Effects of African American Males with College Choice

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

Education is considered as one of the ways that can bridge the gap that exist between the rich and the poor. The performance of the student in higher education is determined by different factors. Some of these factors include the choice of the college parent support, self-motivation to pursue university education and environmental condition within the learning institution among other factors. The choice that the student take while selecting the institution which one pursue has various consequences. Many institutions have implemented specific components such as college prep courses, test pre workshops, and host workshops to assist the students in completing financial aid application and forms. Although these workshops are necessary, they are not fully effective in assisting the African American males’ students in making an informed college choice. The effects of choice have both positive and negative effects. Various researches have indicated that some student choose some institutions as a result of peer pressure. There are many factors that students consider when selecting a university. Research indicate that some student end up changing the institution and career after joining university education. According to the recent research, student   change their made due to change of perception which may have been influences by outside forces such as peer pressure.

This research proposal will investigate the effect of African American males with college choice. The survey will focus on student from Harris Stowe University, Webster University and Jennings senior high school. The survey uses qualitative methods of research. After the data is collected through use of questionnaire and personal interview, the analysis will be done to determine if the student choice of pursuing university education has any impact on African American students. This survey focus only on African American male students who are aspiring to join higher education, the students in their first year in higher learning and the students who are on the last years of their high school. The survey will also include leaders of the high education and heads of the selected institutions.

EFFECTS OF AFRICAN AMERICAN MALES WITH COLLEGE CHOICE

Introduction

 

Pursuing a degree in the recent years has been considered as one of the primary solution of reducing the levels of poverty. Education is considered as one of the ways that can bridge the gap that exist between the rich and the poor. The characteristics of labor market are changing every day due to the globalization of the economy. A research done in 2019 estimated that by the end of fiscal year 2020, two thirds of the job vacancies will require college experience (Rhonda T., 2015). The research done by Accenture, Grads of Life (2017) indicated that about 30 percent of the vacancies will require candidates who have a college degree and about thirty six percent of the job seekers will have at least an associate degree or a college certificate to acquire a job position. Irrespective of the existing pressure, several African American young male graduates in high school when not prepared for fully to join college education. As the population in the united states change, majority of the nation students consider color when joining high education among other factors research done by Accenture, Grads of Life (2017) indicated that the failure of the African American students and in adequate preparation for the post-secondary opportunities have a significant impact on the American labor market and the economy  in general.

One of the major focuses of the education reform movement is college and career readiness for the high school students. The biggest challenge that is hindering the attainment of the goal is the existing grave disparity related to preparation of student due to differences in ethnic and racial groups in the United States. Precisely, the probability of the African American students being ready to join college is nugatory with those with the students in the poverty schools being the least prepared (ACT, 2013). There are various discussions that exist in regard to the some of the reasons that influence the African American student enrollment. Some of the discussions are centered on the deficiencies of the students, communities and the family financial status. In addition some discussions have indicated that lack of academic excellence for the African American students is also contributed by the cultural and environmental differences which affect the performance of the students (Rhonda T. 2015). The statement released by the United States department of education office of civil right (2014) indicated that there is a significant disparity in high schools especially in three key areas which can be considered critical in regard to readiness.  The three critical areas identified are the level of the course work available in different schools, the teachers experience levels and the availability of the guidance and counselors in the schools (Rhonda T., 2015).

There is a disconnection between African American students and the colleges and universities where they could potentially enroll. Enrollment trends for these students present both a challenge and an opportunity for universities across the country to develop specific recruitment strategies to attract more African American youth interested in continuing their academic careers at post-secondary educational institutions (PEIS). Post-secondary institutions across the country have implemented programs and recruitment strategies aimed specifically at increasing the participation of minority youth. However, these activities have not always been based on empirical research in the selection process for colleges.

Throughout America, many institutions of higher learning recognize the importance of recruiting students from various diverse backgrounds. These institutions have adopted various strategies to engage prospective students who reflect the diversity in American society. According to the U. S. Department of Education’s Office of Planning, Evaluation and Policy Development, enrollment of Asian-Americans, Latinos, and African Americans in higher education has increased; however, the increase has not been in proportion to the increase of these groups in the general population of the United States (Dept. of Education, 2016). Many institutions in America have implemented recruitment strategies aimed to increase their minority enrollment (Dept. of Education, 2016). The strategies have to be effective specifically when recruiting African American males. The institutions and the strategies implemented will require an understanding of not only the college choice process, but also students’ mindset towards the institution. There has been limited research conducted to determine the impact in what factors influence African American male students on their college choice.

Many institutions have implemented specific components such as college prep courses, test pre workshops, and host workshops to assist the students in completing financial aid application and forms. Although these workshops are necessary, they are not fully effective in assisting the African American males’ students in making an informed college choice.

 

Context of the problem (rationale for the study)

Rationale for college choices is varied, such as the influences of family and relatives, high school teachers and counselors, friends, and demographic influences. African American males today learn to navigate through a great number of challenges on their way to enrolling in the college of their choice. How informed a choice varies greatly; and the effects of college choice can also change the outcome and career trajectory in the life of a student.

