EFFECT OF EMPLOYEE WELFARE PROGRAMS ON EMPLOYEE ENGAGEMENT AT CORRECTIONAL FACILITIES IN KENYA: A CASE OF NAIROBI REMAND AND ALLOCATION PRISON
A HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT RESEARCH PROJECT SUBMITTED TO THE COLLEGE OF HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENT FOR THE AWARD OF THE CERTIFIED HUMAN RESOURCES PROFESSIONALS (CHRP), HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT PROFESSIONAL EXAMINATION BOARD (HRMPEB)
DEFINITION OF TERMS
Career development programs
Drake, (2013) described career development programs as measures by an organization to ensure career growth of their employees. According to quora.com there are programs by an organization to assist its employees to achieve their personal career goals. They may include flexible working hours, subsidized tuition fees and scholarships.
Merriam, (2016) defined correctional facilities as places where people that have been arrested are being kept to serve their punishment for the offences they have committed.
Amhalhal, (2015) described employee engagement as the intellectual as well as the emotional commitment to an organization by their employees in their jobs.
Health insurance program
Harminton, (2018) defined health insurance program as an initiative by an organization to ensure healthy and vibrant employees in their team. According to health insurance association of America it refers to coverage employees receive as a result of sickness or injuries.
Nehema, (2017) described retirement benefits as measures by an organization to ensure that their employees receive monetary rewards after leaving employment. According to freedictionery.com retirement benefits refers to monthly financial payments for an employee after quitting an organization at the recommended retirement age.
Correctional facilities are known for the large number of inmates that are kept there awaiting their jail term to end. It is environment that involves lots of activities that can be tedious at times. The staffs working at the facilities undergo a lot of stressful and pressurized life due to the nature of tasks involved. In order to attract and retain employees at the facilities employee welfare program is very vital. This will enable any employee assigned there feel a sense of belonging to the organization. The main purpose of this study was to establish the effects of employee welfare programs on employee engagement. It focused on correctional facilities with reference to Nairobi remand and allocation prison. Chapter one focused on the background of the study, statement of the problem, research objectives and research questions. It also focused on significance of the study, scope of the study and limitations for the study. The chapter will clearly describe how employee welfare programs and employee engagement came to place in the background of the study. It identified various authors on the identified variables and strived to bridge the gap left by the researchers. Chapter two focused on the literature review of the study. It composed of theoretical review, empirical review, conceptual framework and summary of research gap. There were two main theories for the study. That is, functional theory of labor welfare and social exchange theory. All the identified variables of the study were reviewed from different scholars’ perspective. The relationship between independent variables and dependent variables was illustrated using conceptual framework diagram. Chapter three focused on research methodology of the study. This entailed research design, study population, sample size, data collection instruments and procedures. The research study adopted descriptive survey as the best method for the study. The target population was respondents from various departments of the organization including human resource department. A sample frame was obtained and a sample size of 109 respondents to be used. A letter of request for authorization to carry out the study at the institution was sent prior to the actual research study. Questionnaires were the main instruments of data collection. After data collection the findings were analyzed and presented in bar charts, pie charts and graphs in chapter four. Chapter five focused on discussion of findings, conclusions and recommendations of the research study, implications of the research study to human resource practice and Recommendations for further research.
- Background of the research study
In this era of constant changing business dynamics and globalization of operations, employee welfare is essential to ensuring organization’s productivity. Armstrong, (2014) cites that rewarding the employees with fringe benefits boosts their morale to unleash their maximum potentials in performance. The need to operate competitively on a national and global front is an essential factor to consider in raising the welfare of employees. Anita, (2017) posits that in this era it is almost impossible to operate an organization without providing essential welfare benefits for employee. People prefer to work in organizations that will carter for their basic set of welfare issues.
Grant, (2016) states that welfare programs are essential social responsibility of an organization if they need to achieve their goals. Employees are basic resources of an organization therefore must be handled carefully. Cole, (2014) asserts that motivated employees will tend to put their efforts on driving the company’s objectives as opposed to disillusioned employees. According to Kim, (2017), demoralized employee records more errors in their operations thereby costing the organization the quality of their products or services. Mulinge, (2016) states that organizations need highly performing employees in order to meet their core objectives to provide quality goods or services that will boost their competitive advantage.
Employee engagement in an organization depends on the level of motivation they receive from their employer. Owusu, (2016) focused on the employee engagement and its effects on organization performance. He stated that employees will always commit their expertise and efforts to organizations that take care of their welfare. According to Owusu, (2016) there are two basic categories of employees’ welfare provision. That is, statutory and non-statutory welfare. Statutory welfare provisions are those that are compulsory and enshrined in labor laws of a country. Non statutory on the other hand are the welfare provisions that are provided under organization’s discretion. Muhati, (2017) cites that the level of employee’s engagement is directly proportional to the level of motivation they receive from the organization they work for.
Employee welfare programs are fringe benefits that an organization has put in place for their employees. The programs are structured means of an organization to look into the wellbeing of its employees in either financial or non-financial terms. Fondler, (2016) cites that through such benefits organizations make life worth living for their employees. Employee welfare programs includes measures such as; monitoring of working conditions, creation of industrial harmony through infrastructure for healthy industrial relations and insurance against diseases accidents’ and unemployment for workers and their families.
Dedan, (2017) argues that an employer who wants to improve on the productivity of their organization should be concerned with the welfare of its employees. They can create a positive working environment for their employees by ensuring that the programs of welfare in place benefit all employees. Ochola, (2015) posits that the purpose of the welfare programs is to motivate employees to achieve the organization’s objectives. Noel, (2016) asserts that welfare programs should include grievances procedures that are clear and actively implemented. The level of commitment to the employee’s welfare programs will determine the speed with which the organization achieves its objectives.
Asamba, (2016) described employee welfare programs as those benefits an employee receive from their employer besides their salaries and wages. The essence of creating welfare programs in an organization is to build a team of committed, healthy and loyal workforce. Koech, (2015) argues that satisfied workforce is the main propeller of company’s achievement of its objectives. When welfare programs are in place employees put all their efforts in the productivity of the organization as they feel as sense of inclusivity and belonging to the organization. Nyambati, (2014) argues that employers get stable workforce by providing welfare programs to their employees.
Employee engagement is the commitment of an employee to his or her work with a sense of passion towards work. Pereces, (2017) defined employee engagement as show of commitment towards work in terms of passion and attitude combined. Attitude towards work can show engagement when its positively aligned to the discharge of duties one is assigned. Passion on the other hand is the efforts of an employee to go extra mile in order to achieve his or her assignment in the organization. Engaged workers have a vastly more positive workplace experience and performance.
