it is, therefore possible for the analysis team to set attention priorities for risk management. It has to be noted that the process of risk management in such plants has a variety of areas to pay attention, where these areas have different levels of risk. Giving priority attention to the most threatening factors is a brilliant strategy in ensuring that the risk management plan meets its goal of reducing if not eliminating the magnitude of the risk incurred. It is obvious that the viability of the estimates made from the above formula is a function of these parameters, that is, P, S and F. On the other hand, these parameters require a set of information useful to the process, a prior visit to the workplace and responses of the workers about the nature of their work and the workplaces. While carrying out the estimates using the PRAT formula, the role of the workers plays an essential part. They have to be consulted, and are urged for their honesty. It is only them who have the first hand information about the nature of the work and how the work is performed. In the above PRAT formula, note that each of the parameters, P, S, F take values ranging from the scale of 1-10, and this is so to ensure that the value of the resultant factor, R ranges in the scale of 1-1000. The ensuing value of the factor, R will therefore be used in determining the level of urgency of the impending risk. The table below shows an illustration of how the values of R are used in determination of the risk attention urgency.

It, therefore follows that for the effectiveness of this strategy, the operating team should have the right experience and qualifications to be able to come up with accurate figures from the estimations. Also, the interpretation of the values requires a sound mind and expertize.

The Decision Matrix Risk Assessment Technique (DMRAT)

This strategy relies on finding the product of the severity of the risk and the likelihood of the risk occurring, thus coming up with such a formula as; R= S.P. Where the risk is designated by R, severity is denoted by S, while P stands for the likelihood of the occurrence of the risk. Being a systematic approach of measuring the risks, it consists of measuring and categorizing basing on informed judgement about the probability and consequence. Also, the informed judgement is done basing on the importance. (Norton et al., 2016) Combining the three parameters, consequence, likelihood and severity provides a reliable estimate of the risk to occur. The task of assigning the severity and likelihood values should always come after the hazards have been identified. After all the values have been achieved, the technique is finalized by a creation of the risk matrix and the decision-making table as shown below in the paper. Using the new DMRA technique comes with two main advantages. One is that this technique always provides results of the relative risks which have been differentiated, thereby, facilitating the process of decision making. Second, this technique is important in improving the consistency and the course of decision making. Another advantage of this technique that many overlook is that it creates liability issues and aid in prioritizing and managing key risks.

However, there are general advantages and disadvantages of using the quantitative techniques as explained below.


Quantitative analysis techniques lie under the strategies that are viable in increasing the probability of identifying complex interactions of the entire elements of the production system. That said, it is one of the most reliable techniques in identifying errors in a system.

The ensuing results from the quantitative analysis provides information that brings about a common understanding of the nature of the problem to the stakeholders of the process. That way, the communication among the stakeholders is facilitated. The process of risk mitigation requires sound decision making among the operators for effectiveness of the entire PSM procedures.

From the foregoing discussion on the quantitative methods, a major fact was unveiled that they always focus on the identification of the most outstanding impeding risks. This means that the most crucial and dangerous risks are identified and controlled in real time. By doing so, the process ensures that time and resources are not wasted on the minor issues when there are major and more dangerous risks facing the process.




Human involvement in the processes induces in the element if human errors as an ultimate limitation of using the technique. There occur the errors of omission and the errors of commission due to human limitations. (Baybutt, 2014).  Errors of omission are the errors due to failure by the team to include some of the prescribed procedures in their operations. On the other hand, the errors of commission are errors incurred due to the inclusion of the unprescribed procedures in their operations.

There is no total adherence to the safety culture as claimed by the managers of the operations as these have always been associated with accidents pointing to the lack of adherence to the safety culture by the operators. (Baybutt, 2003).  A fact is that QRAs fail to include the safety culture guidelines to the operators, and it is dreaded that this could be going on for so long as long as they are going to be used in PSM.

Preventive and mitigative controls


This should always be considered as the primary risk preventive and mitigative strategy basing on the importance of knowledge in managing the systems. Knowledge is the primary requirement of all the stakeholders, involved in the risk control processes and even those minor employees in the facility. Among the elements of PSM was that of ensuring that all the employees at the facility are involved in the PSM process. Training of these employees is a key requirement in controlling the risk. There is training on various aspects including how to respond to actual occurrence of the risks. Remember the role of the PSM is to reduce the impact of the risk if not eliminating the risk totally. This has the meaning that some of the risks will come to occur, but with the right knowledge of how to carry themselves in the event of the risks, the employees would play a critical role in reducing the impact of the risk, hence controlled it. First aid training should be offered to all the employees at the facility to be able to respond instantly to the situation without the necessary need for the medical specialists to step in.