Relevance to higher education leaders

This study has relevance to both practice and future higher education research on the factors that determine how African American males decided to choose school after graduating from high school. The research collected thus far in this study will be beneficial to student affairs leaders in the office of Admissions, Student Affairs, African American high school students, and parents of the African Americans males in school.

Admission counselors in colleges and universities may benefit from the information collected in the study. African American male students who are involved in the college choice search processes may find the information given in the research helpful by learning which factors influenced African American students to pursue an education at a PWI or an HBI. The results of this study may provide the students with more information to assist them in their decisions.

Parents of African American male students will be able to use the results of this study by summarizing the data, and parents will be able to develop an understanding of how important the college environment is when students select a specific institution. Using the results of the study can lead parents to gain insight and confidence in their ability to assist their children in the selection process.

 

Problem Statement

Based on the formation of their knowledge leading to their decision-making, African American students may not be aware of choices on the different types of institutions (e.g. community colleges, liberal arts institutions, trade, and research institutions) or beyond the limits of a small geographic area near where they grew up. The study will look at educational, societal, and familial factors that influence the process of choosing a college for African American male students and will play an important role in future college choice research for African Americans.

Research question(s)

The aim of this study was to describe factors that influence African American males’ student on their choice of college. The study focused on significant people, fixed college characteristics, college efforts to communicate with students on psychological / social barriers and student occupational expectations as indicators of final college choice.

Assumptions

The following assumptions apply to this study:

  1. Factors such as student characteristics and external influences, including family/self-influences, psychological/social barriers, as well as student’s predisposition at various stages of the student’s high school development are basis for final college choice.
  2. Significant people in a student’s life have influence in his/her college choice.
  3. Students of the study were capable of recalling the recruitment activities in which they had participated.
  4. The students had received mailed publications from Admissions Office or Colleges Departments prior to making their final college choice.
  5. The opinions of the participants reflect their perception of recruitment activities attended.
  6. The students in this study were representative of the African American first-time college students enrolled in college.

Purpose for the study

After the civil right legislation was passed in the United States in 1964 education system has recorded a significant number of African Americans who have pursued higher education. In the past years, there is evidence that has been increasing trend of African Americans joining higher education to pursue different degrees. For instance records indicate that in 1970 about 15 percent of the African Americans constituted the number of the student who enrolled in four year degree programs in various universities. History also shows that by 1980 the number of the African Americans who enrolled for higher education had arisen from 19.4 percent to 25 percent in 1990’s. In 2000 the enrollment figure increased to 30.5 percent. By 2010 the number had increased to 38.4 percent (United States Department of education). Research has indicated that in the fall of the year 2018 there were about 291770 students who enrolled at the nation HBCU which makes about 76.5 percent of the total enrollment at the HBCUs in 2018. This is an ideation that more African Americans are getting the idea that higher education can transform he life of blacks significantly. However the records indicate that there are more females who enroll for higher education than the males.

This research will basically focus on the effects African American males with college choice. There are various reasons why the African American choice the colleges and the universities which they join to pursue higher education.  The research will investigate some of the challenges that determine the student choice and some of the factors that African American student consider when making application of the universities they choice. The choice that the student make when selecting the type of college or university have an impact on the course and the performance of the student. It is because the performance is dependent on the quality of education offered by the teachers.  University with high qualified teachers performs better than other colleges that have average teachers.

 

 

Hypothesis

Null hypothesis

The college choice made by African American student has insignificant effects on student life and the student performance.

 

Alternative hypothesis

The college choice made by African American student has insignificant effects on student life and the student performance.

 

 

Conceptual/Theoretical Framework

The Hossler and the state model will be used as the models that will be guide for the conceptual framework. The variables to be investigated will be operationalized differently. In addition, the investigated variables will be added on the basis of the existing literature which provides the significance of financial support on students, support from the teachers and counselors, peers influence of decision making and individual motivation among other factors listed. The family and relative support will incorporate all the variables related to the mother encouragement, involvement of the family, financial support and availability of resources. The financial support will be included because the existing literature indicates that the financial support from the parents and relatives play a significant role on the choice of the university that one takes. As indicated earlier, financial aid affects the student education aspiration specifically the case of minority students. Research indicated that obtaining the financial assistance is a barrier for the student that live in the urban areas. It is because such students have limited information about the process of obtaining such aid.

The framework of the school dimension will include the involvement of the school, the environment within the school, performance in terms of academics, and the student support in school. A research conducted by Hossler and stage indicated that the support from the teachers had insignificant influence predisposition phase. However, the research also found that the millennial generation and the African Americans scholars consider this aid from a different point of view.

LITERATURE REVIEW

There are several theoretical models that explain different factors that affect the matriculation of students into different colleges. Every theoretical approach describes the student’s process of selecting a college and some of the factors that contribute to the decision made by the student. There are three models that help in explaining the factors that influence the student choice. These models are economic models, sociological and the combined models (Burns, 2007). In order to have a deeper understanding through published literatures related to African American male ability to persevere and continue in the community college, it is critical to carry out a survey to investigate some of the factors that affect the student decision and some of the barriers that hinder the student choices. Prior to consideration of both intrinsic and extrinsic measures will give a clue to the basic solution existing problem. Harris (2015) indicates that there are complex barriers which have impact and prevent African American students from completing higher education.  His publication indicates that factors such as disconnection in the learning environment affect the success of African American male student due to the existing beliefs about success and completion obligation. More emphasis has been laid down by various researchers in regard to investigation of some of the factors that hider African American male student enrollment in the university. Among the factors identified include inadequate diverse mentors, and existence of nonexclusive environment for learning (Goings 2016 and Brooms & Davis, 2017).