Gregory, (2016) argues that engaged employees are more profitable to an organization. They always show positive attitude towards work with less quality defects and low intentions to quit their jobs. Rotich, (2017) states that engaged employees always have a sense of purpose when starting their work in the morning and finishes in the evening with a sense of achievement. A company with engaged workforce tends to be more competitive in their industry. Juan, (2015) asserts that employee engagement results in higher outputs and maximum returns for an organization. The productivity of a firm with engaged workers is always on the higher side.
Macreen, (2018) posits that employee engagement is a function of motivation and conducive working environment for employees. Engaged staffs are key pillars to the success of the organization objectives. Rotich, (2017) argues that lack of motivation renders employees unmoved to the course of their assignments. Therefore, every organization looking forward for engaged employees must put in place programs to drive employees’ welfare. Kirika, (2016) asserts that employee engagement should be the management initiative in an organization in order for them to achieve their purpose of existence. Employees’ engagement should be in the strategic plan of the organization since employees are the main resources of an organization. Proper management of manpower resources will results in the success of other functions of the organization.
1.1.1 Nairobi remand and allocation prison
According to the star newspaper of 20th April 2019 Nairobi remand and allocation prison started back in 1911. The facility has a rich history of serving as Nairobi’s main correctional facility. The institution currently holds over 2800 inmates. Employees at the institution are prison warders and other civil servants. The institution is a public organization under the ministry of interior and coordination of national government.
The organization serves as correctional facility therefore its settings revolve around dealing with inmates. They have employee welfare programs such as retirement benefits plans, incentives, health coverage and employee training. The main employee welfare program offered at the facility includes; retirement benefit schemes, on job training programs, paid leaves and health insurance program. The purpose of the welfare program at the facility is to ensure employee engagement to the core mission which is to offer correctional services to various offenders in Kenya. The government has the responsibility of ensuring that the employees there work in a serene environment that caters for their welfare as well as the welfare of inmates at the facility. This study intends to examine the effects of employee welfare program on employee engagement at the facility.
1.2 Research problem statement
With the changing business dynamics and worldwide technological advancements companies are striving to remain competitive in their various industries. Human resources in any organization are among the critical resources that should be handled with care. The wake of economic recession in most countries in the world has made organizations to strain in sustaining productive workforce. Correctional facilities such as Nairobi remand and allocation prison is among institution that requires more emphasis on human resource management. At the base of human resource practices at the institution are employee welfare programs. The working environment at the correctional facilities in Kenya is of concern since most employees end up suffering from depression. It is imperative to explore the various welfare programs that will ensure employee engagement in their assignments.
Ankita, (2015) studied on the effects of employee reward programs on employee performance. In her studies, she cited the availability of financial resources as a major determinant of the implementation of reward programs. She stated that most of the employee reward programs are monetary in nature therefore their success goes hand in hand with the available financial resources of the organization. This study mainly focused on financial reward as the key determinants of employee performance. However, employee rewards can be in different forms besides financial rewards.
Tiwari, (2014) conducted a study on employee welfare programs and its impact on employee’s efficiency. According to his study he established a 95% correlation between employee welfare programs and their efficiency. The level of motivation an employee receives from the organization determines his attitude and passion towards work. According to his study most respondents argued that employee rewards can be measured mostly in financial benefits. The research did not establish how employee reward programs can include non-financial benefits and how they can be used to determine employee efficiency.
From the studies by Ankita, (2015) and Tiwari, (2014) on welfare programs there is a gap between employee welfare program and employee engagement. The study by Ankita, (2015) focused on effects of employee reward programs on employee performance. While Tiwari, (2014) focused on effects of employee welfare programs on employee efficiency. The employees at the Nairobi remand and allocation prison operate in a challenging environment dealing with inmates. It requires high levels of motivation to work in such constraint environment. There is need to study how welfare programs can affect employee engagement at the facility. Therefore, this study focused on establishing the effects of employee welfare program on employee engagement at correctional facilities in Kenya.
- Objectives of the study
- General objective
To establish the effects of employee welfare program on employee engagement at the correctional facilities in Kenya.
- Specific objectives
- To examine the effects of retirement benefit program on employee engagement at the correctional facilities in Kenya.
- To explore the effects of employee incentive program in the organization on employee engagement at the correctional facilities in Kenya.
- To determine the effects of medical insurance program on employee engagement at the correctional facilities in Kenya.
- To establish the effects of career development program on employee engagement.
- Research questions
- To what extent does retirement benefit schemes affects employee engagement at the correctional facilities in Kenya?
- To what extent does employee incentives affects employee engagement at the correctional facilities in Kenya?
- To what extent does medical insurance plan affects employee engagement at the correctional facilities in Kenya?
- What are the effects of career development programs on employee engagement?
- Significance of the study
The study will be of benefit to various groups that are associated with the human resource practices as follows;
1.5 .1 Nairobi remand and allocation prison
This study will be used by the organization as a benchmark in establishing sound employee welfare programs. They will learn of the best ways to attract employee engagement through the welfare programs. This will improve the level of engagement of their employees.
1.5.2 Other researchers
Other students conducting research on the subject of employee welfare programs would draw their references from this study. The findings of the study will be well published to enable future referencing by other researchers.
1.5.3 Government of Kenya
The government will use this study to ascertain the best strategies of implementing employee welfare programs for their staffs at the correctional facilities and other departments of the government. The objectives of this study will set pace for the government to improve on their welfare programs to its employees
1.5.4 Stake holders
The stakeholders in the labor industry will draw their knowledge from this study on ways of improving welfare programs in their respective organizations. The in-depth analysis of the findings will create clear ways of implementing various welfare programs by stakeholders that deal with employee welfare programs in the country.
- Scope of the study
The main purpose of this study will be to establish the effects of employee welfare programs on employee engagement at the correctional facilities in Kenya. The study will take place at the industrial area remand prisons. Descriptive survey will be used and a sample size of 109 employees will form the basis of the study. The data will be collected using structured questionnaires where the respondents will have opportunity to give their honest opinions. It will be conducted between March and April 2020. The findings of the study will be tabled, analyzed and presented in charts and graphs.
- Limitations to the study
The study faced lack of adequate time to engage the respondents one on one, which might compromise the accuracy of the findings. The research was hindered by time constraints from clarifying any unclear issue in the questionnaire. In order to solve the challenge the researcher will design simple and precise questionnaire that is self – explanatory.
The busy schedule of the correctional facility delayed the data collection process. It took long than planned to be done by the collection of data process. The facility was informed in advance about the study so that they can plan for it adequately before the commencement of the research study.