Availing proper risk control resources

This comes immediately after the training aspect as they complement each other in the risk control strategy. Take for instance workers have been trained on how to provide first aid in the event of burns or inhalation of toxic fumes such as oxides of Sulphur, but they don’t have the right resources to use in the event of the accidents. This makes them vulnerable and some could even succumb to the forces. Such an imagination necessitates the availability of safety material such as the fire extinguishers in the cases of explosions from the explosive chemicals. OSHA’s Personal Protective Equipment codes demands that all the employers in the chemical producing facilities evaluate the areas and come up with the most appropriate PPEs for the safety of the workers as they interact with the chemicals, and with each other at the workplaces. The OSHA standards stipulate the right criteria to be followed in the choice and use of the various types of the PPEs.



This is a control strategy that reduces the amount of the chemicals released into the environment. For instance, most of the Sulphur oxides that could otherwise be released to the air are very useful when put in other uses. This ensures that the amount and concentration of the chemicals beings released to the exposure of the human component is limited.

The elimination method

The elimination method of the hazards calls for a proper analysis in the Process Hazard Analysis stage (PHA) where the impeding hazards are identified. Identifying the probability of an occurrence in real time facilities the process of elimination of the risk before it makes appearance. This follows that there should be strategies to eliminate the specific identified risks at an early stage. The aspect of the operating teams working in time comes about in this stage, as the risk can only be eliminated if it were identified in real time. One of the most basic and simple step to be taken at this stage is ensuring that all the chemicals and machines to be bought meet the national safety standards. It eliminates chemical accidents due to faulty substances that could have been discovered if care was taken to ensure that all the chemicals meet the national safety standards.

The substitution method

Some chemicals used in the production sites have their substitutes which can provide the same products of the same quality. That said, in the hazard control process, it is brilliant to always replace the safe chemicals with the safer ones to reduce the effect of risks if they occurred. However, while implementing this strategy, it is wise to always keep in mind that no chemical should ever be considered as totally safe. (Supciller and Abali, 2015).  Also, it is important to ensure that a review on the safety of the chemicals is carried out regularly because the safe chemical today does not guarantee its safety tomorrow or at a later age. A review should be done on the updated safe chemicals in order for the facility to always work with the most considered safe chemicals according to the standards of OSHA.

The above named control and mitigation strategies don’t form the exhaustive list of the control measures as there are unlimited options. However, they provide an overview of what hazard control is and how it can be carried out in the chemical emitting facilities.

Leading and lagging indicators

In business language, leading indicators are described as the inputs into the business to lead the business towards the achievement of the business goals. Lagging indicators on the other hand are those that describe the currents state of the business for example the profits of the business at a particular date. (Lautz, 2020).  For the purpose of this paper, we use the OSHA leading and lagging indicators in ensuring the safety of the workers at the work sites.

Leading indicators

For the purpose of risk management in a production facility, the leading indicators are the preventive, proactive and also predictive factors whose main aim in this is to reveal the information about the performance of the facility’s risk mitigation strategies. One of the objectives of the leading factors is to highlight the events that are headed for causing hazards at the work places. The leading indicators also play a role in revealing the potential problems foreseen in the safety plan of the facility.

Lagging indicators

Contrary to the leading indicators which are more inclined to revealing the future events, lagging indicators measure the frequency of the past occurrence of the risks.

Lagging and leading indicators should always be designed in a way that they complement each other. (Sanders, 2015).  That said, it can be deduced that while the lagging indicators ascertain the operators on the occurrence of a fault in the system, leading indicators should come in to provide the preventive solutions for the risk. Proper system should have the two designed in a manner that leading indicators to bring about change and lagging indicators for measuring the effectiveness of the safety system.

For effectiveness of this set of indicators, OSHA provides the best characteristics of the leading factors to be implemented in the safety systems of the facilities.

Characteristics of good leading indicators

Specific nature

For effectiveness, the leading indicators have to be specific in nature. That is, the leading indicator statements should provide precise and specific actions for reducing or preventing the occurrence of the hazards. (Brooks et al., 2010) They should also be specific in describing the actions towards improving certain areas of the safety system.


Indicators should be stated in either number form, percentage form and also rates to enable the operator to trach and evaluate the performance trends over time.


Indicators should be able to track the data of all the incidences useful to the operations of the operators.

Examples of leading indicators to aid in Hazard Identification and Assessment

  • Frequency with which preventive equipment maintenance tasks are initiated and completed on schedule.( Wu et al., 2014)
  • Number of hours passed after an incident before an investigation is started.
  • Number of hours passed after an incident before an investigation is completed.

Examples of leading indicators to aid in Risk prevention and control

  • Percentage of hazards abated on the same day, week, or month in which the hazard was identified.
  • Number of workers required to wear respiratory protection.
  • Number of unacceptable risks identified during risk assessments.


PSM is too vast to be exhausted in this essay but the essay provides an overview if not deep details about the elements around Process Safety Management. OSHA outlines all the guidelines to be adhered to by the chemical emitting companies as this surely reduces if not eliminating the occurrence of the hazards as predicted by the process hazard analysis (PHA) step.