Wesley and Ellis, (2017) indicate that some of the challenges that affect the success of students sometimes originate from the childhood. According to Wesley and Ellis (2017), there is an association between the student first classroom experiences and poor education and outcome of the student during adulthood. Due to this reason, it is important to ensure that there is limitation of barriers in the community colleges. This can be possible through identification of organizational support that will facilitate student ability of persisting challenges and achieve a college degree (Allen & White Smith, 2015).

A publication by Davis (2014) indicate that African American male student enroll to higher education with the objective of setting and strengthening financial and educational agility. Also, their aim of joining college education is to ensure that there is improved employability, develop career and transfer college options. High education provides local, inclusive, open access, low cost opportunity, affluence and heritage to students (Harper & Wood, 2016). African American students join university education in order to have some of the benefits listed above. An article publicized by (Schreiner, L. A., Noel, P., & Cantwell, L., 2011). Indicates that community colleges have been called due to the belief that there are limited opportunities and the success of students is subject to persistence. A research done by  Tolliver & Miller, (2018)  indicate that African American students consist of a significant population and they are reflection of the groups that have struggle in succeeding in attainment of higher education such as degree.  In a survey to find some of the experiences that African American student have in higher education Harris and Wood (2014) found that the late 1990 marked the rise of post-secondary education studies that have relation to men of color. To date, there little has been explored in regard to factor and some of the experiences that African American male students have after completion of secondary education.

Historical education context of African American

In the early days, the African American was enjoying limited opportunities for higher education. It was because most of the African American was oppressed by the institution of slavery.in the early days most of the education opportunities depended on the geographical location. For instance, the private schools which were started in New York were adult based and they were purposely for American Indians. Other schools were established in Philadelphia (Gates, 2011). The African Americans were however not allowed to attend the schools due to force laws. The force laws were not allowed to learn to read and write.   The slavery was later outlawed by the post-civil war enactment. The amendment number thirteen of the United States constitution allowed the African American to read and write.

In 1954, the school segregation was overturned in the United States by the court decided to allow for “separate but equal” treatment of racial groups. In addition to this, in 1964 the federal civil right act eroded the underpinning of the segregation. The federal civil right demanded that there should be no discrimination in education funding in terms of race, sex, national origin    and color. Closing of the segregated schools in the United States led to deprivation of critical role models. It led to loss of many jobs by the African American teachers. Despite the impact, there was significant in development of education system. A research done by Nachazel and Dziuzel, (2014) indicated that there is substantial progress in education for the African Americans.

Higher education for African Americans

Recent literatures indicate that there is significant improvement in African American education. Duster (2014) indicates the African American have experienced an improvement in the recent years. Irrespective of the increasing number of African American enrollment, the number of African American who enrolls for higher education is lower than other racial and ethnic groups (U.S Department of Education 2014). A research done by Nachazel et al (2013) indicated that the African Americans aged between 25-29 years who acquired bachelor degree or higher increased from 13 percent to twenty three percent from 1990 to 2012. This is contrary to the other ethnic group. The number of whites who attained a degree or higher increased from 26 percent to 40 percent within the same duration. This is an indication that still there are more whites who enroll for higher education studies than the African Americans. Research indicates that most of the African American people have motivation and are qualified to attend college. However, there they face various challenges in achieving their goal. Another factor that affects the African American college enrollment is the gender disparity. Despite the existence of disparity across various cultures, the difference in the enrollment the existing is at large due to the population of blacks in the population. A research done by Kim and Hargrove (2013) indicate that the number of black females is more than the males; this is the reason for larger enrollment of female African American students. Various researchers in their research have moved away from the deficit approach and preoccupation with some of the aspects which have caused underachievement of African American. Most of the researchers have carried survey on black male students who succeed in higher education level (Angeline S., 2016). Education is generally the gateway to success (Angeline S., 2016). In order to increase the number of African American who enrolls for college and tertiary education, it is important that the united states policy makers and educators to have some knowledge on some of the issues that hinder enrollment of African American student in the universities (Angeline S., 2016).

Relevance of higher education for the African Americans and communities

Different scholar has argued that education is a catalyst to positive impact (Angeline S., 2016). A community with educated people does not benefit the elites but also the community in general. Education confers the educated people capacity to rise above the challenging situations. With education people are capable to cope with various challenges which involve both material and those negative situations related to personal development (Angeline S., 2016). Brooms 2014 indicated that “Education has proven to be a great elevator for Blacks; in fact, education has a transformative power that liberates us from our former selves and allows us to create ourselves anew” (Brooms, 2014). Education has contributed significantly on the individual ability to achieve financial goals among the African American people. Therefore, the greater the number of educated peoples in the African American community the higher the possibilities of development of African American communities. A study conducted to investigate the value that African American student put on the academic achievement and the people who created influence of pursuing indicated that most of the African Americans consider education as a pillar for success (Angeline S., 2016).