The long procedures required to obtain permission for research at the facility hindered the delivery of the research study on time. The authorization was a limiting factor. The research acquired an authorization letter from the relevant body and also the research letter from the college.
The staffs at the correctional facility were so engaged and unwilling to participate in the study. Staff despised the study and focus on their usual duties. This posited an obstacle in fulfilling the purpose of the study. The researcher explained adequately the importance of the study to the organization’s management and also respondents.
Inaccurate information given by respondents affected the reliability of the findings. The researcher faced hard time in assessing the reliability of the data obtained. All the data given were first tested for reliability before commencing with the analysis of the data.
This chapter focuses on the literature review of the study. The review entails theoretical review, empirical review, conceptual framework and chapter review. The theoretical review will focus on two main theories. That is, functional theory of labor welfare and social exchange theory. The empirical review will focus on independent and dependent variables identified for the study. Conceptual framework will give diagrammatical illustration of the relationship between independent and dependent variables while chapter review will give summary of research gap.
2.2 Theoretical review
2.2.1 Functional Theory of labor welfare (Hebert Spencer 1820 -1903)
Functional theory of labor is also called the Efficiency Theory. This theory states that a fully mentally and physically satisfied worker is the most efficient. Employee welfare is a means to keep industrial workers contented so they may work effectively. In this theory, welfare work is used as a means to secure, preserve and develop the efficiency and productivity of labor. Manju, (2016) cited that this theory suggests that welfare work can be used as a means of attracting and sustaining the productivity and engagement of employees.
The theory is helpful in understanding the characteristics of labor force as reflected on the contemporary support for labor and it worked well if the employer and employees have the same goal of achieving higher production through better welfare. Mugo, (2017) used this theory in his study of the effects of social welfare programs on employee engagement. In his study he described how the theory relates to the provision of welfare programs in an organization such as retirement benefit programs, flexible work schedule and free club membership to employees. The theory will be adopted in the study since welfare services affect performance of any labor force. Naserian, (2015) stated that it is obvious that if an employer takes good care of his workers, they will tend to become more efficient. According to this theory, the employer has an obligation or duty towards its employees to look after their welfare.
Jubrin, (2014) examined the application of this theory in other countries such as India. The theory has been related to the constitution of India where part of it emphasizes the aspect of labor welfare. Impact on Efficiency plays an important role in welfare services, and is based on the relationship between welfare and efficiency, though it is difficult to measure this relationship. Programs for housing, education and training, the provision of balanced diet and family planning measures are some of the important programs of labor welfare which increases the efficiency of the workers, especially in underdeveloped or developing countries. The development of the human personality is given here as the goal of industrial welfare, which, according to this principle, should counteract the baneful effects of the industrial system.
Therefore, this theory emphasizes the need to implement labor welfare programs in an organization in order to ensure employee engagement. Companies need to provide for welfare programs both inside and outside the factory, that is, provide intra-mural and extra-mural labor welfare services. The theory emphasizes the need for organizations such as correctional facilities to embrace employee welfare programs. Welfare programs in an organization such as retirement benefits, employee incentives, health insurance and career development plays a big role in ensuring employee efficiency in an organization. Therefore, this theory was relevant for this study since it emphasizes on the importance of welfare programs in an organization.
2.2.2 Social exchange theory (George C. Homans 1910 -1989)
The theory proposes that employees exhibit positive or negative behavior as a response to the treatment they receive from their employers. According to Gordon, (2016) the concept of this theory is the norm of reciprocity. A strong social exchange relationship between the employer and employee will help maintain positive working relationships and would elicit positive sentiments such as satisfaction commitment and trust in employees, which in turn will move employees to engage themselves in employee productivity. Social exchange theory proposes that the relationships built between employees and employers definitely should result into employee engagement. Armstrong, (2013) stated that when employees enjoy positive relationship with their employers they tend to be more dedicated to their jobs unlike where there is loose relationship.
Derrick (2016) revisited this theory and cited that it is most commonly used by the studies in predicting work behavior in the field of organizational behavior. Employers need to treat their employees fairly such that they can reciprocate the good gesture in the form of behavior such as organizational citizenship behavior which contributes to organizational influence effectiveness. The social exchange theory also has its fair share of criticism. Miller (2015) argues that the theory reduces human interaction to a purely rational process that arises from economic needs. Therefore, the social exchange theory asserts that employee engagement in an organization is as a result of the treatment they receive from their employers.
Miller (2015) further contends that the theory favors openness as it was developed in the 1970s when ideas of freedom and openness were preferred but there may be times when openness is not the best option in a relationship. Social exchange theory may provide insight into what variables might mediate the distinct effects of procedural and interactional justice on employees’ reactions to the organization versus the supervisor. He cited that employees tend to express themselves freely where there is conducive working environment between employees and their employers.
Batua, (2017) emphasized that Social exchange relationships are different from those based on purely economic exchange, in that the obligations to one another are often unspecified and the standards for measuring contributions are often unclear. They develop between two parties through a series of mutual interaction which results in the understanding of one another’s expectations. One party makes a contribution or provides a service to the other party and in so doing develops an expectation of a return at some future point in time. It is evident that the key party in the whole interaction was the employee who in turn reciprocated the benefits of their engagement on his or her job. This theory can be used to ascertain the level of employee engagement that results from welfare programs that are availed to him by the employer.
2.3 Empirical literature
2.3.1 Retirement benefit programs and employee engagement
Retirement benefits are amount of money payable to members of an organization upon attaining the minimum retirement age or withdrawal from of services from an organization. In Kenya, employers set up pension funds under irrevocable terms. It is done in most organizations according to retirement benefits authority provisions. This is legal body established under the national treasury to regulate retirement benefits for all employees in Kenya. The sole purpose of retirement benefit program in an organization is to ensure employee’s commitment to the goals of the organization.
Ogola, (2018) studied on the role of retirement benefit schemes on the employees’ performance in public organizations. His study noted a positive correlation between the roles established and employee performance. One of the roles noted in his study is to provide alternative savings plan for employees. Lisiolo, (2016) noted that most employees finds it difficult to save their earnings by their own initiatives through the commercial banks and Sacco. Reasoning being the income is always constraint to so many expenditures that are not easy to neglect. Pension schemes in organizations offers automatic platform for savings since the amount to be saved is deducted directly by the employer. Grace, (2013) cited that the introduction of retirement benefits schemes has enabled employers to be part of the saving plans for their employees. Muraya, (2015) argues that employee under retirement benefit schemes are more focused on their jobs since they are assured of their future after quitting employment. However, the study by Ogola, (2018) has not demonstrated how retirement benefit program would reciprocate into employee engagement
Mazeras, (2014) studied on the impact of retirement benefit schemes on the financial performance of commercial banks in Kenya. The study highlighted pension funds as the core part of the scheme by financial institutions. Commercial banks contribute 6 -10% of the employee’s salary as contribution to the employee’s pension scheme. The same percentage is deducted directly from employee’s account. Kainika, (2015) noted that organizations must set pension funds as part of their budget in every financial year. Firms are obliged to remit the funds to a selected pension firms such as Liberty insurance, Kenindia insurance limited, among others. The above studies did not provide how pension funds in an organization can ensure employee engagement. It can be argued that despite the availability of pension funds in an organization an employee can till opt to quit. Therefore, the researchers have not highlighted how pension funds can help lower the intension to quit by employees.
Diana, (2018) studied the challenges facing the implementation of retirement benefit schemes in the construction industry. The scope of the study was on the employees of the selected construction companies such as Et young, RBS and Pendoria constructions. The study revealed that some of the key challenges in implementing these schemes is lack of strategic operations plan, contractual engagement of employees, and uncertain demand for construction services. Most construction companies are not sure of their plans in future. Therefore, they tend to shy away from adopting retirement benefit schemes for their employees. Retirement benefit schemes effectively apply to organizations with long term engagement with staff. Mostly employees in the construction firms are temporary engaged therefore making it difficult to implement such schemes. The construction industry is also faced with uncertainty in demand therefore making budgeting for pension schemes impracticable. The study has however not highlighted on how the companies handles employee welfare programs and how they ensure employee engagement. Given that construction companies also have personnel managers it is prudent to highlight how the personal managers handle employee welfare programs regardless of their contractual terms.
Letei, (2014) studied on the factors affecting the adoption of retirement benefits program in the retail industry in Kenya. The study focused on Tuskys and Naivas supermarket to represent the retail industry. Factors identified in the study were operations costs, high levels of competition, political uncertainties and slow economic reforms in Kenya. The study noted that these factors negatively affect the strategic plans of the firms since they raise anxiety among operators. Nzioki, (2016) stated that conditions of uncertainty is the greatest fear of many companies in investing in their strategic plans. The fear of political tensions deters many companies from establishing long term benefit plans for their employees. From the study Letei, (2014) concluded that the retail industry in Kenya resort to short term benefits to their employees due to lack of sustainability in implementation of long term programs. The question of how retirement benefits programs ensure employee engagement was not addressed in the study. The study only concentrated on factors affecting retirement benefit programs.
2.3.2 Employee incentives program
Incentives are non-wage benefits offered to employees. Kariuki, (2018) cited that the essence of providing incentives to employees in an organization is to cause them feel valued in the organization. Wonder, (2016) stated that employee incentives are designed by an organization depending on their financial performance and the implication of such programs on their profitability. Employee incentives come in various forms ranging from vacations, team building activities, outdoor games, staff training, and free transport to work among others. Thiong, (2016) cited that employee incentives are meant to boost employee’s morale and engagement in an organization. Employee incentives boost social relationship between employees and the organization which in turn reciprocate into employee engagement.
Willman, (2013) studied the impact of employee incentives on staff retention among oil marketing companies in Kenya. In his studies he highlighted some of the employee benefits as paid leaves, maternal leaves, Christmas gifts, free housing among others. He argued that employees feel a sense of belonging when their welfare is taken seriously by their employers. Kiprotich, (2017) cited that when there is non- wage benefits for employees they tend to stay longer with the organization. Osiemo, (2015) argued that companies with employees’ incentive programs will always attract highly skilled employees because they know their services are highly valued in such an organization. The main goal of providing employees with incentives is to win their loyalty in the organization. The question remains from this study how providing employees with incentives will ensure their engagement given that other conditions are also in place. Therefore, the study by Willman, (2013) has not addressed how employee incentives will ensure their engagement with the organization.
Cherono, (2016) studied on the effects of employee incentives on the performance of public entity staffs. She narrated that public organizations offer non-wage benefits to their employees which entrust their commitment to the organizations. Eskin, (2015) argued that employees are not just satisfied with the amount of salaries they receive from an organization but other benefits that the organization is able to offer them. In Kenya, the major employee incentives across organizations are free transport to and from work, free lunch and breakfast, team building activities. Fully paid vacations, paid seek leaves, company accommodation, among others. Rugenda, (2017) stated that retaining employees in an organization needs much beyond salaries and wages. Some organizations provide counseling programs for traumatized employees who tend to be non-productive as they are deemed to be. There are circumstances where employees decide to quit an organization for better opportunities. This study has not highlighted how incentives will override other factors such as management style which would cause an employee to quit an organization.
Wakoli, (2014) conducted a study of effects of employee incentives on employee performance in retail industry in Kenya. The study focused on incentives employees receives from their organizations such health insurance cover, seminar programs, housing projects, among other incentives. In his study he found out that the performance of employees in organizations that offer their employees incentives is very impressive compared with other organizations. There is high level of employee retention in organizations with handsome packages. Rotich, (2016) cited that employees that receive guaranteed incentives apart from their salaries will always do their level best to please their employers. In return they seem to stay longer with the organization with direct proportionality in their performance. Employee engagement is supposed to be observed on employee performance. However, the above study by Wakoli, (2014) focused majorly on how to retain employees in an organization. The study has not demonstrated how incentives will ensure employee engagement in the organization.
Shopping vouchers are another form of employees’ incentives. Millar, (2015) stated that firms that records outstanding financial performance always credit it to the effort of their employees. In return they reward their employees with various benefits among them shopping vouchers. Mwikali, (2017) stated that the practice of employees’ incentives is mostly found in organizations with solid strategic plans to retain highly effective employees. During the festive seasons firms reward their employees with shopping vouchers to enable them also see their worth in the organization. Mugenda, (2013) stated that a motivated employee is a highly productive employee. There are some organizations with very stressful work environment that shopping vouchers may not be a good substitute to ensure employee engagement. The study and citations on shopping vouchers has not addressed how they would ensure employee engagement in the organization. The study focused on how to appreciate the efforts of employees while not how their commitment towards the organization will be ensured.
2.3.3 Health insurance schemes
In Kenya today, there exists a universal health cover for all employees at all levels that is mandatory. However, there are organizations that provide their employees with extensive health insurance covers that bridge the gap that might be left by the national health insurance fund (NHIF). Suvillan, (2014) cited that employers offer health insurance package for their employees that not only include the medical cover but also disability cover. Okumbe, (2016) argues that health insurance cover is very important in an organization since health expenses are the major burdens most employees face. Employees would like to work for an organization that carter for their healthcare. Derrick, (2016) stated that employees major concern is the assurance of how their health issues would be taken care of by an organization. The intention of establishing health insurance program in an organization is to ensure their commitment to the course of their assignment.