Positive Schooling Environment

Access of college education depends on the quality of K 12 education through which the students get exposed to. The quality of education that the African American student gets has a positive association with the teachers (Angeline S., 2016). A research conducted by Travis and Leech (2013) indicated that there is a necessity for student to feel secure over the learning environment. When there security on the learning environment, students has a sense of belonging because they gain a belief that they have ability of achieving more in life (Angeline S., 2016). A research done on academic resiliency indicated that school environment removes negative traits of the students which contribute significantly to student aspirations and also helps in improving student confident about their capabilities. Therefore it academic environment is paramount for the African American males who are underrepresented in the learning institution (Broom, 2014). A survey conducted by Broom (2014) to investigate the affirmative identities on the African Americans indicated that the success of the African American individuals depends on the academic and social support gained in the setting of the school. The research also found that the success of African American student is achievable when their presence is encouraged by the community (Brooms, 2014).

The necessity for qualified teachers with high expectations

The research done by Pitre (2014) indicates that qualified teachers have a significant contribution to the student’s success. Pitre (2014) survey also found that better education cannot be acquired without high quality teachers. The survey indicates that high quality teaching includes high student’s expectations, engagement of the students in the classroom environment and helping the student to understand materials being taught and how the content taught in class have connection to the future live. Angeline S., (2016) also found that expectations of the teachers contribute to the performance of the students. Effective instructors are supporters of pro social mentorship and they are also role models for the student attitude and behavior which are important in regard to mastery of important skills of life (Angeline S., 2016). The association that is made by the teachers in regard to education and its importance in life helps in shaping students moral identity. When the teachers take a role of encouraging the students about pursuing higher education, they usually send an alarm to the student that that high education has positive effects which are a motivation to students. For African American to enroll for the higher education, one of the prerequisite is performing well in their high school levels. The performance in the high school levels helps the students in gaining confidence of their abilities. A study done by Fergus et al (2014) indicated that teachers contributed significantly on the student expectation of going to college and other higher levels of education. Teachers play a role of guiding students how to make applications for college educations and they offer the students some of the requirement for joining higher levels to pursue certain courses. In addition, teachers give the students information about the importance of pursuing some courses. Such information helps in giving the students a future target. Such targets give the students morale to work even harder to achieve the set target (Angeline S., 2016).

The influence of counselor

African Americans face various challenges while pursuing education. In the high school settings, presence of student’s counselors plays critical roles. Among many reasons, they offer students with information about higher education and also help during application of college. Counselors play a critical role in assisting the students and families in preparation of the transition from high school level to college life. They do so through giving the students and parent information about cultural changes and expectations of the college environment (Angeline S., 2016). Such information helps both parents to prepare and have a clear understanding of the reason for supporting their children emotionally as well as offering financial support during college life.

Contribution of Family Support in facilitating increased high education enrollment

Student support by their family is one of the most critical things in high education. Parent attendance of school meetings and participation in school activities contribute to the performance of the school (Angeline S., 2016). Parent who attend school meeting and who participate in school activities that require presence of the parent get information regarding some of the resources that the student need and are lacking the school. According to Angeline S., (2016), the parents’ high school expectations of their kids create a system of lasting perceptions and values. These perceptions and values play a key role in the performance of the school.

The environment created by the parents also among the key components that influence performance of the students in high school and colleges. A research done to investigate the relationship between the performance of the student and the parental involvement indicated that there is a positive association between the two variables (Morales, 2010). A study done by Williams and Bryan (2013) to study some of the factors that contribute to students resiliency among the African American found that the expectations regarding performance in high school levels was a source of motivation to joining high education. The study also indicated that the expectations of the parent on their children performance had insignificant contribution on the success of their children.

A research conducted by Williams and Bryan (2013) to investigate the contribution of extended members of the family support indicated that, member of the extended family also contributed significantly to the success of the student. The extended family network has positive effects on the student education experience because they play a role of acting as the student role models. They also play a key role in offering support to the student, offer moral support, and they give additional information about college. They also play a critical role of supervision of students in their school live (Williums & Bryan, 2013)

Influence of peers

Young students in their adolescence stage starts to develop autonomy from their parents. In most situations they imitate their peers and look for support and guidance from different people. According to the literature by Holland (2011), peer influence extends to making decisions especially in decisions regarding education. Theories that exist regarding African American students sabotage the education progress of the African American in the attempt to stay within the peer group. Various surveys have indicated that peers play a critical role and supportive role in academic experiences of the students who are African Americans (Angeline S., 2016). In a survey Conducted by Holland (2011), the encouragement from peers in pursuing higher education has a great significance in the life of high school students. Some of the encouragement that high school students may have from peers includes recommendation that attendance of college is important, giving advises on visiting colleges and offering insights regarding whether college admission offers should be rejected or accepted.

A study conducted by Fergus et al (2014) indicated that the development of strong, supportive peer networks offer countering some of the influences of the street culture and cultivate the believe that academic achievement is possible through communication about pervasive message that all students are expected to join college after high school.