Ng’etich, (2016) studied on the effects of health insurance benefits on retention of staff at the Kenya forest services. His study discovered that the work at Kenya forest service entails so many health risks which might be unpredictable. Availability of health insurance cover is a major boost to staff retention in this organization. The cited that when employee’s health issues is catered for they tend to concentrate on their jobs. Heshim, (2017) cited that health insurance cover in an organization with risky working environment is a major concern for many employees. Many employees want to operate with assurance that in the event of any risk occurring, their company will take care of it. The study by Ng’etich, (2016) does not offer alternatives for retaining and sustaining employees without health issues. The fact is that only small percentage of employees would face health concerns. Health insurance is among the employee welfare programs, therefore it is not enough to focus only on employees’ health issues with a view of ensuring their engagement.
Halima, (2018) conducted a study on the rise of health insurance schemes in Kenya and its effects on organization’s performance. The study focused on the insurance companies in Nairobi such as Kerinindia, Jubilee, APA, Britam and Kenya Re insurance companies. The study established that these insurance companies have partnerships with major companies in providing health insurance covers to their employees. She stated that organizations that embrace health insurance schemes attract highly productive staff since they would feel secure to work with such organizations. Graham, (2017) argues that most employees would like to work with organizations that can take care of their health issues and that of their dependents. According to Brumel, (2016) assurance is what drives many people to take risk in various endeavors of life. When staffs are assured of their health coverage benefits they tend to be motivated to work with commitment. The study did not address how healthy employees would be committed to their job in the companies they work for. The researcher did not point a clear relationship between health insurance programs and employee engagement.
Nekesa, (2016) studied on the emergence of health insurance covers among private companies in Kenya. The study focused on British American Tobacco Company limited. The study indicated that the work environment at the company is what led to the acquisition of health insurance cover for employees in the company. She narrates that health insurance package is a basic consideration by most applicants of jobs in private companies. According to her study, health insurance plans have emerged due to the rising cost of health services in most hospitals in the country. It is rather expensive to acquire individual health insurance cover. Companies thought it wise to aggregate health insurance plans for their employees to lower its cost for individual employees. Ngugi, (2015) stated that employees enjoy affordable health insurance plans by contributing little percentage of their salaries and wages towards the schemes. The study by Nekesa, (2016) did not however, expound on the relationship between health insurance program and employee engagement. Given that employee engagement is personal commitment of employees to their jobs it may not be possible to link health insurance covers with employee engagement.
Oluoko, (2017) studied on the role of health insurance programs on employee engagement at Nzoia sugar Kenya limited. The study adopted descriptive survey since the target population was concentrated in one area. The responses from the study indicated that health insurance programs are fundamental requirement for every organization. According to the study, sick leaves, time off from work, absenteeism and non-performance among employees reduces greatly when health insurance program is in place. Sadiki, (2014) argued that an individual health is very important in determining their productivity. Healthy staffs demonstrate high level of commitment to their work place compared to sickly staffs. Kibet, (2017) stated that it is the responsibility of an employer to ensure that his or her employees are in good health in order to maximize on their productivity. There are circumstances where health insurance program does not play a role in ensuring employee engagement. From the study by Oluoko, (2017) it is not clear how the organization can ensure employee engagement in the event health is not a concern.
2.3.4 Career development programs
Career development focuses on providing the analysis necessary to identify the individual interests, values, competencies, activities, and assignments needed to develop skills for future jobs. Cummins, (2014) cited that career development includes both individual and organizational activities. Individual activities include career planning, career awareness, and utilizing career resource centers. Organizational activities include job posting systems, mentoring systems, career resource center development and maintenance, using managers as career counselors, providing career development workshops and seminars, among others. Career development of an employee is very vital in ensuring their efficiency in their endeavors. Koech, (2016) stated that organizations which provide conducive environment for the personal growth of their employees tend to have large pool of highly effective employees.
Husein, (2016) studied the roles of career development programs on employee engagement at Safaricom company limited. The study adopted census method as the research design because of the distribution of the study population across Nairobi. According to Husein, (2016), organizational career development plans and programs are intended to match employees needs with the needs of the organization. An organization do create plans align to specific needs at various levels of operations. The ultimate goal of career development programs in an organization is to ensure retention of highly qualified staff that is made within the organization’s systems. Such employees seem to commit their selves to their job with the sense of belonging to that organization. The study did not however establish how employees taking career development for personal growth would be engaged in the organization. This is due to the fact that an employee can use the resources of the company to enrich their career only to quit later.
Derrick and Harrison, (2017) conducted a survey among mattress manufacturing firms in Kenya on the challenges facing career development programs. The study sampled majority of employees of these companies along Mombasa road such as Bobmill industries, Tafform, Vitaform and Superform. The findings revealed that key among the challenges are employee retention in the companies. They argued that most organizations that have challenges in retaining employees do have challenges in employee career development programs. It is usually expensive for organizations to lose well trained and skilled employees as new employees will cost organizations in recruitment, training, and assimilation costs. New employees have to be recruited, selected, oriented and trained. It is estimated that employee turnover costs an organization 1½ times the remunerations of the vacated position to be able to replace the employee. Career development programs therefore help organizations mitigate such loses as they have elevate employees sense of satisfaction within the organizations. However, the study did not establish how the companies can solve the problem of career development given that there are other means of career development such as on the job traning.
Winfred, (2015) studied on the determinants of career development programs among Oil marketing companies in Nairobi. The study focused on Regnon oil limited along likoni road as case of study. The determinants highlighted for the study were employee willingness to learn, availability of resources, staff appraisal programs among others. She noted that career development encompasses vertical issues such as promotions and upward mobility and also horizontal movement within the organization. Therefore, the factors highlighted for the study can be used as pointers to the success of adoption of career development programs in the organization. Careen, (2016) stated that career development deals with the fundamental nature of the relationship of individuals to their work and employees to their organizations. The study did not however mention employee engagement as the major determinant of career development program in an organization.
2.3.5 Employee engagement
Employee engagement refers to the commitment and loyalty of an employee to an organization. it can also be defined as the a property of the relation between the organizations with their employees. Amhalhal, (2015) described employee engagement as the intellectual as well as the emotional commitment to an organization by their employees in their jobs. Paolo, (2016) noted that employee engagement can be measured by how their work performance aligns with the outcome of the organization. Ariani, (2014) argued that employee engagement can be determined in three dimensions. That is, vigor, dedication and absorption. Employee engagement is driven by the kind of welfare program available for the employees in an organization.