Automatic college attendance expectations within the family

Another factor that plays a great role in the student choice is the expectation of the family. Research that has been done indicate that some student make choice of joining a certain university or college due to family expectation. Research indicate that there is likelihood that the students whose parents and guardians were college graduates may influence their sons to join college education. Studies that have been done by theorists found that the choice of joining a certain college is mainly determines by social economic factors. In their study, theorists examine the students that are on high socio economic status and those that in low socio economic status. According to their survey, the students who were in high socio economic were the children of college graduates and were more likely to be from the colleges of choice. Some of the students within these categories were the students from the intercity schools. According to the theorist survey, there is large number of African American that participate in higher learning but they are still in the first generation college and that the enrollment into the college education is not automatic. Their research also indicated that African American families value higher education; including the parents that are not able to send their children to the colleges and universities (Scott J, 2013).

In the survey conducted by the theorists, most of the respondents indicated that parents and the extended family played a significant role in encouraging them to attend high education. in the theorist survey, most of the respondents indicated that most of their family members did not attend higher education. Therefore, the theorist survey clearly indicates that the African American parents understand that higher education is important and attendance of the college education has implications on the life of a student. In a book published by Suny Press, its literature indicates that student self-motivation and avoidance of the negative role models influence the choice of whether to attend college or not. Self-motivation is an internal factor in a person. Some students face financial challenges which hinder the choice on whether to make application for higher learning or to end schooling after completing high school. Students with such challenges perceive that there is lack of family help. The research done by university of Rochester education researchers indicates that some students enrolled for college level education as a result of self-motivation (Scott J, 2013).

 

 

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

The method uses qualitative approach in data collection. The survey uses questionnaire method to collect data from various institutions in the United States.  The use of questionnaire has various advantages over the other methods of data collection. One of the advantages is that the method ensures that the confidentiality of the data is upheld.   The questionnaires will be formulated in a way that personal details of the respondents will not be necessary when filling it. Therefore, the identity of the respondents is not required. When the identity of the respondents is hidden, the respondents basically give correct information.  Therefore, questionnaire reduces data biasness. Another advantage using the questionnaire method is that the method saves time and cost of collecting the data. The research involves a variety of education institutions within the United States. Therefore, moving from one institution to another would consume a lot of time and money.  To ensure the cost is minimized, the questionnaires are distributed to various institutions for the students who joined the colleges to fill.

The questionnaire is formulated with YES and NO answers. The questionnaire needs to be simple to ensure that the respondents are not bored by the questions. In additional to these questions, opinion based questions will be added to the questionnaire to ensure that all the respondents are given a chance to express themselves about the area under study.  Likert scaled questions will also be incorporated into the questionnaire.

The data collected from the survey will then be added into the excel spreadsheet for analysis. Based on the data a CHI SQUARE test will be used to investigate if there is an association between the choice made by the students and performance of the students. In addition, a linear regression will be carried out that link the dependent variable with the independent variables. The CHI SQUARE test will be based on 0.05 significance level.

Design of study

The design for this study is observation in identification of the variables which predicts the effects of African American males’ enrollment in college education. The research will examine a set of college choices that are made by different students. The choice made by the students is considered as the independent variables while the effect is the dependent variables of the African American male. The research will also apply visual representation of the research treatment and prediction of the enrollment of African American students in various colleges within the area of study.

 

Methods

Qualitative research

Qualitative research refers to the type of research where data is collected and interpreted. The data collected is used by the researcher as much as possible to ensure that the research process uses every detail of the collected data. This ensures that the conclusion reached after the analysis is reliable and valid. There are different reasons for choosing a qualitative method type of method. Among the several reasons are

  1. The qualitative method of data collection is important because it captures the innate experiences of the respondents
  2. This type of data collection method assists in exploration of how meanings are made and transformed
  3. Another advantage of using qualitative method is that through qualitative method, it is possible to discover relevant variables which can be tested through quantitive method.
  4. The method allows for holistic and comprehensive method of survey to phenomena.
  5. The method also gives the researcher a chance of getting the connection with the respondents. Therefore the researcher can have a world view through the research perspective.

in order to ensure that the information gathered is valid and detailed, the researcher will apply mixed research methods. Use of questionnaire and interviews are the primary methods that the survey will use in collection of data. The other source of data is use of secondary data such as recent journals and research paper with related information.

In qualitative research, the researcher is basically interested in finding “how people make sense and some of the experiences that people have” (Merriam 2009). This survey considers college as the world and the researcher is seeking to make sense of what makes African American male students not to enroll high education after completion of high school levels. through the use of qualitative survey,  the researcher is able to have a clear picture of the aspects under investigation and through the survey, the researcher gets more detailed description and understanding of who and what to  analyze. This survey examines the phenomenon of African American males who do not enroll to post-secondary school education after pursuing high school education levels. Through application of qualitative survey, the researcher develops social phenomenon understanding within the survey thus ensuing higher education perspective.