Mithike, (2017) conducted a study on the impact of employee engagement on the performance of Pact company Nairobi. Her study used a correlational research design which aims to systematically investigate and explain the nature of the relationship between variables in the real world. She noted that lack of employee engagement lowers their competence in their job. Tuna, (2016) stated that when employees lack engagement in their jobs their productivity in the organization reduces and results in poor quality services. Kochola, (2014) stated that companies that are keen in providing quality services focus much of their attention on empowering their employees in order to boost their commitment to the organization. However, the study did not indicate how employee engagement affects the performance of the company.
Sandra, (2018) studied on the impacts of employee engagement on the performance of textile companies in Kenya. The study used descriptive survey to conduct the study and collected data using structured questionnaires. The effects identified for the study were customer satisfaction, high productivity and profitability. Achayo, (2017) stated that customer satisfaction is the main purpose for provision of goods and services in a company. When customers are satisfied the sales of the company tends to improve since they will always come back and refer their friends. Muite, (2013) argued that productivity in an organization is largely dependent on employee engagement. Loyal workers tend to commit all their time and skills on the production process therefore leading to production of quality goods or services. The study however, did not look beyond just customer satisfaction as the main goal for ensuring employee engagement. There is still the need to conduct the study other effects apart from customer satisfaction can affect company’s performance.
Athancha, (2016) studied on the effects of employee engagement on organization productivity. A correlation analysis was done to establish the relationship between the effects of employee engagement and the productivity of a firm. The study established a positive relationship between job satisfaction, low intension to quit and sense of value and organization productivity. Ayoti, (2015) argued that employee engagement is the main driver in establishing the productivity of an organization. She stated that high performing organizations have a pool of engaged employees as compared to struggling firms. Awuso, (2017) stated that it is the responsibility of a company to establish measures in place that will ensure their employees are dedicated to their assignments. However, the study did not provide for ways in which an organization can ensure employee engagement in order to achieve its operational objectives.
Coopler, (2013) studied on the challenges of employee engagement on the productivity of telecommunication companies in Kenya. The study used descriptive survey to identify key challenges of employee engagement. The findings reveals some of the challenges as lack of commitment by the organization to implement employee engagement measures, low motivation among employees and focus on customers and neglecting staff welfare. Mumbo, (2016) argued that if an organization is not keen on ensuring their employee engagement their level of productivity is likely to go down. Firms with engaged employees tend to perform better in their operations since employees invest all their time and effort to their jobs. Mirema, (2017) suggested that companies need to prioritize both their employees and their customers since their employees are their internal customers. The study focused on challenges of employee engagement on the productivity of the organization. However, the study did not reveal the required measures to combat the aforementioned challenges.
Ruganzi, (2017) studied on the effects of employee engagement on organization performance of African evangelistic enterprise in Rwanda. The study adopted descriptive design in establishing the effects of employee engagement among the staffs of African evangelistic enterprise. He intended to measure the level of employee commitment and the measures for employee engagement. He argued that the level of employee commitment has a direct effect on the performance of the organization. Salim, (2018) stated that when employees commit their level best in performing their duties it results in quality provision of services. Tewani, (2017) posits that measures by an organization to ensure employee commitment should be part of the strategic plans of the company. Nyaga, (2016) stated that employee engagement on the organization performance cannot be overrated. He emphasized that commitment of employees to their assignment is the greatest determinant of the quality of products or services an organization can produce. The study, however, failed to establish the key effects on employee engagement on the performance of the organization.
2.4 Conceptual framework
Swaen, (2015) defined conceptual framework as an illustration of relationships between independent and dependent variables of the study. The independent variables will include retirement benefits programs, incentives programs, health insurance programs and career development programs. The dependent variable was employee engagement. The conceptual framework was as presented in the figure 2.1.
Figure 2.1 Conceptual framework
Independent variables Dependent variable
Effects of employee welfare programs Employee engagement
Figure 2.1 Conceptual framework
2.4.1 Retirement benefit programs
Commitment of an organization to provide retirement benefit program to their employees assures them of their financial future. Retirement benefit programs are programs by an organization to help its employees save for future in the event they retire from employment. Gitau, (2017) noted retirement benefits program enables individual a sense of financial future. The study sought to find out how retirement benefit program affects employee engagement in the organization.
2.4.2 Employee incentives
Employee incentives are non-financial benefits that an employee is entitled to in an organization he or she is working for. The aim of employee incentives is to attract the loyalty and commitment of employees to their work. Koech, (2014) stated that when employees get recognized for their efforts in the organization they tend to be more focused on their jobs and less concerned with personal ambitions. The study sought to establish the effects of employee incentives on employee engagement.
2.4.3 Health insurance program
Health insurance program is an initiative by an organization to take care of health and well-being of its employees. When employees are assured of their health concern by the organization they tend to put more effort on performance of their duties. Theuri, (2016) argued that healthy employees results into committed and strong workforce. The study sought to determine the effects of health insurance program on employee engagement.
2.4.4 Career development program
Career development programs are personalized strategies used to assist employees in achieving their career goals. Most established organizations have wide range of career development programs such as subsidized tuitions, on job training, seminars and fully funded scholarships. Husein, (2016) narrated that organizations’ career development program intends to match employee skills with organizations objectives. This study sought to establish the effects of career development on employee engagement.
2.4.5 Employee engagement
Employee engagement is the commitment of employee to their job due to the working conditions that motivate their engagement with the organization. Organizations try different measures to ensure engagement of their employees. Mumbo, (2016) stated that organizations should ensure high levels of employee engagement in order to maintain its productivity. Employees are the most essential assets of an organization therefore their welfare must be the priority of the organization. This study sought to establish the effects of employee welfare programs on employee engagement.
2.5 Summary of the research gap
Welfare programs are broad in nature. From the empirical studies on retirement benefit, employee incentives, health insurance and career development programs is evident that welfare programs are really necessary. Most of the empirical studies focus on the effects of specific welfare programs on employee engagement. These welfare programs are mostly focused on improving organization’s performance where they are applicable. The studies indicate that employee welfare programs are intended to affect organization performance and productivity.
The empirical studies do not relate the employee welfare programs with employee engagement. Researchers such as Mithike, (2017), Winfred, (2015), and Juegen, (2016) have not clearly established relationship between effects of welfare programs and employee engagement. Their studies are focused mostly on organizations but not on employee engagement. The previous studies were supposed to address how welfare programs would affect employees’ engagement in an organization. Therefore, this study seeks to fill the research gap left by other researchers. The study sought to establish the effects of employee welfare programs on employee engagement at the Nairobi remand and allocation prison.
This chapter sought to address the methodology aspect of the study. It included aspects such as research design, target population, sample size and design, research instruments, data collection techniques, validity and reliability of the research, and data analysis. The chapter explains how population of the study was determined using sampling frame. It also describes the data collection procedures to be used, how the data was analyzed, testing of research instruments and presentation of research findings.
3.2 Research design
The research design is the structure or approach of the research and a kind of glue that holds the entire required element in the research thesis together and gives a concrete report to the researcher (Kilonzo, 2014). Research design is the outline, plan or scheme that is being used to generate answers to the research problem. It is basically the plan and structure of investigation.
Descriptive survey research design was adopted for this study. Mugo, (2017) cited that descriptive research design is a scientific method of investigation in which data is collected and analyzed in order to describe the current conditions, terms or relationships concerning a in a certain specific field Problem.
3.3 Population of the study
Study population refers to all sets of elements of the study that has common characteristics from which the study is focused. Nairobi remand and allocation prison is the center of this study with a staff population of over 800 employees. Out of the 800 employees 150 was taken as the target population of the study. According to Mugenda and Mugenda (2013), target population is group, individual, objects or items from which samples are taken measurement in research. The study targeted the human resource department employees, administration department, public relations department and operations department. The target population is indicated as in the table below
Table 3.1 Target population
|Human resource department||50||33.3|
|Public relations department||30||20|
3.4 Sample and Sample techniques
3.4.1 Sample frame
Sampling is the process by which a relatively small number of individual, object or event is selected and analyzed in order to find out something about the entire population from which was selected. A sample frame is a small proportion of targeted population selected using some systematic form. Calisto, (2012) cited that sample frame is the proportion of the target population obtained from a heterogeneous population. The sample frame for this study were respondents from human resource, public relations, administrations and operations departments
3.4.2 Sampling technique
The research used stratified random sampling because it enables representation of each department under study, that is, administration department, human resource department, operations department and public relations department. To derive the sample population for the study Taro Yamane’s formula is used. That is,
n = sample size
N = Population size
By using Yamane’s formula of sample size with an error 5% and with a confidence coefficient of 95% Yamane (1967), the calculation from a population of 150, has come up with 109 as total sample size. The table below indicates the sample size distribution
Table 3.2 Sample size
|Department||Target population||Sample size|
|Human resource department||50||35|
|Public relations department||30||22|
Source: Research 2020
3.5 Data collection and instruments
This research employed both primary and secondary methods of data collection.
3.5.1 Research instruments
For primary data, questionnaires, which are structured was administered to selected respondents. The study used structured questionnaires which are simple to understand by the respondents. Mugenda, (2013) stated that structured questionnaires enable respondents to choose from variety of options that enable them offer sound judgment of the research questions. Respondents were able to simply relate the questionnaires with their daily work environment. Secondary data, human resource records of the organization was used. Secondary data helped validate the reliability of the data collected from the respondents.
3.5.2 Data collection procedure
A letter of permission was obtained from the school management and delivered to the research site. The purpose of the letter is to inform the organization of the intention to carry out research study at their place. After the approval by the organization management a set of questionnaires were sent to them. The questionnaires were hand-delivered to the respondents and collected after a period of one week. The researcher used drop and pick method in data collection due to time constraints. The respondents were given ample time to analyze and fill the questionnaires with certainty. One member of the management team was tasked with the responsibility of collecting all the duly filled questionnaires. The researcher came back after the agreed period elapsed to collect all the filled questionnaires. The data obtained was then be tabled to await analysis.
For secondary data the research gave prior notice to the human resource department to prepare any document that might be useful for the study. The secondary data was collected alongside the questionnaires which are the primary data.
3.6 Validity and reliability of the instruments
According to (Mugo, 2017) validity is the accuracy and meaningfulness of inferences, which is based on the research results. It is a degree to which results obtained from the analysis of the data actually represents the phenomenon under study. The research supervisor assessed the research instruments and advice on their validity for this study. The main instrument whose validity was tested was questionnaires. The questionnaires were subjected to scrutiny by researcher’s supervisor and other research experts’ for validation purposes.
Reliability on the other hand refers to the stability of findings of the study. It concerns the extent to which a measurement of a phenomenon provides stable and consistent result. The study obtained already existing data from the organization to measure the reliability of the research instruments. Kothari, (2014) noted that reliability of the study is very vital in providing accurate data for the study. The authenticity of the research instruments can only be ratified using reliability tests. However, for accurate reliability test Cronbach Alpha coefficient was used to measure the reliability of the study. The researcher listed all the valid data and excluded data. They were then run through the SPSS software to determine the reliability.
3.7 Data analysis and presentation
The use of closed-end and open-end questionnaires contributed towards gathering of both quantitative and qualitative data. Descriptive statistics method was applied to analyze quantitative data where data scored by calculating the percentages, mean’ STD deviation and Variance. The correlation analysis was used, to establish with statistical significance, the nature of the existing relationship between the dependent variable and the independent variables. The regression analysis was used to determine with statistical significance, the influence or effect that the independent variables had in the dependent variable. The multiple regression models were of the form: Y= β0 + βX1 +ΒX2 +ΒX3 +ΒX4 +e
β0 = Constant
Y= Effects of employee welfare programs on employee engagement
X1= Retirement benefit schemes
X2= Employee incentives
X3= Health insurance plan
X4= Career development plan
β i = Coefficients of regression for the independent variables Xi (for i = 1,2,3,)
- = error term
Qualitative data drawn from open-ended question in the questionnaire and interview guide was be analyzed through summarizing the set of observations drawn from the respondents in frequency tables.
Data presentation was done on charts and graphs after the analysis of the research findings. The purpose of data presentation was to enable research reporting in a diagrammatical way to give at a glance summary of the research findings. The use of bar charts, pie charts and graphs was appropriate for this research study.
Ethical issues are the guiding principles that dictate how a research study should be conducted. It is also defined as a method, procedure or perspective for deciding how to act and for analyzing complex problems and issues. The following were the ethical issues of the study; Research participants were be subjected to harm in any way to whatsoever. Respect for the dignity of research participants was prioritized, full consent was obtained from the participants prior to the study, and protection of their privacy was ensured. There was adequate level of confidentiality of the research data and the anonymity of individuals participating in the research. The study was void of fraud and fabrication of data which might compromise the reliability of the study. The respondents were admonished to give only reliable information that is free from deception to ensure the accuracy of the data obtained.