Another method of data collection that this survey will employ is use of personal interview.  The researcher will also make face to face interview with the respondents. The interview will have some questions listed in a paper to ensure that he/she covers the scope of the survey. The advantage of using personal interview is that the researcher collects first-hand information from the respondent. In addition, the researcher can be able to identify information that is biased during the interview. Another advantage of using the interview as a method of data collection is that the researcher has a chance of collecting useful information such as the respondent’s feelings perceptions and the student’s opinion regarding the scope of the survey. Through personal interviews, the respondents have a chance to ask the interviewer questions related to the survey. Therefore, the respondents get clear information regarding the survey. This facilitates collection of unbiased information from the respondents. Another advantage is that conduction of personal interviews increases the response rates. More responses in the survey increase the accuracy of the survey. Direct personal interview ensure that the researcher collects the words from the respondent directly. Therefore some of the information collection errors that arise during recording are eliminated. The disadvantage of using personal interviews is that this type of data collection consumes a lot of time. In addition, to collect enough data more human capital is needed.

Participants of the survey

The participants will be recruited through application of network sampling approach. The research respondents will comprise of African American male students who are still in high school level and those who have completed high school education. The number of the respondents is not limited in terms of the number. However, a certain minimum number of respondents are needed to ensure that the data is valid.  The minimum number of responses needed before the analysis is done is 50 African American male between ages 15 – 27 years.

 

Population and Sampling

Sampling

African Americans males under the age of 14 -27 years in the United States urban areas serves as the target population in this survey. According to Hatch (2002), when a researcher focuses on small group respondents, it is important to have the group that has common attributes. Due to this reasons, selection of the respondents follows a specific criterion. The purposive sampling strategy is used when contacting the respondents and the administrative participants. One of the advantages of using the purposive sampling is that the information that the researcher gets holds the greatest potential for getting most of the insights regarding the phenomenon interest.

The respondents that will participate in this survey consist of the following group.

  1. One needs to be a student in high school within the United States. This survey has selected three universities that will act as representative samples. The universities were selected on the basis of proximity to my school. All the institutions that are selected are within one state. This ensures that the cost of movement is minimized. Reducing the cost of movement minimizes the cost of the research. The schools that were selected for investigation are Harris Stowe University, Webster University and Jennings senior high school.
  2. Also, students who are first time students entering Jennings senior high school for the first time
  3. Also, the students who are eligible to joining Harris Stowe University and Webster University to enroll various university courses will be surveyed.

Once the respondents are found, other research analysis will be made once 50 respondents return their responses. As part of the survey, few selected school administrators with enough knowledge of the academic programs and the academic policies of college and high school levels will be included in the survey. The administrators will be selected on the basis of availability, experience and willingness to contribute to the survey process.  Most of the participants will be traditional students who are in high school. More than 50 questionnaires will be distributed to Harris Stowe University, Webster University and Jennings senior high school. This will ensure that the survey responses collected are as many as possible.  To ensure that the survey gets the minimum number of responses required, more questionnaires will be distributed within the three schools. In addition, the principles of the above listed schools will be requested to participate in the survey. Few teachers and counselors of the school will also be requested to participate in the survey.

Participants (inclusion/exclusion criteria)

The survey will include students that are in their last years of high school education, the students who are joining the tertiary level of education and people in the leading sits in high education and secondary education. The questionnaires will be distributed to the African American male students in various universities within. The universities that will be incorporated in the survey are Harris Stowe University, Webster University and Jennings senior high school. For this reason, the survey is purposive study that only allow selected group of respondents.

Instruments of the survey

The survey will purposely measure the mean, chis-square test and the regression analysis. The chi-square test will be used to determine if the choice made by students have any effect in terms of performance.  The regression analysis is an instrument that will be used to find the relationship between the dependent variables and the independent various being investigated. A linear relationship between all the variables will be investigated and a liner model generated for the whole survey. The model will be used to generate some of the prediction of effects. The autonomous value on the regression model will signify other effects apart from the ones investigated. The questionnaires will be distributed in Harris Stowe University, Webster University and Jennings senior high school. The responses from the three institutions will be used as the representative sample for the entire African American male students in the United States.

Data collection methods

In order to get appropriate approaches for data collection, the researcher will find various factors which will give the right method. For example, the type of question that the researcher will ask during personal interview will be determined by the approach of collecting the data. The table below provides a summary of some of the approaches that the researcher will apply during the survey.

 

Selection Method of data collection The goal of collecting the data Analysis of the data Answering of the survey question
Purposive: African American students in the selected schools Questionnaire and conduction of personal interview Finding the factors that the students considered when making college choice The analysis will apply thematic descriptions through application of a priori and open codes All the research questions
The heads of the institutions Semi structured interviews ( face to face) and filling of the questionnaire Finding the factors that the students considered when making college choice Will apply thematic open codes Primary questions will be answered
Documents Recording the research process Creation of the audit trail and use of other supportive data Will apply thematic open codes All research questions will be answered.
Purposive selection. African American students; only those enrolling and those in the first years  in university education Filling of questionnaire and use of personal interview Finding the factors that the students considered when making college choice Application of thematic codes Primary questions

 

Preliminary pilot trial information (if appropriate)

Before the beginning of the survey, a preliminary pilot trial for collection of the data will be done in the three selected schools.  A pre-visit to the three schools will be done. The objective of the pre-visit is to ensure that the students and other respondents have knowledge about the survey. In addition, the pre-visit will ensure that the respondents familiarize with the interviewer and the survey question.  Another reason for conducting the pre-visit is for the interviewer to have an approximate time and cost for doing the entire survey. The interviewer will have a brief interaction with teachers and the students during the piloting period. During this time, the interviewer will find a chance for requesting for the permission from the institutions and the area authorities to conduct the survey.