APENDIX I: RESEARCH LETTER
APENDIX II: RESEARCH PERMIT
APENDIX III: QUESTIONNAIRE
I am Cecily N. Ongwae pursuing a professional certification in human resource management at the college of human resource management. I am currently carrying out a study on the effects of employee welfare programs on employee engagement in correctional facilities in Kenya. I have chosen your organization as my research base. I am kindly requesting you to answer the following question to the best of your knowledge. The information you provide will be treated with confidence and will only be used for academic purpose. Kindly complete these questions as honestly as possible. Please respond to all questions by ticking the most appropriate response.
SECTION I: GENERAL INFORMATION
- Male [ ]
- Female [ ]
- Age of the respondents
26-30 ( )
31-35 ( )
36-40 ( )
41-45 ( )
46 and above ( )
- Which part of the management team do you belong?
- a) Top management ( )
- b) Human resource department ( )
- c) Lower level management ( )
- d) Any other (please specify)………………………………………………….
4.What your highest education level?
- a) Diploma ( )
- b) Degree ( )
- c) Master’s degree ( )
- d) PhD ( )
Any other (please specify)……………………..
- How long have you been in this organization?
- a) 5 years and below ( )
- b) 5 – 10 years ( )
- c) 10 – 15 years ( )
- d) 15 – 20 years ( )
- e) 20 years and above ( )
SECTION II: INFORMATION ON THE EFFECTS OF EMPLOYEE WELFARE PROGRAM
- RETIREMENT BENEFIT PROGRAMS
Retirement benefit programs are planned contributions by employees and employers of an organization into the future benefit of an employee. Using a scale of 1 – 5 select in your best opinion to what extent does the following statements affects employee engagement. Whereas; 1=Strongly disagree, 2= disagree, 3= Not sure, 4= agree and 5= strongly agree.
|1||The clarity of one’s financial future will commit their loyalty to work|
|2||The pension contributions can ease the strain of saving among employee thereby influencing their focus on their job|
|3||Safety of financial goals can motivate the employees to engage passionately on their job|
|4||The benefits can boost productivity among employees hence distinguishing the organization from their competitors|
|5||Retirement benefits enhances employee’s satisfaction by lifting their self-esteem and positive attitude towards work|
|6||Availability of retirement benefit scheme in an organization can result into high level of employee retention and low turn over|
- EMPLOYEE INCENTIVES
Employee incentives describe a system of rewarding employees for their efforts and achievements in the organization through financial and non-financial means. The incentives are meant to boost their morale in the work place. Using a scale of 1 – 5 select in your best opinion to what extent does the following statements affects employee engagement. Whereas 1=Strongly disagree, 2= disagree, 3= Not sure, 4= agree and 5= strongly agree.
|1||Employee incentives reduces the rate of employee turnover in an organization by creating a sense of contentment amongst them|
|2||There will lower intentions to quit among employees due to structured incentives|
|3||Incentives help employees to save on cost of leisure that would otherwise cost them their salaries|
|4||Incentives help organizations to get the best out of their employees therefore positively affecting productivity|
|5||Incentives as reward for employee’s effort reduce their plans to quit the organization even if they have reasons to quit.|
|6||The productivity of the organization depends on the engagement of their employees, therefore, incentives are best tools of attracting productivity|
- HEALTH INSURANCE PLAN
Health insurance plan is a system within an organization that pays for the medical, surgical or dental bills of employees by the employer. Health is a critical requirement for effective performance of an employee. Using a scale of 1 – 5 select in your best opinion to what extent does the following statements affects employee engagement. Whereas 1=Strongly disagree, 2= disagree, 3= Not sure, 4= agree and 5= strongly agree.
|1||Health insurance program will enable the organization to attract and retained highly skilled employees|
|2||There will be a pool of healthy staffs thanks to the availability of health insurance program in the organization.|
|3||Health insurance program enables employers to attract and retain skilled workers that influence their productivity|
|4||Health insurance increases operational efficiency since all employees are properly engaged in their work with a sense of assurance|
|5||Employer based health insurance is more acceptable by employees compared to other plans due to its reliability|
|6||Medical insurance distinguish an organization from others since highly skilled personnel get attracted to it hence its unique performance|
- CAREER DEVELOPMENT PLAN
Career development plan is a personalized road map set by an organization to help its employees achieve their career goals. The plan helps the organization to realized growth and productivity through acquisition of more skills by its employees. Using a scale of 1 – 5 select in your best opinion to what extent does the following statements affects employee engagement. Whereas 1=Strongly disagree, 2= disagree, 3= Not sure, 4= agree and 5= strongly agree.
|1||Career development program can instill a sense of belonging among employees of the organization.|
|2||Career development program promotes personal growth among employees of the organization since there is privilege of accessing additional training.|
|3||Career development opportunities cause employees to be loyal to the organization since they see the effort of investing into their growth|
|4||Career development can address staffing issues in an organization since the best skills can be made from within the organization|
|5||Career development can be a good strategy in succession planning for an organization from one level to another|
|6||Career development enables personal alignment with the organization’s policies and value hence growth in performance.|
- EMPLOYEE ENGAGEMENT
Employee engagement is the display by employees of their passion and commitment towards their job and the objectives of the organization. Welfare programs are meant to provoke employee engagement. Using a scale of 1 – 5 select in your best opinion to what extent does the following statements affects employee engagement. Whereas 1= Strongly disagree, 2= disagree, 3= no idea, 4= agree and 5= strongly disagree.
|1||Productivity of an organization is key sign of employee engagement since only committed staffs can do their best to the organization|
|2||Employee engagement can be evident when there is little need to supervise staff to perform their duties|
|3||The level of loyalty in an employee is as a result of his or her engagement on the operations of the organization.|
|4||Employee engagement reduces the instances of dispute resolution among employees in an organization.|
|5||Employee engagement translates to customer satisfaction through effective customer engagement|
|6||Problem solving ability of employees can be enhanced when they are committed to their work|
APENDIX IV: RESERCH BUDGET
Project title: Effects of employee welfare program on employee engagement at the correctional facilities in Kenya
Research period: 30 days
|Data collection||Personnel to distribute the questionnaires||1 day||500|
|Travel costs||Movement to the research site||Two weeks of data collection||600|
|Materials||Files, envelopes, pens and staplers||Will be used for 20 days||200|
|Dissemination costs||Stipends for the participants in the study||Three weeks of study||3000|
|Data analyst||Will table, analyze and present the findings||1 week||2500|
|Cyber expenses||Editing, proof reading, printing and binding||1 day||1500|
Source: Research (2020)
APENDIX V: RESEARCH SCHEDULE
|Activity||Week 1||Week 2||Week 3||Week 4||Week 5||Week 6||Week 7||Week 8|
|Identify research topic|
|Exploring source of research|
|Writing research proposal|
|Tabling of findings|
|Printing and binding|
|Submitting the research report|