Few students and teachers will be issued the survey questions to answer. The questions will be used to determine the ease and the ability of the questions in regard to collecting the required information. The questions raised by the respondents in the pilot study will be used to make correction on the questionnaire set for survey. Any challenge that the respondent gets while answering the questionnaire will be used during adjustment of the questionnaire. The piloting will also enable the researcher to familiarize with the school location and environment of conducting the research.

Reliability and validity (quantitative research), trustworthiness

To ensure that the respondents provide valid and reliable information, the respondents will be informed in details the objective of conducting this survey. In addition, the respondents will be issued enough time to fill the questionnaire. The researcher has also provided the contact details that one can use in case one needs more clarification about the questionnaire. In addition to this, the questionnaire has included some check questions that helps the researcher in determining if the respondents provides reliable information. The survey will be conducted on the assumption that all the respondents give unbiased information, and the information is given at a free will. Therefore, the research assumes that all the information given out be the respondent is true and reliable.  The analysis of the survey will be conducted at 95 percent confidence level. Therefore, the conclusion that will arise from this survey assumes that the conclusion from the survey is 95 percent true. As indicated earlier, there are other effects that may have not been investigated.

The error term in the regression model includes all other factors that were not investigated in the survey but are also effect from college choice. The decision regarding the type of survey is based on the qualitative research criteria. Also, this survey will consider certain criterion which relates to the mixed methods approaches. The transferability, the conformability, authenticity and the data credibility will be applied in the survey. This research will also use several cases and section of all applicable instruments of measurement in order to access the effectiveness of various factors in ensuring that African American student make correct decisions regarding the choice of college. The research will also be carried out using all possible methods that ensure that the threats related to reliability and validity of the data is at the minimum. Reducing the probability of getting biased information ensures that the analysis of data and the interpretation of the collected data remain relevant to the study.

Risks and benefits

This survey ensures that all the risks that my affect the students are completely minimized. The survey uses data collection procedures which are consistent with the sound research designs which do not expose the respondents into risk. For instance, the use of questionnaires ensures that the confidentially of the information is upheld. There is not instance the identity of the respondents will be revealed. This research also is in line with the IRB approval of research. According to the IRB approval of the research, the selection of the subject to be investigated must be equitable.  The purpose of this study and the setting of the research is to find some of the effects and problems affecting a group of individual. The research findings can be used by scholars and the other people such as counselors in solving the problem of low level of African American students in the university enrollment in the United States. The risk associated with this type of research is that some of the respondents may decide to provide wrong information during the survey which may lead to formulation of wrong conclusions. Misleading information may have negative consequences as a result of addressing wrong or insignificant issues.

Ethical considerations

This survey follows all the ethical requirements. The respondents will be given the reason for undertaking this survey. All the details of this survey will be summarized in the questionnaire to ensure that the respondent is fully informed about the purpose and intention of undertaking the survey. In addition, no respondents will be forced to respond to the questionnaire against his will. All the respondents will be given free will to respond to any of the question on the survey questionnaire and will not be forced to answer all the questions against his will.  The federal government and the institutions from where the survey will be conducted will be informed prior to the date of distributing the survey questionnaire.

All the data and personal details that may be collected in this survey will only be used for study purposed and no other third party will be issued with any information without the consent of the respondent. The information such as the names of the respondents and their responses shall be made available to the third party on the condition that the third part is willing and aware that such information is being shared out and/or if such information is requisitions through a legal procedure.

Type of analysis

The statistical procedure that will be used in the analysis of the collected data is the CHI SQUARE test. The CHI SQUARE test will be used to find if there is any association between the choice that the student makes and the level of performance. In addition, the data will be used to generate a logistic regression analysis. This survey involves various independent variables and therefor the effect of every variable will be investigated. The dependent variable of the African American enrollment is a dichotomous in nature because the students the student will enroll on one college or the other.

The data variables to be tested are gleaned from the literature review which examines the student choice models the minority enrollment and the enrollment of the students in private college. In addition, the student back ground, financial status of the student’s parent the previous high school attended by the respective student, relative in put in student decision making will also be variables to be investigated. Literature has also mentioned that availability of counselors have a significant role in helping the student to make correct college choices. Therefore the availability of resources within the previous high school that the student attended will be a variable,   availability of counselors and student’s high school teachers’ qualification will be among the variables to be investigated. In general the list below is some of the independent variables that the survey will examine and their relationship to the dependent variable (effect of college choice)

  1. social economic status of the student
  2. the parent background such as the level of education
  3. the high school performance of the student
  4. available financial aid
  5. the total number of admission communication
  6. the proximity of campus vs. home to the student

A predictor will be included in every question which will show inadequate prove of a significant positive or negative factor. The review of the literature also will play a great role in the analysis of the data.

Limitations of the proposed study

One of the limitations for this survey is that the collected data is limited to the first time African American college students who are admitted, enrolled and not enrolled to the college in the United States year 2020. All the findings observations in this survey will be used to generalize to participants within this period. For this reason the results for the analysis are subject to change in the following years. Another limitation is that the respondent opinions of the recruitment effort may change from the time they join college education. Also, the respondents, in their colleges of choices may have changed the courses that they enrolled in college after joining the colleges. Another limitation is that data acquired on mailing addresses for various students may change due to college transfers. When there is a change in either of the above listed factors, the survey analysis and conclusion will not apply in such situations. This survey is therefore conclusive to only the students who choose and enrolled for initial college course.

This research is limited to only three learning institutions. The generalization of the data may not entirely represent the entire population due to differences in people opinion, financial status and political aspects. Another limitation is the time frame. The research timeframe is very tight that allows only collection of few responses. In order to have more and reliable information from the respondent, the sample size has to be large enough. A sample of 50 respondents would not fully give accurate information. It is because the information that the respondents provide during the survey may be biased. Lastly, the cost of conduction the entire survey is high. In order to collect enough data, more resources are needed. One of the challenging things in collection of data is enough money to finance the printing of collection materials and money to facilitate movement from one place to another. In adequate resources limits the number of institutions which the respondents will come from. The data collected in this survey is therefore limited by the financial constraints.

Practitioner-Researcher setting

The research settings are basically the physical, social and cultural sites where the research will be conducted. The research setting basically provides the description of the cultural behaviors that helps in understanding the phenomenon. In regard to the research setting, this research will be conducted within the three schools. All the respondents will be required to fill the questionnaire within the school settings. After the questionnaires are filled, the researcher will collect the data from the students for analysis purposes. The researcher does not require the respondents to move from the institution.  In regard to the data that will be collected through personal interview, the researcher will be forced to move to the school institutions to meet the students (respondents). At any circumstances, the respondents will remain within the learning institution. Lastly, teachers and counselors are free to meet the interview and school or in the social hall.

Situation and context

African American male students’ enrollment in the United States has been declining in the few decades. Different researches have provided with different reasons for the same. The researches that have been done on the same have listed some factors that that affect the choice of universities that student prefer to join. Little has been done in regard to the effect of the choices made by the students. It is important to note that not all expectations of the students are met after selection of the University of Choice. Some students end up changing the course and the universities that they initially applied after completing the high school education. Therefore it is important to find some of the effects that are brought by the choices made. In order to have enough, information regarding the effects, a through survey is necessary. In order to get informative data regarding the impact of the choices made by the students, the survey will carry an investigation as Harris Stowe University, Webster University and Jennings senior high school. The respondents from the three learning institutions will be used as the sample. The data collected from the three instructions will then be used to generalize the effect that follows from choosing an institution.

 

Contribution to Practice/Scholarship

As most of the researchers indicate, higher education is important as it shapes the life of people especially those leaving in poverty. Education opens opportunity for formal jobs to the unemployed. Understanding some of the effects of college choice will help the counselors and teachers to find ways to assist the student when making choices of the school they intend to pursue their career. The information and the analysis of this survey are important to the teachers because the information will provide important suggestions which will enable the teachers and parents to make a contribution in motivating African American students. The research proposal explores some of the education experiences of the African American students who have enrolled for the higher education. The information that will be collected in this proposal is very important because the survey will produce some of the contributing factors that lead to the decisions that student consider while selecting colleges to pursue their careers. Such information is helpful to the professionals in the schools as well as other related fields and the community in general. The survey will explore on various motivational factors and the effect of every factor on the decision of the students. Such information is critical in the community and the schools in general. This research explores on important information that not only helps the school but also, the policy makers in education ministry. Some of the factors and the effect of every factor that affect student choice that will be discussed in the survey can be used to find solutions to the problem of low enrollment of African American students in the United States.

In addition, parents and teachers get knowledge on the expectations of the students before and after the high school education. This information is important as it helps the parents and teachers in handling students in schools and during holidays.

Target journal

This research will focus on journals that that publishes basic research that are related to African American education. Specifically, the literature reviews related to the effect of student choice of universities during higher education enrollment. The research also focuses on the research publications that have information about some of the factors that contribute to the student choice. Other form of literatures that will be used in the survey are journey that offer guidelines to qualitative data analysis; mostly the statistical analysis journals. These literatures will serve as the guide to the process of analyzing the data that will be collected during the survey.

Rationale for choice

The survey will include students that are in their last years of high school education, the students who are joining the tertiary level of education and people in the leading sits in high education and secondary education. The statistical procedure that will be used in the analysis of the collected data is the CHI SQUARE test. The CHI SQUARE test will be used to find if there is any association between the choice that the student makes and the level of performance. The dependent variable of the African American enrollment is a dichotomous in nature because the students the student will enroll on one college or the other. The chi-square test will be used because it measures the association between the dependent and independent variables. The regression analysis will be used to link all the independent variables listed above with the dependent variable.

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